The invention relates to the transport and for the design and construction of the wig. The ekranoplan has the fuselage top and bottom, with side plates, wings, located at the scheme of the biplane. Ekranoplan also has vertical and horizontal tail, launch and propulsion motors and control system. The upper wing is made with a sweep along the front edge slats and slotted flaps. The lower wing is made rectangular in plan with a flat bottom surface and with flaps, and his side of the washer is made in the form of floats-sections. The distance the top of the wing from the lower to the upper chord of the wing, its the starter motor is located inside the forward fuselage and made with venting channels-nozzles for directing gas jets under the lower wing and the formation of the starting air cushion. In the fore part of the wig is the third wing, consisting of two aerodynamic wings consoles, with the angle of attack, sweep along the front edge slats and slotted flaps, made with aerodynamic wings on the ends in the form of vertical plates. The height of this wing relative to cryoplane. The upper wing can have the angle of attack, aerodynamic wings on the ends in the form of vertical plates and elongation<5. The lower wing may have elongation>1,5. Flat bottom surface of the lower wing may form an angle with the reference underlying surface. The technical result of the invention is to improve performance GeV by increasing its profitability, economic efficiency and operational safety. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.The invention relates to the transport and for the design and construction of the wig.Famous winged containing the fuselage top and bottom, with side plates, wings, located under the scheme biplane, vertical and horizontal tail, launch and propulsion motors, the control system, the upper wing is made by lengthening5, with the sweep of the leading edge slats and slotted flaps, the bottom wing is made with extension1,5 rectangular shape in plan, with a flat bottom surface is from the lower to the upper chord of the wing, its the starter motor is located inside the forward fuselage and made with venting channels-nozzles for directing gas jets under the lower wing and the formation of the starting air cushion (patent RU 2129501 C1, 6 60 V 1/08, 64 39/08, publ. 27.04.1999,, bull. No. 12).However, the known ekranoplan has a low performance.The technical result from the implementation of the described invention is to improve performance GeV by increasing its profitability, economic efficiency and operational safety.This technical result is achieved by the fact that the wig that contains the fuselage top and bottom, with side plates, wings, located under the scheme biplane, vertical and horizontal tail, launch and propulsion motors, the control system, the upper wing is made by lengthening<5, with the sweep of the leading edge slats and slotted flaps, the bottom wing is made with extension>l,5 rectangular in plan, with a flat bottom surface with flaps, and his side of the washer is made in the form of floats-sections, and the distance vernaglia and done with venting channels-nozzles for directing gas jets under the lower wing and the formation of the starting air bags, according to the invention in the fore part of the wig is the third wing, consisting of two aerodynamic wings consoles, which have an angle of attack sweep along the front edge slats and slotted flaps, made with aerodynamic wings on the ends in the form of vertical plates, and the height of this wing relative to the center of mass GeV is less than the corresponding height of the wing, located in the rear part of the wig. The upper wing in the rear part of the wig with the angle of attack with a sweep of the leading edge, also done with aerodynamic wings on the ends in the form of vertical plates. The use of the aerodynamic wing in the nose significantly increases load-bearing properties of the wig due to both increase the overall aerodynamic component of the aerodynamic wing in the nose and tail parts of the wig, and the corresponding optimal distribution of the aerodynamic lifting force in a certain optimal proportions between the front and rear wings GeV and the resulting point of its application (this model the focus is determined from the stability condition GeV), spacialized ability GeV to semistability height and increased longitudinal stability when flying on the screen compared to the prototype, allows to reduce the landing speed, to reduce the dynamic loads on the controls, and structural force diagram of the device and thereby reduces the overall weight of the whole structure, thereby increasing the useful weight return GeV as a vehicle in comparison with the prototype, can also improve the stability and controllability, and hence to improve the safety of flight as on the screen, and transient conditions. All this allows to have a relative lengthening of the upper wing at the tail end GeV<5, the lower wing is made with extension>1,5, with a flat bottom surface of the bottom of the wing forms the goal of attack relative to the reference underlying surface, thereby further improving the anchoring of the device to the screen, his semistability height and a further increase in longitudinal stability when flying on the screen, improving flight safety in comparison with the prototype, while increasing, as indicated above, the load-bearing properties of the ground effect vehicle as the vehicle.Thus, the use of aerodynamic wings consoles in the fore part of the wig allows gif"><5, and the lower wing display, made