The invention relates to agricultural and road-building machinery and applicable to wheeled self-propelled machines and tractors working in the unit with semi-mounted machines, semi-trailers and trailers. Trailer vehicle includes a frame, master and slave bridges with managing the front and leading of the rear wheels, engine, hydrostatic transmission, pump recharge, hydrostatic steering, located on the drive wheel drum brakes are equipped with wheel brake cylinders, hydraulic mounting mechanism with the trailer device in the form of a fork with the drawbars. Wheel brakes are performed with separate control loops, each of which consists of a communicated with the wheel brake cylinder master cylinder, level, piston chamber which is communicated with the outlet of the control valve, one of the inputs of the latter and the rod cavity level is in communication with the pressure line of the pump feeding, and the second with the tank. The valve control kinematically connected with the brake pedal and the rod level with the piston of the master cylinder. Turnbuckle equipped with hydraulic lifting and lowering of the king pin. and three position four way distributor. The hydraulic lifting and lowering of the pins are hydraulically connected to a two-position four electrically controlled distributor. The technical result is to increase maneuverability and terrain traction of the vehicle, increasing the reliability of the actuator stroke and the utilization rate of the feed pump hydraulic mechanism hydraulics and steering. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.The invention relates to agricultural and road-building machinery and applicable to wheeled self-propelled machines and tractors working in the unit with semi-mounted machines, transport trailers or trailers.The invention is useful in towing vehicles used in the electrolytic production of aluminum, where the characteristic features of technological operations are frequent stops and hitch trailers.Known wheel tractor t M , containing mounted on the frame, engine, transmission, consisting of clutch, transmission, main transmission, differential and final drives; front and rear axles; steering; located on the input shaft end of the transmission into Ricany device in the form of a fork with a bolt, with the locking pin; a hydraulic mechanism, hydraulics and steering controls, consisting of a hydraulic tank, hydraulic pump, valve dividing the flow, made with safety valve power steering, equipped with safety overflow valve valve, hydraulic cylinder drive mechanism hydraulics and auxiliary cylinders.Such tractors are used on aluminium smelters to perform transport-technological operations.The disadvantages of the tractor include: due to frequent stops and switches the transmission to the low durability of the clutch, gearbox and belt brakes; great efforts pedal brake control; inability stepless speed motion; inconvenience produced manually hitch trailer, which consists in removing the pin from the bolt, pulling the pin from the trailer plug device and install them into place in the reverse order; low utilization rate of flow of the pump in connection with the necessity of application of the pump increased productivity to enable simultaneous operation United with him through the valve dividing the flow of power steering is on  with hydrostatic drive contains adjustable reversible hydraulic pump connected kinematically with the auxiliary hydraulic pump, and hydraulic - suction and discharge lines with the unregulated motor; hydraulic brakes with spring accumulators, control cavity which is connected hydraulically through serially arranged valves - three-position three-way, two-position four way and two-position three-way - with auxiliary pump. When this valve three-position three-way valve brake control is linked kinematically with the foot pedal brake.The main disadvantage of this tool include the complexity of the system brake control; reduced its maneuverability and cross-country, due to the inability to separate control of the brakes.The objective of the invention is to provide a trailer vehicle with higher features and capabilities, such as mobility and maneuverability, reliability of the actuator stroke, the higher the utilization rate of the feed pump hydraulic mechanism hydraulics and steering, the ability to perform operator hitch and restep the ve, containing frame, master and slave bridges and control the front and rear drive wheels, engine, hydrostatic transmission in the form of a closed hydrostatic circuit, comprising communicated between a power hose adjustable hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor, respectively kinematically associated with the engine and rear drive