Liquid propellant rocket engine with afterburning of turbogas

 

Liquid propellant rocket engine with afterburning of turbogas contains the camera motor tract of regenerative cooling and mixing head, turbopump Assembly, generator, system startup, means for igniting the fuel components and fuel line. The output of the oxidizer pump is connected to the input of the generator. The output of the first stage fuel pump connected to the channels of regenerative cooling chamber and from the mixing head. The output of the second stage pump connected to the fuel flow regulator with electric drive. The other input of the regulator is connected with a starting tank with regular fuel. The output of the regulator is connected to the gas generator. The output of the gas generator connected to the turbine inlet turbopump unit, the output of which is connected to a mixing head. The flow regulator is equipped with a hydraulic drive preliminary stages, through which the cavitating jet, hydrocele connected with starting a tank with regular fuel. Hydrocele connected with the second stage of the fuel pump. The choke installed on the output of the first stage fuel pump, done in conjunction with a controlled valve preliminary stages. The invention will simplify pneumovirus is reliable engine operation in all modes. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The technical field,

The invention relates to rocket technology, in particular to the design of liquid-propellant rocket engine with afterburning of turbogas, with a controlled start.

The reliability of the engine start is made for the afterburning of turbogas, is largely determined by the nature of the pressure rise in the combustion chamber of the engine, the temperature in the gas generator and speed turbopump Assembly.

Sharp sawtoothed the pressure buildup in the chamber (especially for the initial launch) leads to a corresponding sharp increase in the back pressure behind the turbine, resulting in slower growth speed turbopump Assembly, the possible transitions of temperature in the gas generator and the burnouts flow channel of the turbine.

On the other hand, the delay in the increase in the pressure in the combustion chamber is fraught with casting speed turbopump Assembly and the corresponding peaks of the pressures in the ducts of the engine.

A sharp increase in consumption of the starting fuel in the gas generator for the initial launch also leads to the casting temperature in the gasifier. However, excessive delay in the growth of consumption of fuel in the gas generator causes the drop in turnover is at a fuel component, important is the provision of cavitation free operation conditions of pumps (including at the initial stage of engine starting), as due to the significant hydraulic resistance of the booster pump unit oxidant on the mode Samorodok are significant failures of the pressure at the inlet of the main pump turbopump Assembly, fraught cavitation breakdown.

Prior art

Known LRE SSME - main engine of the American reusable "Rocketdyne" (see the book. Gg Gahan, V. A. Volodin, and other Construction and design of rocket engines", M., 1989, pp. 94-95, Fig.5-7). This engine contains a camera engine turbopump Assembly, two gas generator, booster pumping units of oxidizer and fuel, system startup and control and means for igniting the fuel components in the engine compartment and generators.

The control system operates on a flexible and fairly complex programs and contains a large number of units automation, managed by the controller to sensors that measure various parameters.

The controller performs the entire sequence of operations for starting and regulation of the engine at all operating modes.

Attemot use of a large number of sophisticated sensor equipment and a unique high-speed drives, control valves-regulators, which makes the engine is in General quite expensive.

Known LRE (see RF patent №2158839, MKI F 02 K 9/48 from 10.11.2000), which contains the engine chamber with channels regenerative cooling with mixing head, turbopump Assembly including a turbine, the oxidizer pump and two-stage fuel pump, fuel line, which has a booster turbopump units of oxidizer and fuel, generator, powered by pumps oxidizer and fuel, the output of which is connected to the collector of the turbine, and further flow through gasovod connected to a mixing head chamber of the engine.

The camera power of the engine of fuel is performed from the output of the first stage of the fuel pump, which is equipped with a throttle-controlled actuator. In the line feeding the fuel gas generator has a flow regulator, also managed by electrohydroblock. Starting system of the engine includes the starting tank, the output of which is connected to the flow regulator and then through the ampoule with the starting fuel is connected to the generator, as well as through another vial with the starting fuel is connected to the engine chamber. The power turbine busterna is as fuel, and the power turbine booster turbopump Assembly oxidizer pump is carried out by sampling gas from gazivoda. This engine is taken as a prototype of the invention.

In the engine starting system and regulation based on the use of complex and cumbersome high-speed electrotherapeutic for regulatory units, which is naturally reflected in overall mass and cost performance of the engine.