with angle of attack relative to the reference underlying surface, to perform a relative elongation>1,5, thereby allowing to considerably increase the weight returns GeV as a vehicle in comparison with the prototype, can improve the stability and controllability, and hence to improve the safety of the flight on the screen and in transient conditions.The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which:- Fig.1 - type of wig to the side;- Fig.2 - top wig;- Fig.3 is a view of the front wig.The ekranoplan contains the fuselage 1, the upper wing 2 in the tail portion of the slats 3, slotted flaps 4, aerodynamic wings 17 at the ends of the wing 13 in the bow of the slats 14, with flaps 15, aerodynamic wings on the ends 16. The upper wing 2 in the tail part and the lower wing 5 are arranged according to the scheme of the biplane, the lower wing 5 has flaps 6 and side washer 7 in the form of floats-sections. The ekranoplan is made with 8 vertical and 9 horizontal wings. There are boosters of the 10 and starting the engine with the air intake 11 (engine placed in the fore part of the fuselage 1 and has gasparino extension<5 and with the sweep of the leading edge, and the lower wing 5 has a rectangular shape in plan with extension>1.5, the flat bottom surface which has an angle of attack relative to the reference underlying surface. The distance of the wing 2 wing 5 more chord of the wing 2.The ekranoplan is made with a control system (not shown).The operation of the wig is as follows.Start GeV (like the prototype) is against the direction of the wind with a small directional angles to the wavefront of the reference surface and begins translation engines at maximum operation.In the beginning of the movement in contact with water are floats-sidewall 7, and then with increasing speed GeV under the action of air flow and work starting podobnogo engine receiving air through its inlet 11 on the wing 5, on the upper aerodynamic wing 13 in the nose and on the wing 2 in the rear part of the wig from the air flow produces aerodynamic lift force, under the action of which the water separates from the surface of the water and continues its flight in cruise mode the th surface, consists of the aerodynamic lifting force on the forward wing 13, the aft wing 2 and the display wing 5.The fit of the wig similar to the prototype performed on the water surface translation engines on the mode of flight of small gas when released the flaps 4 of the upper rear wing 2, released the flaps 15 of the front wing 13 and the flaps 6 of the lower wing 5. In the case of rough seas to reduce loads on the hull structures used intermittent positive pressure from the first engine speed range planning.Engines, machines, mechanisms and equipment (not shown) are selected from serial aeronautical products and provide the specified modes of operation.Comparing the technical and economic characteristics of the developed GeV with located in the fore part of the third wing, consisting of two aerodynamic wings consoles and biplane wing, with modern vehicles, it can be concluded that the distinctive features of the described invention together give the ekranoplan new properties and provide advantages in technical, economic and environmental aspects, namely specialsa sufficient “anchor” of the device to the screen through the bottom of the wing 5 and the wing 13, located in the fore part of the wig, their combination and interaction allow to perform the maneuver speed for safe passing through the narrow waters of the rivers, congestion, bridges, etc.,Technical layout and appearance of the wig shaped like a fundamentally new type of marine high-speed vehicle that has no analogues neither in appearance nor in the range of operating characteristics, which is defined by separatelly and kruglogodichnogo operation, high reliability and guaranteed safety.The use of wig divers manners, for example for use in river, lake and coastal marine conditions for fast delivery of passengers, cargo, mail, etc. from one area to another, and such vehicles will be used for crew change, etc.,The results of research and testing in wind tunnels, on a towed model allowed us to carry out design optimization of the main parameters and characteristics of the systems, machinery and equipment, appropriate layout scheme and providing specified modes of operation, proving the possibility of obtaining high performance PR is riasi the fuselage top and bottom, having side plates, wings, located under the scheme biplane, vertical and horizontal tail, launch and propulsion motors, control system, while the upper wing is made with a sweep along the front edge slats and slotted flaps, the bottom wing is made rectangular in plan with a flat bottom surface and with flaps, and his side of the washer is made in the form of floats-sections, and the distance of the upper wing from the lower to the upper chord of the wing, its the starter motor is located inside the forward fuselage and made with venting channels-nozzles for directing gas jets under the lower wing and the formation of the starting air cushion, characterized in that the fore part of the wig is the third wing, consisting of two aerodynamic wings consoles, with the angle of attack, sweep along the front edge slats and slotted flaps, made with aerodynamic wings on the ends in the form of vertical plates, and the height of this wing relative to the center of mass GeV is less than the corresponding height for the upper wing, located in the rear part of the wig.2. The screen is e vertical plates and elongation<5.
