The method of manufacture of articles such as disks, rings, flanges and device for its implementation

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in various engineering industries in the production of a wide range of products such as disks, rings, flanges. The annular workpiece with the symmetry plane located perpendicular to its axis, is placed in a split matrix located can be rotated and made in the form of two volumetric with radial forming a cavity between them and the annular cavity to accommodate the workpiece. Mentioned cavity combined with the formation of one of the working cavity. Produce forming in the workpiece annular cavity by applying a radially directed deforming load from at least one tool, which is put into rotation and served in the radial direction on a line lying in the plane of symmetry of the workpiece. The annular cavity in the workpiece thermoabrasion extruded to a depth until the desired bottom of the jumper. In the extrusion process to provide a braking blanks in the matrix. The device is equipped with means for braking the workpiece and supporting roller mounted opposite to a main instrument. The result is an increase in the th. 2 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 15 ill.

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in various engineering industries in the production of a wide range of products such as disks, rings, flanges and the like: smooth or variable cross section, such as parts of valves.

The main task, which is aimed proposed group of inventions, the creation of concise technological process of obtaining such products plastic shaping with “softened” strain pattern and a high level of intensification that reduce the required effort deformation and improve the accuracy of manufactured items, plus improving typing (universality) of the process necessary for the organization flexible rapid tool change tube production.

For traditional known methods of manufacturing these products plastic forming, carried out by the method of open or closed forging (forging) of the workpiece in the stamp individually or as a complete forged by the application of axial, tangential or axial + tangential efforts deformation about ntie schema formation with a large enough range of varieties of techniques and technological transitions and accordingly kinds of tooling and equipment; the specificity of the technology for each of these types of products; a big waste of metal and the need for additional measures for the rational use of all this predetermined current practice specialization of production in mass and large-scale nature of its release, but was a brake for flexible and rapid tool change tube commercial and small-scale production, in modern conditions is more preferable. For example, methods for the production of flanges, known from the magazine “Forging and stamping production (UPS), 1999, No. 6, S. 36, Fig.1; 2000, No. 1, S. 15, Fig.2; the manufacturing methods of the rings - UPS, 1973, No. 4, S. 5, Fig.1; author's certificate of the USSR No. 912393, 1980, and No. 1199416, 1983, both In 21 To 1/04; methods of producing discs - CPS 1981, No. 6, S. 31-32; and.with. No. 1579626, 21 To 1/32, 1988, 1243878, 21 To 1/28, 1984 To implement each of these methods required a complex technological equipment, which includes, as a rule, several different types of stamps, devices for rolling out and supporting equipment, including handling. Besides the necessary expensive Park powerful forging equipment.

There are also known methods of forming p is No. 905974, 21 To 1/00, 1979; wheel rim - Japan's bid No. 57-100833, 21 To 1/28, 1982; pulley - U.S. patent No. 4138776, 21 To 1/42, 1979; or radial eversion semi-finished flange.with. The USSR №1181771, 21 To 1/14, 1984; disks, rings, flanges, U.S. patent No. 3758930, 21 d 53/26, 1973

Of them the closest analogue of the proposed method on a set of key characteristics is the way for U.S. patent No. 3758930, 1973, in which a ring-shaped workpiece with a plane of symmetry perpendicular to its axis, is placed in a separable matrix with the working cavity, and forming in the workpiece annular cavity conduct by application of radially directed deforming load from at least one tool, which is put into rotation and served in the radial direction on a line lying in the plane of symmetry of the workpiece.

Localization of deformation due to the contact of the rollers with the workpiece along the arc creates in this way compared with other known methods more favorable conditions of work of plastic deformation, allows you to soften the scheme of the stress state, thereby to reduce the required force deformation and, consequently, enables the use of the universal is in the entire working space of the matrix, compression of the workpiece by pilomatricoma to prevent slippage of the workpiece during deformation of the free ends of the workpiece, the method has limited technological possibilities to reduce the efforts of the deformation, as well as the range of manufactured items, their type and profile, for example, you cannot obtain one transition products with deep circular cavity, with stepped side surface of the flange. In addition, in the method of working out the structure of the metal part on the inner and outer free diameter of the workpiece, but not the whole piece.

The technical result generated by the invention, is expressed in the intensification of the process of formation, is involved in the deformation of the entire volume of the workpiece, the reduction of the strain deformation due to possible involvement in shaping the product shear deformation, expanding the range of manufactured products.