wheels; a pump feeding a closed hydrostatic circuit; hydrostatic steering, consisting of a hydraulic pump, steering units and hydraulic steering; located on the rear wheels, drum brakes, equipped with wheel brake cylinder; hydraulic mounting mechanism with the trailer device in the form of a fork with a bolt, wheel brakes are provided with separate control loops, each of which consists of a communicated with the wheel brake cylinder master cylinder, level and control valve, the spool of which is kinematically connected with the brake pedal. Piston chamber level communicated with the outlet of the control valve. One of the inputs of the latter and the rod cavity level is in communication with the pressure line of the pump feeding the second reservoir, and a stem servocylinder the lowering of the king pin, kinematically associated with the rod of the hydraulic cylinder through a rotary double-arm lever and rod. The power cylinder of the hinge mechanism is controlled by a set that includes a valve and a three position four way distributor, the first and second lines which are connected respectively with the output of the steering unit and the tank, and the third and fourth with the piston rod and the cavity of a cylinder. Moreover, in the neutral position three-position distributor first and second lines are communicated with each other. The hydraulic lifting and lowering of the pins are hydraulically connected to a two-position four way electrically operated valve, the first line which is connected to the pressure line of the pump feeding, the second - with the sink, the third and the fourth with the piston rod and the cavities of the hydraulic lifting and lowering of the king pin. Moreover, in the initial position of the valve piston and the rod end of the cylinder is communicated with the pressure line of the pump recharge and the tank, respectively.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a General view of the trailer vehicle; Fig.2 is a hydraulic diagram.
Hydrostatic transmission is a closed hydrostatic circuit. It communicated between a power hose 16, 17 adjustable hydraulic pump 18 and the hydraulic motor 19 is kinematically connected respectively with the engine 1 and the rear drive wheels 10, 11. Regulation of the feed pump 18 through a control valve 20 with mechanical feedback 21 with the inclined plate 22 of the pump 18. Cavity of the pump casing 18 and motor 19 is communicated between a drain hydroline 23. In each of the power hydroline 16, 17 are installed pressure valves 24, 25, respectively, and between them is connected hydraulically operated switching valve 26, the output of which is communicated with the inlet relief valve 27, the drain with the last sent in the body cavity of the motor 19. The hydraulic transmission has a system of feeding, pump 28 which delivers the working fluid through the check valves of the tion of the circuit is installed relief valve 32, configured on a pressure slightly above the pressure at perelivom valve 27. The excess fluid pumped by the pump 28 recharge, merge through the relief valve 32 into the cavity of the pump housing 18. The body cavity of the motor 19 is communicated through the heat exchanger 33 to the tank 34.The pump inlet 28 recharge communicated through the filter 35 to the tank 34.Hydrostatic steering consists of a hydraulic pump 36, the steering unit 37 and the hydraulic cylinder 38 turning the steered wheels 8, 9.Wheel brakes 12, 13 provided with a separate control loops consisting of a communicated with the wheel brake cylinders 14, 15 main cylinders 39 and 40, respectively, servocylinder 41, 42, piston cavity 43, 44 which communicates with the outlets of the valves 45, 46 management. Inputs 47, 48 valves 45, 46 and the rod end 49, 50 servocylinders 41, 42 is in communication with the pressure line 31 of the pump 28 feed, and other inputs 51, 52 from the tank 34, and the spools of the valves 45, 46 control kinematically connected respectively with pedals 53, 54 brake control 14, 15 and the rods 55, 56 servocylinders 41, 42 with pistons 57, 58 main cylinders 39, 40.Turnbuckle 4 is equipped with a hydraulic cylinder 59 of the lifting and lowering of the bolt 5, kinematically links gidravlicheskiy associated with a two-position four way electrically operated valve 63, the first line 64 which is connected to the pressure hydroline 31 of the feed pump 28, the second 65 - tank 34, the third 66 and fourth 67 - piston 68 and rod 69 cavities of the hydraulic cylinder 59 of the lifting and lowering of the bolt 5. Moreover, in the initial position of the distributor piston 63 68 and rod 69 of the cylinder cavity 59 is in communication with the pressure hydroline 31 of the feed pump 28 