>1,5.4. Ground effect vehicle according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the flat bottom surface of the lower wing forms an angle with the reference underlying surface.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing-in-ground-effect craft consists of front, main and rear low-aspect ratio wings forming air cushion, installed in tandem in direction of movement and adjoining each other. Main wing is formed by upper and lower saucer hull shells connected to each other. Front and rear wings are coupled by bow and stern parts of floats-skegs on which main wing rests. All round vision saucer hull is connected with spaces of floats-skegs by airtight passages. Upper rigid shell of said hull is provided with sealed access hatch and windows. Main tractor engine with propeller and auxiliary control cabin are found in front part of each float-skeg. Auxiliary engine has priopeller arranged in ring holder with rudder mounted on rear end face. Said propeller is secured on transverse support crosspiece coupling stern parts of floats-skegs on which vertical control surfaces are mounted. Bow lifting wing is installed on auxiliary control cabins of floats-skegs.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of wing-in-ground-effect craft, possibility of movement over frozen water surface and snow and at height exceeding height of air cushion.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; designing rescue trimaran-type ground-effect craft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ground-effect craft includes three fuselages-hulls which are interconnected by means of rectangular wings. Fuselage-hull located in axis of symmetry of ground-effect craft is extended forward. Ground-effect craft has keel and swept stabilizer. Fuselages-hulls are stepped in construction and are provided with several tiers; they are divided lengthwise into compartments. Length of side fuselages-hulls exceeds length of center fuselage-hull by at least twice. One of rectangular wings has passage inside it for connection with side fuselages-hulls. Swept wings at negative dihedral angle (v) are provided on external side of two fuselages-hulls in accordance with position of rectangular wings. End of each wing is secured to mooring rod protected on the outside with streamlined elastic belt. Lower part of said rod performs function of stall fence during flight. Bottoms of each fuselage-hull have recesses where extensible hydrofoils are mounted; area of hydrofoils is variable which is effected by means of remote control system. At the top each fuselage-hull is provided with evacuation and inspection openings covered with acrylic plastic and located at distance relative to one another. Mounted on front upper part of fuselage-hull lying in axis of symmetry of ground-effect craft is aerial rudder; tail parts of two side fuselages-hulls are provided with extensible coaxial propellers and hydrodynamic control surfaces. Mounted on last rear rectangular wing between side fuselages-hulls on streamlined brackets are ramjet engines located at equal distances. Turbo-jet engines are mounted on similar brackets at the same level with ramjet engines.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of ground-effect craft.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding and wing-in-ground-effect craft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing-in-ground-effect craft contains hull, wing, tail unit and power unit. Wing is installed at angle of 2-5є to base plane of wing-in-ground-effect craft so, that wing leading edge be at a distance from waterline above still water equal to 0.01-0.2 ( is mean aerodynamic chord of wing). End plates of height equal to distance between wing and base line are arranged at ends of wing span, with clearance between lower part of plate and base line equal to 0.1-0.2 m. Flaps with chord are attached to wing in stern part. Said flaps deflect through angle of -(5-10є) to +(40-60є). Lower edge of flap in shifted down position should not get behind base line of hull in area of arrangement of flaps. Engines of bow starting power unit are fastened on horizontal pylon coupled with hull structure. Axial line of engine air intake should be at distance from water line on still water being found from formula (dimensions in meters) where is rarefaction at engine inlet in meters of water column; is diameter of air intake. Installed angle of engine is found from formula where is distance from axial line along rear edge of engine to base line; ; is distance from leading edge of wing to base line; d is diameter of engine nozzle; is height of design wave at takeoff; is hull draught by bow; 1 is distance of leading edge of wing from nozzle exit section. Distance from nozzle exit section of engine to leading edge of wing in horizontal is found from equation where d is diameter of engine nozzle; is temperature of gases at nozzle exit section, K; is required temperature of wing structure, K. From one to three intermediate plates of length equal to 3/4 MAC and draught 0.1 m less than draught of hull in this area are rigidly secured to surface of wing.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of wing-in-ground-effect craft.