Disclosure of the invention

The objective of the invention is to provide a liquid-propellant rocket engine with afterburning of turbogas, which provide reliable starting of the engine using a relatively simple circuit design and application of low-cost and small-sized single-speed DC drives for engine control in native mode.

The technical result consists in the simplification of a pneumatic circuit of the engine and to simplify its overall mass and cost characteristics.

This problem is solved due to the fact that in liquid-propellant rocket engine with afterburning of turbogas containing chamber of the motor tract of regenerative cooling and mixing head, the turbopump agreg erator, the system starts with starting the tank with regular fuel, gas volume which is connected to a source of high pressure gas through the start-off valve, means for igniting the fuel components in the gas generator and in the engine compartment and the fuel line, the inlet oxidant and fuel to the pumps of oxidizer and fuel, which has a booster turbopump units of oxidizer and fuel, while the discharge line of the pump oxidizer connected to the input of the gas generator through the start-off valve, and the discharge line of the first stage pump fuel through the throttle electrically connected to the channels of the regenerative cooling of the motor chamber, the output of which is connected to a mixing head, and the discharge line of the second stage pump fuel through a check valve connected to the flow regulator with electric drive, while the other input of the regulator through a check valve connected with starting a tank of regular fuel, in addition, the output of the regulator is connected to the gas generator through the start-off valve, and the output of the gas generator connected to the turbine inlet turbopump unit, the output of which through gasovod connected to the mixing cylinder I through the check valve, and the flow regulator installed in the line of feed of fuel to the gas generator equipped with a hydraulic drive preliminary stages, through which the cavitating jet, hydrocele connected with starting tank chattanoga fuel, while hydrocele also connected with the second stage of the fuel pump, and throttle mounted on the trunk first-stage fuel pump, done in conjunction with a controlled valve preliminary stage, and the turbine booster turbopump Assembly of oxidant optionally performed offline section of the nozzle, the entrance to which is connected with the pressure line of the oxidizer pump through the valve.

Brief description of drawings

Schematic diagram of liquid-propellant rocket engine shown in Fig.1. In Fig.2 presents a fragment And highway fuel in the gasifier flow regulator.

An example implementation of the invention

Liquid propellant rocket engine includes a camera 1, turbopump unit 2, the gas generator 3, starting the tank with regular fuel 4 and the fuel line oxidant 5 and 6 fuel, respectively.

As fuel is used hydrocarbon fuel, for example kerosene, and as an oxidizer in liquid - sweet is orpus consists of a cylindrical combustion chamber 9 and nozzle 10. It is made with channels regenerative cooling 11. In the case of the combustion chamber is installed injectors ignition system 12.

The camera body is made common collector 13 of the cooling path, output collector 14 of the cooling duct to allow part and the collector 15 of the cooling path of the combustion chamber. Output collector 14 through the piping 16, pocketcache valve 17 and pipe 18 is connected to the collector 15.

Turbopump Assembly 2 consists of a turbine 19, centrifugal pump oxidizer 20 and centrifugal fuel pump 21 includes first 22 and second 23 stages, connected in series with each other. Turbine 19, the oxidizer pump 20 and the fuel pump 21 is installed on the same shaft 24.

Turbine 19 turbopump unit 2 operates in an oxidizing gas generated in the gas generator 3.

The gas generator 3 includes a housing 25 in which the nozzle inlet of the oxidizer 26 and pipe supply fuel 27. Installed inside the case is a cylindrical chamber 28 to the mixing head 29. Between the cylindrical chamber 28 and the housing 25 is formed collector cavity 30, which is hydraulically connected to the mixing head 29 of the gas generator 3.

The output from the generator through the pipe 30 Conn

Booster turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 is connected by a line oxidant 5 oxidizer pump 20.

Fuel line fuel 6 is connected to the first stage 22 of the fuel pump 21, while at the entrance to the highway is installed booster turbopump Assembly fuel 34.

Booster turbopump unit of fuel is performed in a single unit and consists of a hydraulic turbine 35 and the screw pump 36. The working medium of the turbine liquid fuel selected from the first stage 22 of the fuel pump 21 through line 37 and supplied to the nozzle sections of the apparatus 38.

