Nozzle for heat and mass transfer apparatus
The invention relates to a cap of heat and mass transfer devices and can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries for carrying out processes of distillation, absorption, etc. Nozzle consists of a single-turn spiral cylindrical or spiral bevel elements made from metal or plastic tape, the diameter and pitch of the helix, respectively, more than double the size of the width of the tape, and the pitch of the helix is less than its diameter, and the diameter of the spiral is not limited. Was made single-turn spiral-conical nozzle with a diameter of 15 mm taper 60and the helix pitch distance of 10 mm of tape width of 4 mm and a thickness of 0.15 mm, which has a specific surface area S=610 m-1when the free volume=0,96, the number of elements of the nozzle 1 m volume is n=12105that proves its high efficiency. 2 Il.The invention relates to a cap of heat and mass transfer devices and can be used in chemical, petrochemical and other industries for carrying out processes of distillation, absorption, etc.On regularne, made as separate elements, it is pie in the device.Nozzle elements are made of ceramics, metal or polymeric materials. Ceramic nozzle is cheaper to manufacture, but less effective, because have worse characteristics specific surface area and free volume.Metal filings are made of wire mesh or sheet blanks. Wire and mesh Packed items have higher values of the specific surface free volume and the holding capacity of the liquid. Increased holding capacity is related to the fact that at small inter-turn distance for the wire elements and the small cell sizes in the grids of these spaces are filled with liquid due to surface tension forces is firmly held in the free volume of the nozzle. This results in an increased period of the output device in the stationary mode and degrades the clarity of the fractional separation of multicomponent solutions. Is a consequence of the decrease of the yield of the target products by increasing the number of intermediate fractions.In this regard, the nozzle made of sheet material or workpieces surface of the Packed items of complex shape using cutting-sheet-procurement. While a significant portion of the workpiece is not used and goes to waste, which increases the cost of the nozzle.Known nozzles in the form of rings, however, the disadvantage of such nozzles is low efficiency due to the fact that the inner cavity is not used for the development of the specific surface of the nozzle. This disadvantage to some extent eliminated in metal Pall rings (Ramm, C. M. “gas Absorption”. M.: Chemistry, 1975) Pall Rings made from tubular blanks with tear notch side surface in several places and bend inside the ring formed by punching petals. This cap is more difficult to manufacture and, moreover, the disadvantage of it is that due to the formation of holes decreases in the value of the outer surface of the nozzle element.Known nozzle for heat and mass transfer devices made of metal tape.with. No. 1057084, class B 01 J 19/30, 1983). This invention is closest to the proposed technical substance and accepted by us as a prototype. The nozzle along.with. No. 1057084 made of tape in the form of a ring by rotating one end 180and turn the other end of its 180in Protopopova nozzles, and filling elements of the nozzle in the apparatus in the internal cavity of one element may include connecting elements, which increases the specific surface of the nozzle. However, because the nozzle is a ring, then fill the inner volume it may not be more than one or two adjacent elements. It is not possible to effectively use the capacity for the development of the specific surface.The objective of the invention is to increase the specific surface area and free volume of the nozzle to increase the interfacial surface contacted environments and thus improve the efficiency of the heat transfer in the device.To solve this problem proposed nozzle for heat and mass transfer apparatus, comprising separate elements, made of ribbon, which according to the invention the metal or plastic tape manufactured spiral cylindrical or spiral-conical shape, and a nozzle made of tape in the form of a single-turn helix, the diameter and pitch of the helix, respectively, more than double the size of the width of the tape, and the pitch of the helix is less than its diameter, and the diameter of the spiral is not limited.The nozzle is manufactured by cutting a spiral-cylindricus the open ends, and when loading them into the machine the ends of the elements are freely into the internal cavity of each other, which creates a twisted structure and provides a larger surface of the nozzle in the unit volume. To ensure maximum occupancy in the inner cavity of one of the Packed element with another element, the diameter must be greater than double the value of the width of the tape. The maximum diameter is not limited and is determined by the manufacturing technology nozzles. The pitch of the helix must be more than two values ribbon width and less than the diameter of the spiral.In Fig.1, 2 shows a General view of the nozzle element and the nozzle in the volume.The nozzle operates as follows. On the lattice mass transfer apparatus is put the elements of the nozzle. Due to the geometric shape of the elements of the nozzle is extremely dense filling the free volume of the device.From the bottom through the nozzle serves vapor-gas phase, and on top of irrigate in the liquid phase. The last in the form of a film to wrap around the surface of the nozzle, thus there is heat exchange between the gas-vapor and liquid phases.Was made single-turn spiral-conical nozzle with a diameter of 15 mm taper 60=0,96, the number of elements of the nozzle 1 m3volume is n=12105that proves its high efficiency.For comparison, the parameters of the metal ring of nozzles of the same diameter are S=350-380 m-1,of 0.9 to 0.92, n=2.3 to 2.4105(C. M. Ramm, “gas Absorption”. M.: Chemistry, 1975).