and the tank 34, respectively. The power cylinder 70 of the hinge mechanism 3 is controlled by a set of 71, which includes a valve 72 safety and three position four way distributor 73, the first 74 and 75 of the second line set 71 are connected respectively with the output 76 of the unit 37 of the steering and the tank 34, 77 and the third and fourth 78 - with the piston rod 79 and 80 cavities of a cylinder 70. Moreover, in the neutral position three-position valve 73 of the first 74 and 75 of the second line set 71 communicated with each other.Drive axle 7 includes a main transmission comprising a shaft-gear 81 and the gear wheel 82, 83 differential, gears 84, 85 which are connected through satellites axes 86 and 87, 88. Moreover, the gear shaft 81 is kinematically connected to the motor 19 and the gears 84, 85 through the axes of the BU rotation of the input shaft of reversible variable-displacement pump 18 and the feed pump 28, and the pump shaft 36 on the steering wheel. The feed pump 28 draws working fluid from the tank 34 through the filter 35 and supplies it to hydroline 31 low pressure, as well as through non-return valves 29, 30 in the power hydroline 16, 17. Thus, the surplus fluid are merged through the relief valve 32 into the cavity of the pump housing 18. In the initial state estate washer 22 of the pump 18 is in the zero position. Through the control valve 20 of the pump 18 is derived from the zero mode of supply and shall submit the working fluid, for example, in hydroline 16 and the hydraulic motor 19, which by means of drive axle 7 causes the vehicle is in motion in one direction or another. When this check valve 29 is closed and valve 30 remains open. Hydraulically operated valve 26 is switched to the upper position, giving hydroline 17 with overflow valve 27, the drain of which is directed into the cavity of the housing of the motor 19. In this case, the excess working fluid coming from the pump 28 to recharge the power hydroline 17, are discharged through the relief valve 27. To carry out the work of braking traction of the vehicle, the pump 18 is switched to the zero supply through a control valve 20. When the motor 19 on the flat surface of the drive wheels 10, 11 and associated with the axes of the gear wheels 84, 85 rotate with the same frequency, and satellites 86, through which the torque is transmitted to the gears 84 and 85, does not rotate around its axis. During rotation of the tool, for example, to the left, the left shaft 87 rotates more slowly, as the left wheel 10 makes a shorter path than the right 11. While satellites 86 83 differential, turning around its axis, slowing the rotation of the left gear wheel 84 and accelerate the rotation of the right wheel 85, which improves handling and the increased number of indicators of technical and operational properties of self-propelled machines. In some cases, the presence of differential 83 has a negative effect on permeability. For example, in low traction wheel 10 with the road it will stall satellites 86, rotating around its axis, will roll on the toothed wheel 85, not passing on him torque. Consequently, the second drive wheel 11 will stop and self-propelled tool will not be able to move. In this case it is necessary to produce inhibition of slipping wheel 10. Increasing the resistance of rotation associated with the slipping wheel 10 gears 84 lead the private funds.For braking one of the wheels, such as wheel 10, in order to reduce the turning radius or prevent slippage when insufficient adhesion with the road surface is driven by the corresponding pedal 53, the valve 45 controls. Thus the working fluid pumped by the feed pump 28 passes through the control valve 45 in servocylinder 41, the piston rod 55 which moves the piston 57 of the master cylinder 39. From the cylinder 39, the fluid enters the wheel brake cylinder 14, which actuates the wheel brake 12. The value of the braking torque on the wheel 10 is regulated by the valve 45 to control the outlet pressure of which depends on the pedal 53. Moving the pedal 53 in the initial position, the piston chamber 43 level 41 is communicated through the valve 45 controls the tank 34, and the working fluid supplied by a pump 28 charging for the hydroline 31 in the rod cavity 49, will cause the return stroke of the rod 55. The piston 57 of the master cylinder 39 will return to its initial position and will be releasing the wheel 10. Pressing on the pedal 53, 54 of the valve 45, 46 control will cause braking of both wheels 10, 11 at the same time.To connect trailer transport sredstvami using the hydraulic cylinder 59 pins 5 and performing reverse, connect the trailer plug device 4 with an earring trailer. By means of the