Booster turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 is made as a single unit and consists of a turbine 39, screw pump 40 and two Autonomous sections nozzles 41 and 42.

The main working body of the turbine booster 39 turbopump Assembly 33 is an oxidizing gas selected from gazivoda 32 and supplied through line 43 to the offline section of the Autonomous nozzles 41. In line 43 of the check valve 44.

At the initial stage of starting the power turbine 39 is additionally liquid oxygen taken from the output of the oxidizer pump 20 and supplied through line 45 to the offline section of the nozzles 42, in which is mounted a shut-off Lenogo unit oxidant 33 and simultaneously slow down the revolutions of the main turbopump Assembly 2 and, accordingly, to provide a cavitation free working conditions pumps oxidizer 20 and fuel 21.

Starting tank 4 filled with regular fuel, is connected to a gas cylinder, high pressure 47 through line 48, valve 49.

A supply of liquid oxidizer in the collector cavity 30 of the gas generator 3 via line 50 connecting the outlet of the oxidizer pump 20 to the inlet pipe 26, and in this trunk-mounted pocketcache valve 51.

Supply the primary fuel in the gas generator 3 via line 52 connecting the output 53 of the second stage of the fuel pump 21 with the supply pipe 27 fuel in the mixing head 29 of the gas generator 3. In this trunk-mounted flow regulator 54 (traction control), controlled by the actuator 55, the ampoule with the starting fuel 56 and pocketcache valve 57. The output 53 of the second stage of the fuel pump 23 is connected with the inlet of the flow regulator 54 through line 58, in which a check valve 59.

Fuel from the output of the starting tank with regular fuel 4 is supplied to an additional input of the flow regulator 54 through line 60, in which a check valve 61.

As elektropivod flow regulator uses a single-speed direct current motor. This electroguitar flow 54 at the initial stage of engine starting is provided by the optional hydraulic actuator 62, installed at the entrance to the regulator 54. The operation of the hydraulic actuator 62 (Fig.2, a fragment of A) is carried out from hydrocele 63, triggered from the pressure of the fuel at the pump second stage 23. Nadporshnevaya cavity 64 hydrocele 63 through line 65 is connected to the output 58 of the second stage of the fuel pump 23. Inlet pipe 66 hydrocele 63 is connected to the output line 67 of the starting tank with regular fuel 4. The outlet 68 hydrocele 63 through the cavitating jet 69 is connected with the control cavity 70 of the hydraulic actuator 62.

Starting the tank with regular fuel 4 is also connected via line 71 (Fig.1) with the injectors ignition 12 of the combustion chamber 9, in which the ampoule with the starting fuel 72 and the check valve 73.

Supply of fuel to the combustion chamber 9 of the engine through line 74 connecting the output of the first stage of the fuel pump 22 with a common collector 13 of the cooling path of the camera.

In line 74 is set throttle 75 - controller component ratio of the fuel in the combustion chamber, made in one piece with pneumatically valve 76 - valve preliminary stages. The valve 76 is supplied by a pipe 77, through which the supply of the control pressure. When submitting upravlyaemomu delay in the supply of fuel into the combustion chamber at the initial stage of engine starting. The throttle control is carried out using a single-speed direct current motor 78.

The operation of the device

The engine start is carried out on the principle of "sambucca". Before starting the engine make the fill cavity pumps 20, 21 and filling highways 74, 11, 16 supplying fuel to the camera 1 (up to boscotrecase valve 17 and highways 50 and 52 supply of oxidizer and fuel in the gas generator 3.

The command to start the engine, the valve opens 57 fuel gas generator 3. Then opens the valve 51 of the gas generator and the oxidant supplied to the gas generator.

Fuel under pressure pad tank with regular fuel 4 through line 67 and valve 61 enters the flow regulator 54, and into the line 52, in which the ampoule with the starting fuel 56 and displaces it in the gas generator 3 through a valve 57. When the flow regulator is configured to pre-stage engine.