9 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building of ground-effect craft, mainly cargo and passenger craft up to 8 t capacity.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ground-effect craft has center-wing section provided with aerodynamic profiles in longitudinal sections. Cigar-shaped fuselage of ground-effect craft is mounted on center-wing section. Crew cabin and passenger saloon are located in fuselage. Hollow hermetic longitudinal beams are mounted over periphery of center-wing section at its ends. Inflatable shock-absorbing balloons are mounted under longitudinal beams. Two keels with rudders are installed on tips of longitudinal beams. Horizontal tail located on keel includes elevator located between keels and ailerons located on section of peripheral cantilevers. Pusher-type horizontal thrust propeller is enclosed in ring-shaped external fairing. Screw propeller engine is mounted inside fairing of tail fuselage. Takeoff and landing complex includes units for creating static air cushion under center-wing section.
EFFECT: improved flight and technical characteristics.
9 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building ground-effect craft and takeoff-and-landing complexes for such craft with the use of static air cushion.
SUBSTANCE: proposed complex includes pusher-type propeller for horizontal thrust which embraces tail section of fuselage. Screw propeller of ground-effect craft is embraced by ring-shaped fairwater and is provided with engine mounted in tail section of fuselage. Ground-effect craft is provided with hermetic center-wing section and hermetic longitudinal beams mounted on peripheral ends of center-wing section. Inflatable shock-absorbing balloons are mounted in lower portion of longitudinal beams. Complex is also provided with units for forming static air cushion under center-wing section. Method of takeoff and landing of ground-effect craft consists in maintenance of excessive pressure in shock-absorbing balloons under longitudinal beams on sides of center-wing section; front and rear retractable guides of air cushion are placed in working position; swivel door is shifted from air duct shutoff position to position at angle relative to upper surface of center-wing section corresponding to 10-15% of air offtake flow created by air propeller at takeoff and landing modes, thus forming air intake for this part of air flow; part of air flow is transported to space for forming air cushion under front part of center-wing section behind front flexible guard and creating excessive static pressure of air.
EFFECT: improved flight and technical characteristics of ground-effect craft.
8 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibious vehicles on dynamic air cushion. Proposed vehicle has platform-wing rectangular in plan with aspect ratio at 0.3-0.4 of its length, flap in aft part and interceptor on lower surface installed for deflecting downwards and with axle of rotation arranged at a distance not exceeding 0.7 of its length from force edge of platform. Three-dimensional skegs of vehicle are installed at end faces of platform parallel to its longitudinal axis, and vertical control surfaces are located in aft part of skegs. Elastic air bottles are installed on lower surface of each skeg. Wheel house of vehicle is found on upper surface of platform in its diametral part. Gas-turbine (turbofan) blow-under engines and thrust engines are mounted, respectively, in fore and aft parts of each skeg. Blow-under engines are furnished with tubular exhaust unit pointed to fore part of vehicle. Front part of exhaust unit is located before platform, being made parallel to its fore edge and equipped with nozzles deflecting in vertical plane, installed parallel to longitudinal axis of platform and secured on beam-pylon resting on fore parts of skegs Nozzle exit sections are located before fore edge of platform at distance not less than 0.15 of its length. Exhaust unit of thrust engine is provided with nozzles installed for turning in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: improved maneuverability of vehicle at optimum arrangement of interceptor in length and turning of nozzles of exhaust unit of thrust engine in horizontal plane.