To achieve the technical result in the method of manufacture of articles such as disks, rings, flanges, plastic shaping ring-shaped workpiece with a plane of symmetry perpendicular to its axis, is placed in the working cavity of the split matrix. Forming in zagotovka is one tool, which is put into rotation and served in the radial direction on a line lying in the plane of symmetry of the workpiece, and forming in the workpiece annular cavity according to the invention is carried out by extrusion, radial feed of the tool to the depth specified bottom lintel in the extrusion process to provide a braking blanks in the matrix.

Additional differences method lies in the fact that the extrusion is carried out at a consistent radial feed of the tool rotating the workpiece around its axis or rotary movement around its axis the axis of the tool with the exception of rotation of the workpiece. This radial flow rotary tool lead in the direction toward the periphery of the matrix, or, on the contrary, to its centre, by extrusion, respectively, on the inner or outer diameters, with support or without it.

Alternatively, the extrusion cavity is carried out simultaneously from both sides.

The fact that the radial feed of the tool is extruded into the workpiece cavity, and the design of profile products provide engraving matrix, the tool is practically excluded from direct morphogenesis and remove hard dependency profile tool from the profiles of the opposite side surfaces; with the axial hole and without it; heterogeneous, different configurations - hence, expanding the range of manufactured products;

- to choose the most rational for the purposes of localization of deformation the shape of the tool in the form of a disk, while its diameter is determined only by the size of the product, and the width is selected by technological considerations of the terms of tool life and can be optimally minimal, since it is only necessary, sufficient for the degree of extrusion of the material of the workpiece;

- maximum involvement of the tool in the process of initiating shear deformation.

The extruded disk material in the matrix to provide resistance to the flow of material in the walls of the matrix are generated shear deformation in the workpiece material - material in the segment of the working contact of the workpiece and tool is combined extrusion shift (FAC). The invention scheme allows to obtain the exact thickness of the product, because the specific efforts in the matrix when the FAC is significantly lower than during extrusion or hand.

All these techniques individually and collectively ensure the intensification process, the reduction of the strain deformation (the s on the strengthening of this result.

Known devices intended for the manufacture of parts such as disks, rings, flanges, application of radial force deformation, for example, at the request of Japan No. 57-100833, 21 To 1/28, 1982; the application of Germany No. 3409549, 21 To 1/14, 1983; and.with. The USSR №1047576, 21 To 1/32, 1982 and No. 902974, 21 To 1/00, 1979, U.S. patent No. 3758930, 21 D 53/26, 1973

Of them the closest analogue on essential features is the device known from U.S. patent No. 3758930, 1973, containing a matrix consisting of two volumetric with radial forming a cavity between them and the annular lead-in cavity for placement of the ring blanks.

Matrix sandwiched between bolometric the workpiece is driven and exposed to a roller located in the hole of the workpiece, and a roller located on the outer diameter at the free ends of the workpiece. When radial feed rollers are shaping free, not locked in all the blanks.

This device implements a promising method for radial extrusion, does not require a powerful press-forging equipment, the product can be obtained for one transition. But the device has limited technological capabilities namanve it is impossible to obtain a product with a deep annular cavity, with stepped side surface, to obtain two products with stepped side surface.

Technical result achieved the proposed technical solution the device is that it allows to implement the method of manufacturing products using transverse extrusion shift with a simplified and less rigid scheme of deformation, ensuring the expansion of the range of manufactured products by type, geometry, precision manufacturing.

To achieve the technical result in the device containing made with the possibility of rotation matrix, consisting of two volumetric with radial forming a cavity between them and the annular cavity for accommodating the workpiece, and at least one primary transmitter deforming load a tool that is installed from the side of the molding cavity of the matrix, combined with the annular cavity to form a unified working cavity, with the possibility of rotation around its axis and radial flow along the longitudinal axis of the cross-section of the working cavity of the matrix, there is a means for braking blanks in the matrix and the retaining roller, mounted opposite the primary and is put inside the matrix or outside.