At the same time the fuel from the starting tank with regular fuel 4 through line 71 is supplied in a vial with a starting fuel 72 and replaces it with some delay in the combustion chamber 9 through the check valve 73 and the nozzle plug 12. Starting fuel received by the generator, in the same process started burning and generated producer gas with an excess of oxidant on gazivoda 30 enters the collector 31, and the turbine 19 and is starting to promote it and, accordingly, to promote the oxidizer pumps 20 and fuel 21. Exhaust turbine 19 gas gazivoda 32 enters the mixing cylinder 8 of the combustion chamber 9 and is ignited with a starting fuel, received it through a nozzle plug 12. Then offer pocketcache valve 17 fuel chamber and the fuel output of the first stage 22 of the fuel pump 21 through the line 74, in which is mounted a throttle 75 with a controlled valve 76, channels regenerative cooling 11 of the nozzle 10 and 16 pipelines, pipeline 18 enters the collector 15 cooling of the combustion chamber, the channels regenerative cooling 11, and one of them is in the mixing cylinder 8.

At this stage, run the throttle fuel 75 is configured at the preliminary stage. This is achieved by supplying the control pressure in the pipe 77 of the valve 76, which partially blocks the flow area of the throttle.

The increase in the pressure at the outlet of the oxidizer pumps 20 and 21 promotes fuel boost booster turbopump units oxidant 33 34 and fuel, and the power turbine booster 39 turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 is an oxidizing gas selected from monsonego of the fuel Assembly 34 is supplied from the first-stage fuel pump 22 through line 37. In addition, at this stage, run the power turbine booster 39 turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 is also from additional sections of the nozzles 42, which is supplied as an oxidant selected from the output of the oxidizer pump 20 through line 45 through the valve 46. The oxidizing gas and liquid oxidizer turbine feeding booster turbopump Assembly oxidant, after working on it is discharged into the main flow of the fuel line oxidant 5.

A supply of oxidant to the Autonomous nozzle 42 of the turbine booster 39 turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 in the startup process provides faster acceleration and on the other hand, this selection of the working fluid with the outlet of the oxidizer pump automatically leads to additional loading turbopump Assembly that can slow the growth rate of its turnover. The specified combination of intensification of promotion booster turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 with artificial slowdown speed turbopump Assembly 2 provides a cavitation free operation conditions of the pumps 20 and 21 in the startup process.

When a certain fuel pressure at the outlet of the second stage of the fuel pump 23 is activated, hydrocele 63 (vaivoda 62 and the cavitating jet 69.

When a certain pressure for the second stage of the fuel pump 23 and the check valve 61 in the fuel line 60 of the starting tank with regular fuel 4 is closed, resulting in a stop flow of fuel from the starting tank with regular fuel 4 into the controller 54. After that the fuel into the gas generator 3 is only from the second stage of the fuel pump 23 through line 58, the check valve 61 and the flow regulator 54. In the result, the flow regulator 54 is reconfigured in a position that corresponds to the primary mode.

As growth pressure fuel lines of the engine and when it reaches a certain pressure at the outlet of the oxidizer pump 20, the valve 46 is closed automatically and the turbine booster 39 turbopump Assembly oxidant 33 turns on the power only the oxidizing gas selected after the main turbine 19.

Upon reaching the entrance to the orifice 75 certain pressure, the automatic opening of the valve the preliminary level 76 on full flow section, and the orifice 75 is transferred to the position that corresponds to the primary mode. As further growth parameters after adjustment of the flow regulator 54 and inductor 75 which provides a temperature change of the gas in the gas generator 3 through software reconfiguration of the flow regulator 54, and regulated mass ratio of cost components fuel through inductor 75.

Stop the engine by closing the fuel valve 57 of the gas generator 3. Resulting in a pressure drop in the lines of the engine and closing valves oxidant 51 of the gas generator 3 and 17 fuel cell 1.

Industrial applicability

The claimed liquid propellant rocket engine will be used in rocket technology, in particular for the oxygen-hydrocarbon rocket engines large rods that drive the turbine of the turbopump unit used gas with an excess of oxidant.