hydraulic cylinder 59 is omitted in place of the bolt 5. For separation of the trailer to lift the bolt 5 and moving away from the trailer.The principle of operation of the hydraulic mechanism of the hinge.In the initial position of the valve 73 set 71 highway 77, 78 of the power cylinder 70 are locked and the rod holds the hinge mechanism 3 in a predetermined position. Thus the working fluid pumped by pump 36 steering, comes through the steering unit 37 and the set 71 in the tank 34. To perform the raising or lowering of the hinge mechanism 3 with the trailer unit 4 three-position valve 73 set 71 is switched to one of the positions, for example the top, and tells rod cavity 80 of the hydraulic cylinder 70 with the output 76 of the unit 37 steering and piston cavity 79 - tank 34. The piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder 70, moving under the action of fluid pressure, will raise the hinge mechanism 3.The hydraulic cylinder 59 of the lifting and lowering of the bolt 5 is controlled on-off valve 63. In the initial position of the last injection pump 28 feeding the working fluid enters the piston cavity 68 of the hydraulic cylinder 59, and stocknum position. When switching the control valve 63 to the other position, the working fluid is pumped by the pump 28 in the rod cavity 69 of the cylinder 59, and the piston 68 it is discharged into the tank 34. The piston rod 60 of the cylinder 59 under the action of the working fluid will rise through the pivot arm 61 and rod 62 of the bolt 5.The positive results of the proposed technical solution: hydraulic lifting and lowering of the pin allows the operator to quickly, without help, without leaving the cab, hook it with a trailer or semitrailer; improving the reliability of the actuator stroke, maneuverability and terrain traction vehicle by applying a hydrostatic transmission and a separate control loops brakes the drive wheels; increase the utilization of the feed pump through the serial connection of the hydraulic mechanism hydraulics and steering pressure hydroline pump.Presents positive results were confirmed conducted at JSC “Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant production trials stated towing vehicle.Sources of information1. The tractor T-40 M, T 40 AM, T-40 AMN. Technical description and operating instructions.ext-align:center; margin-top:2mm;">Claims1. Traction-vehicle containing the frame, through which the slave and master bridges based respectively on the driven front and rear drive wheels, engine, hydrostatic transmission closed circuit comprising communicated between a power hose adjustable hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor, kinematically connected with the engine and rear drive wheels, respectively, a pump feeding a closed hydrostatic circuit, hydrostatic steering, consisting of a hydraulic pump, steering units and hydraulic steering to the rear wheels drum brakes are equipped with wheel brake cylinders, hydraulic mounting mechanism with the trailer device in the form of a fork with a bolt, wherein the wheel brakes are provided with separate control loops, each of which consists of a communicated with the wheel brake cylinder brake master cylinder, the piston of which is kinematically connected with the foot pedal corresponding to the brake pedal device is provided with a hydraulic lifting and lowering of the king pin, kinematically connected to reclining electrically-controlled valve, the first line which is connected to the pressure line of the pump feeding, the second - with the sink, the third and the fourth with the piston rod and the cavities of the hydraulic lifting and lowering of the king pin, with the original position of the distributor piston and the rod end of the cylinder is communicated with the pressure line of the pump recharge and the tank, respectively, of the power cylinder of the hinge mechanism is controlled by a set that includes a valve and a three position four way distributor, the first and second lines which are connected respectively with the output of the steering unit and the tank, and the third and fourth with the piston rod and the cavity of a cylinder, moreover, in the neutral position three-position distributor first and second lines are communicated with each other.2. Means under item 1, characterized in that each separate circuit brake control is equipped with a control valve and servocylinders, piston chamber which is communicated with the outlet of the control valve, one of the inputs of the latter and the rod cavity level is in communication with the pressure line of the pump feeding, and the second with the tank, and the valve control kinematics
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.