In special cases, depending on the type of manufactured product, its geometry and material:

the matrix is made detachable in the form of a ring placed in sliding locking the sliders, which are evenly spaced on the base with the possibility of driving the linear and circular movements;

the matrix is made detachable in the form of a cylinder mounted to rotate around its axis, and an associated drive rotation;

the main tool is installed with the possibility of circular movement of its axis around the axis of the matrix and provided with a drive this move;

the main tool is made in the form of a disk;

- the device is equipped with an additional tool for basting workpiece mounted for rotation and radial flow before the main instrument and is made, for example, in the form of a roller;

- as a means for braking blanks in the matrix used in the side walls of its cavity, which is stepped, or tapered, or spherical;

means for braking blanks in the matrix made in the form of abrasive spraying or annular notches;

- the device is equipped with a mechanism for additional power prig is a procedure in the proposed device; in Fig.2 is an exemplary types of blanks; Fig.3 is a diagram of the extrusion of Fig.4 is a General view of the device in section, an example with a circular form of a matrix and the location of the tool within the matrix of Fig.5 is a view in plan; Fig.6 is an example implementation of a device with a basting roller; Fig.7 - section G-G in Fig.6; Fig.8 - General view of the device in section, an example with the cylindrical form of the matrix and the location of the tool is outside of the matrix, basting with the roller; Fig.9 is a view in plan; Fig.10 is an exemplary diagram with a circular movement of the axis of the tool; Fig.11 is the same with the clamp of volumetric between them; Fig.12 - fragment matrix with the annular notch on the wall of the working cavity, a view along arrow D in Fig.11; Fig.13 is an exemplary diagram of the extrusion pressurized; Fig.14 - the same double-sided extrusion of Fig.15 - the same using technological rings.

The device includes a detachable matrix 1, mounted on the axis 2. The matrix consists of two volumetric 3 and 4 with the working cavity 5, the lead-in cavity 6 which is designed to receive the workpiece 7 and the longitudinal axis 8 of the cross-section is located radially and perpendicular to the axis 2. The lead-in cavity 6 is made annular and input 9 of abrotanella tool 11, made for example in the form of a disk. The shape of the side surfaces of disk option: cross section of the disk may be constant or variable. To ensure the radial feed of the tool 11 its axle 10 is arranged to move along the axis 8, and may also have the ability circular movement about the axis 2 of the matrix 1, providing the tool 11 movement running on the workpiece 7.

Matrix 1 is made with the possibility of passive rotation around axis 2 under the action of friction forces from the interaction of the tool and workpiece, or force of rotation from the actuator rotation, associated with its axis 2.

The matrix has the form of a ring 12 placed can be rotated in the holder, consisting of two or more equidistant around the perimeter of the sliding locking slide 13 mounted on the base 14 with the possibility of driving the circular and linear movements and designed to provide fixation polymetric in the closed state in the process of formation and their release at the end of the process (Fig.4).

Alternatively, the matrix can be in the form of a cylinder mounted to rotate around an axis 2 (Fig.8).

The drive roller 15 rotating arbitrarily or by force on the enforcement of the retaining roller 17 is mounted on a shaft 18 opposite to a main tool for rotation and radial flow.

To ensure dispensed simultaneously from two opposite sides provide additional rotating disk 19 mounted opposite to the disk 11 with the possibility of a counter-radial flow.

Drives all these movements matrices and tools - primary and secondary - can be performed by any known expedient manner and on the drawings conventionally not shown.

To ensure braking blanks in the matrix side wall of the working cavity can be made of abrasive-coated to have a circular notches 20 or any other items of similar purpose. As an option for braking blanks in the matrix, provide power clamp of bolometric to each other, there is a power mechanism, such as a hydraulic cylinder 21.

Form of the matrix 1, the cross section of the cavity 5 and instruments 11, 15, 17 and 19, and means for braking blanks in the matrix and the arrangement of the instruments is determined by technological considerations.

The process can be maintained in the device with both horizontal and vertical split matrix 1, with the tool 11 in the form of a roller or drive on universal metalloobrabatyvajushhego in cross section of a ring or torus, line 22 lying in the plane of symmetry of the workpiece, perpendicular to its axis 23 (Fig.2). The choice of forms of procurement and its cross section is determined by the type of product, its geometry and dimensions, the plastic material.

The workpiece 7 is placed in one of polymetric, for example 3, so that the plane of symmetry of the workpiece coincides with the plane of the connector of the matrix 1, and the line 22 to a line radial flow disk 11, and close another polimetrica 4. The disk 11 is in the initial position, so as not to impede the laying of the workpiece, and after laying it down to the matrix 1 until it touches the workpiece, after which result in rotation and inform him of driving the translational movement of radial flow along the line 22 for its implementation in the workpiece in a given mode.