Claims

1. Liquid propellant rocket engine with afterburning of turbogas containing chamber of the motor tract of regenerative cooling and mixing head, turbopump Assembly including a turbine, the oxidizer pump and two-stage fuel pump located on the same shaft, the generator, the starting system, starting with the tank with regular fuel, gas volume which is connected to a source of high pressure gas through pocketcache valve, means for igniting the fuel components in the gas generator and in the engine compartment and fuel the turbopump units of oxidizer and fuel, the yield of the oxidizer pump is connected to the input of the gasifier through pocketcache valve, and the output of the first stage pump fuel through the throttle electrically connected to the channels of regenerative cooling chamber and then flow connected to a mixing head, and the output of the second stage pump fuel through a check valve connected to the flow regulator with electric drive, while the other input of the regulator through a check valve connected with starting a tank with regular fuel, in addition, the output of the regulator is connected to the gas generator through pocketcache valve, and the output of the gas generator connected to the turbine inlet turbopump Assembly, exit through which gasovod connected to a mixing head chamber of the engine, and gasovod connected to the turbine inlet of the booster turbopump Assembly oxidant through the check valve, wherein the flow regulator is equipped with a hydraulic drive preliminary stages, through which the cavitating jet, hydrocele connected with starting a tank with regular fuel, while hydrocele also connected with the second stage of the fuel pump and the throttle set at the output of the first stage pump fuel made compatible with the I, what in the turbine booster turbopump Assembly of oxidant optionally performed offline section of the nozzle, the entrance to which is connected to the output of the oxidizer pump through the valve.

3. Liquid propellant rocket engine under item 1, characterized in that as the actuator of the throttle and flow control applied to a single-speed DC electric motors.

 

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EFFECT: provided reliable multiple starting of the liquid propellant rocket power plant.

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FIELD: rocket engineering; production of the booster turbo-pump aggregates with an axial pumps used in them.

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FIELD: rocket engineering; production of the devices for the liquid propellant rocket engines.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of rocket engineering and may be used in the liquid propellant rocket engines (LPRE). The device for separation of the pump and the turbine of the booster turbo-pump aggregate of the LPRE consists of the pump (2), the turbine (3), the separating cavity (1) located between the pump (2) and the turbine (3) and the external intake tract (4). The separating cavity (1) is limited from the side of the pump (2) by the shaft gasket (5), which diameter is made smaller than the diameter of the shaft (10) in the area of the seat of the bearing of the turbine (11), and from the side of the turbine (3) - by the unloading disk (6) aligned with the turbine impeller (7). On the turbine impeller (7) there is the gasket of the unloading disk (8). The axial impeller of the pump (9) and the turbine impeller (7) are fixed on the shaft (10). From the direction of the turbine (3) the shaft (10) rests on the turbine bearing (11), which is brought out beyond the bounds of the separating cavity (1) and is installed from the direction of the pump (2). The cavity of the turbine bearing (12) which is adjoining the shaft gasket (5) is connected by the delivery channels (13) with the pump outlet (14). The offered device ensures the minimum losses of the power used for separation of the pump and the turbine, and also the effective refrigeration of the bearings by the liquid monophase hydrogen.

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SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of rocket engineering, in particular, to production of the liquid propellant rocket engines powered by the cryogenic oxidant and the hydrocarbon propellant. The liquid propellant rocket engine contains the combustion chamber with the tract of the regenerative cooling, the turbo-pumping aggregate with the turbine having the inlet and outlet trunks, and the pumps of the oxidant and the propellant, for which the outlet of the propellant p[ump is connected through the propellant valve to the combustion chamber, and the outlet of the oxidant pump through the oxidant valve is connected to the gas generator. At that the turbo-pump aggregate contains the additional propellant pump, which inlet is connected to the outlet of the propellant pump, and the outlet is connected to the gas generator through the high pressure pipeline, in which there is the high-pressure valve and the consumption regulator. In the trunk of the turbine there is the thrust regulator, to which the on-board trunk and the starting trunk with the return valve and the connector are connected. The method of the liquid propellant rocket engine starting provides for the spinning-up of the turbo-pump aggregate and opening of valves of the oxidant, the propellant, the propellant in the high-pressure trunk, run-up of the turbine conduct a compressed air from a land bulb, and the turbine spinning-up is exercised by the compressed air from the ground pressure vessel and the turbine drive at operation is exercised from the on-board vessel. The invention ensures simplification of the pneumatic-hydraulic circuit, the increased reliability, the increase of the power and the specific characteristics of the liquid propellant rocket engine, the decreased mass of the engines, the improved engine starting and cutoff and provision of the engine cleansing from the leavings of the propellant after the engine cutoff.

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EFFECT: increased reliability of turbopump set.

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