FIELD: shipbuilding; building of dynamically-supported amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transport facility has hull, wing with flaps, vertical tail with rudder and stabilizer, side skegs and pneumatic bottles whose outer shells are provided with planing steps. Engine with propeller unit is located in front of leading edge of wing. Side skegs are located over edges of wing in parallel relative to axis of hull. Side pneumatic bottles are mounted in lower portion of side skegs and central pneumatic bottle is located on lower surface of wing and hull along hull axis; its lower edge lies above lower edges of side pneumatic bottles. Upper boundary of planing steps is matched with upper edge of outer shells of pneumatic bottles and skis are located along lower portion of pneumatic bottle shells. Height of skis exceeds height of planing steps. Arranged inside outer shells of pneumatic bottles are longitudinal stiffening members. Central pneumatic bottle is so positioned that its fore edge is shifted relative to leading edge of wing towards fore portion of hull at distance no less than half wing chord; height of its lower edge above lower edge of side pneumatic bottles is found from the following relationship: where Δh is height of lower edge of central pneumatic bottle, mm; lw is wing span, m; λ is wing aspect ratio. Height of ski cross section may be no less than 1.5Hpl and its width, 5Hpl where Hpl is height of planing step.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of dynamically-supported transport facility.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; building hydroconverti ground-effect craft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroconverti ground-effect craft has low-wing monoplane, mid-wing monoplane and high-wing monoplane arranged in tandem. Mounted on their outer panels are annular channels equipped with turning units and cantilever propellers for creating vertical and horizontal thrust; they are provided with propeller gearboxes mounted on stiffening ribs; front and rear ones are combined by means of transversal and longitudinal transmission shafts located at different levels with two intermediate T-shaped gearboxes driven by power plant. Power plant is provided with at least two main engines mounted in gondolas on either side from longitudinal axis of fuselage-gondola on upper part of high-set wing. Vertical tail is mounted on tail boom. Three-leg landing gear is retracted into fore compartment. The proposed hydroconverti ground-effect craft is built in three-boom pattern. High-set wing is additionally provided with two booms at level of tail boom. Mid-set wing is made in form of stabilizer and its two propellers are just inter-boom propellers; they are provided with units for turning the annular channels which are mounted coaxially relative to single transversal axis of horizontal stiffening ribs located in stabilizer plane. Hermetic side compartments smoothly change to aft compartment behind aft section of fuselage-gondola. Aft compartment is provided with two C-shaped cuts under inter-boom propellers without shading them in creating the vertical thrust. Aft compartment is made under tail boom along its longitudinal axis in form of streamlined aft float of longitudinal stability.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ground-effect vehicles. Proposed craft has hull with wing. Pneumatic bottles are installed on wing lower surface and on lower surface of hull in diametric plane. Craft has engines and stabilizer and includes additionally one or more cantilevers with engines mounted on their ends constantly kept in water and made for synchronous and asynchronous turning relative to axes, both longitudinal and perpendicular to diametric plane of craft. Engines of craft are electrohydroreactive, of continuous action. Number of engines is one or more.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of aerodynamic cushion craft.
FIELD: aircraft manufacture; manufacture of seaplanes for conducting search and rescue operations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed float-type seaplane is used for rescue of people at sea swell number 5; it is provided with fuselage with additional elevators in nose section for enhancing the seaplane controllability and engines for supercharging under center-wing section located in nose section of fuselage in technical compartment for forming air cushion under center-wing section and blowing-off incoming wave; seaplane is provided with pilot cabin. Seaplane is provided with delta-type low-set swept wing. Center-wing section extends over entire length of fuselage performing the function of main load-bearing structural member of seaplane connecting together fuselage, twin-fin unit tail, with mid-positioned stabilizer on which cruise turbo-jet engines are installed and two parallel elongated floats of deadrise or torpedo-like form; they are secured on pylons under center-wing section. Mounted on floats and in nose section of fuselage are three dampening sliding water ski extended during takeoff and landing and retracted in flight.
EFFECT: enhanced stability, seaworthiness; reduced hydrodynamic and aerodynamic drag; enhanced strength of seaplane construction and its controllability.
2 dwg, 1 tbl