When implementing a rotating disk 11 in the workpiece 7 under the action of the resulting friction forces it together with the matrix receives a rotation around its axis 23. In some cases, on-demand technology to enhance plastics or large dimensions of the workpiece her forcibly rotate in the co-ordinated with the movement of the tool(s) mode driven rotation matrix provided for this purpose in ostroske rotation matrix constant or cyclic and circular movement of the axis of the instrument; or move only the tool axis around the axis of the matrix, giving him a spinning movement relative to the workpiece.

Under the action of radial movement of the disk 11 of the workpiece material 7 in the plastic state is extruded into the cavity of the matrix, remaining stationary at the walls of the cavity due to its inhibition due to existing geometry prints slopes, ledges, etc. caused by the geometry of the product, or design, additionally provided in the device means of braking, so that the material formed by shear deformation. The deformation is localized in the zone of the working contact of the tool with the workpiece segment between two points a and b on the arc surface of the disk 11, which is determined by the settings of the mode of introduction of the disc to the workpiece (Fig.3). With each rotation of the workpiece 7, the disc 11 rotating and moving under the action of radial flow into the workpiece, wdiget and how would smears “softened” shear deformation of the workpiece material on the engraving of the matrix. Thus, before working area of contact of the tool with the workpiece material, located between the side surface 24 of the disk 11 and the surface 25 of someseni, centers the disk in the workpiece; and above this area as deepening of the disk 11, the workpiece 7 is formed an annular cavity 26, the axisymmetric cross-section, the width equal to the width of the disk 11.

The presence of shear deformation reduces the surface pressure per unit area of the working contact of the disk with the workpiece, reducing as a result, the deformation force, which also in the end of the extrusion decreases sharply (unlike, for example, from the process of reverse extrusion, where it is in this period, on the contrary increases). The material is more plastic and fits snugly around the engraving, clearly forming a relief products.

Upon reaching the desired depth h1cavity 26 defined by the height h2ground jumper 27, which set out the conditions of a degree of extrusion of a particular product with regard to plasticity of the material, squeezing stop; after which the further submission of the disk 11 in the same direction jumper plug 27 is removed completely and get two single products. If you need product type dual size h is determined by the jumper configuration of such products and the achievement of a given size is left unchanged supply of the disk 11.

To complete the process tool, assign to the source the device is ready to repeat the cycle.

It is possible to extrusion during forced rotation matrix and passive rotation of the tool for friction forces.

The extrusion direction, respectively, the tool arrangement in the device and the direction of feed is determined by technology and type of product, its topography and dimensions.

In the manufacture of a relief products extrusion lead in the direction of decreasing elevation along the axis 8 of the cavity 5 of the matrix 1 as follows:

- if you want to get a product with a decrease in elevation in the direction from the axis of the product to the edge of it (Fig.4), the extrusion cavity 26 lead from the inner diameter of the feed disk 11 in the direction from the axis of the matrix to its periphery, the inner diameter of the workpiece remains unchanged, and the outer diameter of the introduction of the disc increases and when the desired depth h of the cavity 26 corresponds to the outside diameter of the product;

- to obtain products with a relief with the decrease in the direction from the outer diameter to the axis of the product, the extrusion cavity 26 lead from the outer diameter of the workpiece 7 by the feed disk 11 in the direction from the periphery of the matrix to its axis 2 (Fig.8), while the outer diameter of the workpiece remains unchanged, and the inner dosti 5, and get two single products with so-called “closed center”. To obtain product type dual jumper accordingly leave.

In the manufacture of products with smooth surfaces or with minor quantities of slopes, ledges, i.e., when the coefficient of friction is insufficient and does not allow to avoid “margin-bottom” or ”failure” of the workpiece, on the walls of the molding cavity 5 of the matrix provide constructive, more enhanced than in the manufacture of relief goods braking means, for example, in addition to the applied abrasive coated or circular notches on the walls of the cavity preparation squeeze pilomatricoma force P (Fig.11). The direction of the radial feed of the tool in the manufacture of smooth products choose, guided mainly by their dimensions, such as products with a small outer diameter, it is advisable to keep squeezing od.

The mode of extrusion parameters of the cavity 26, the number and set of tools defined by technology. So on-demand technology, for example, for centering the disk 11 with its large diameter, especially at a small thickness, the workpiece before applying disk 11 basting roller 15 along l is Yale voltage overall compression on the opposite implementation of the disk 11 of the workpiece diameter technological dress ring 29 (Fig.15) or the effect of rotating the retaining roller 17 (Fig. 13), which serves in the same direction with the disk 11 in a consistent mode with him;

- also due to the low ductility of the workpiece material or large size products on the width of the extrusion can be conducted simultaneously by two disks 11 and 19;

before extrusion billets due to possible fluctuations in their size, it is advisable to settle them in the cavity 6, for example, work basting roller 15 or squeezing pilomatricoma.

For perevalivalosj device from one product to another is enough to change the insert forming the etching of the matrix.

Example

The produced product is a single three-stage solid disc without axial openings towards lower terrain to the axis of the product, the outer diameter of 160 mm, height 19 mm

Equipment - lathe.

The process is conducted using a workpiece in the form of a ring with a rectangular cross-section 4738 mm, Ddrug- 173 mm, DNR- 80 mm device with a cylindrical matrix, blade width 10 mm and an outer diameter of 240 mm heated billet to 1100-1150C. Matrix with the workpiece mounted in the spindle, the disc caliper. The extrusion cavity were outside dichotomy, equal to 50 mm, the specific pressure of 40 kg/mm, the deformation force was 20 TC, after the bottom of the jumper got two products.

For comparison, the deformation force of the same disk by way of radial extrusion along.with. The USSR № 1047576 amounted to 400 TC, and in the manufacture of the traditional method oblasnoi stamping press - 1206 TC, i.e., required KGSP 1 600.

The use of the proposed group of inventions enhances the proliferation of technology for products using radial extrusion, simplifies the technology for a wide range of products, contributes to its typing, and helps to reduce production costs, improve the quality and accuracy of manufacturing, increase the utilization rate of material reduction efforts deformation and rapid perevalivalosj device.

Claims

1. The method of manufacture of articles such as disks, rings, flanges, comprising placing a ring-shaped workpiece with a plane of symmetry located perpendicular to its axis, in a split matrix with the working cavity and forming in the workpiece annular cavity by applying a radially directed deformable is the pressure line, lying in the plane of symmetry of the workpiece, wherein forming the workpiece annular cavity is carried out by extrusion at a depth until the desired bottom lintel in the extrusion process to provide a braking blanks in the matrix.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the extrusion of the billet ring cavity is carried out from the side of the outer diameter of the workpiece in a direction from the periphery of the matrix to its center.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the extrusion of the billet ring cavity is carried out by the internal diameter of the workpiece in the direction from the center of the matrix to its edge.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs.2 and 3, characterized in that the extrusion of the billet ring cavity is performed with the pressurized side of the outer or inner diameter of the workpiece.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the extrusion of the billet ring cavity is carried out with forced rotation of the workpiece about its axis, which agrees with the filing of the tool in the radial direction.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that the extrusion of the billet ring cavity is carried out at a circular movement 7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that after extrusion of the billet ring cavity produce destruction of bottom jumper submission tool with the formation of two products.

8. Device for the manufacture of articles such as disks, rings, flanges, containing button to rotate detachable matrix, made in the form of two volumetric with radial forming a cavity between them and the annular cavity for accommodating the workpiece, which is combined with the shape-forming cavity to form a unified working cavity, and at least one primary tool to transfer deforming load, determined by molding cavity of the matrix for rotation around its axis and radial flow along the longitudinal axis of the cross-section of the working cavity of the matrix, characterized in that it is provided with means for braking the blanks in the matrix, and the entrance into the working cavity of the matrix is inside the matrix or outside.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that it is provided with a supporting roller mounted opposite to a main tool for rotation around its axis and radial flow.

10. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8 is a University, evenly spaced on the base with the possibility of driving the linear and circular movements.

11. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8 and 9, characterized in that the matrix is made detachable in the form of a cylinder mounted to rotate around its axis and its associated actuator rotation.

12. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8-11, characterized in that the main tool is installed with the possibility of circular movement of its axis around the axis of the matrix and provided with a drive this move.

13. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8-12, characterized in that the main tool is made in the form of a disk.

14. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8-13, characterized in that it is provided with an additional tool for basting workpiece mounted for rotation and radial flow before the main instrument and is made, for example, in the form of a roller.

15. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8-14, characterized in that as a means for braking blanks in the matrix used in the side walls of its cavity, which is stepped, or tapered, or spherical shape.

16. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8-14, characterized in that the means for braking blanks in the matrix is made in the form Nagano mechanism for more power down polymetric to each other.

 

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