ClaimsNozzle for heat and mass transfer apparatus, comprising separate elements, made of ribbon, characterized in that the metal or plastic tape manufactured spiral cylindrical or spiral-conical shape, and a nozzle made of tape in the form of a single-turn helix, the diameter and pitch of the helix, respectively, more than double the size of the width of the tape, and the pitch of the helix is less than its diameter.
FIELD: chemical or physical processes.
SUBSTANCE: catalytic nozzle comprises central cord of the core of the fiber members made of polymeric fiber, e.g. capron, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of individual fiber members by a factor of two. Several fiber members of the nozzle are modified by catalyzers. The ratio of the modified and non-modified fibers is 1:2. The thrown fibers are primarily wound on the central cord, and then the noncorroding metallic cords are wound over the thrown fibers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; textile industry; food industry; light industry; other industries ; equipment of the wet dust separation.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the equipment of the wet dust separation and may be used in chemical, textile, food, light and other industries for purification of the dusty gases. The packed scrubber contains: the body with the fitting pipes for the dusty gas and the purified gas; the sprinkling device; the support gratings, between which there is the head; and the device for withdrawal of the slime. The head is made in the form of the hollow spheres, on the spherical surface of which there is the cut groove having in the cross-section perpendicular to the screw line the profile of "Berly saddle" or "Itallocks" saddle. The head can be made out of the porous polymeric materials, the glass, the porous rubber, the composite materials, timber, stainless steel, titanium alloys, precious metals. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust-catching process, and also reduction of the metal consumption and the vibroacoustic activity of the apparatus as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust-catching process, reduction of the metal consumption and the vibroacoustic activity of the apparatus as a whole.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of ceramic elements for packing.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic element (1, 6, 8) for packing is used as limiter for layers; it is made in form of bow-tie and has constant cross section along axis (1) and many through passages (5) which are parallel to direction of length (L). Proposed method consists in extrusion of mixture which contains one or several ceramic-forming components, sectionalizing of extruded mixture for forming sections and burning of sections for forming packing element. Packing is used for filling the columns where mass-transfer and heat-transfer processes are carried out.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: forming of elements for dumped packing used for filling columns for mass- and heat-exchange processes.
SUBSTANCE: axis of symmetry of proposed element lies in way of its length. Ratio of largest size perpendicular to length and defining diameter (D) of element to length (L) ranges from 2.7 to 4.5. Element has polygonal cross section with six sides and many internal partitions forming passages at triangular cross section.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining optimal working parameters.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the heads for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses with the fluidized three-phase layer and may be used in chemical industry and other industries at purification of the gas bursts of the harmful gaseous components. The head for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses is made in the form of the torus produced out of the cylindrical component made out of the synthetic filaments by its twisting from one or two ends. The cylinder is made out of the longitudinal filaments fasten among themselves in the staggered order with formation of the longitudinal cells. At that the diameter of the head exceeds its height in 1.25-1.33 times, and the ratio of the cell height to the diameter of the head makes 0.25-0.3. At utilization of the head the gas-liquid layer is uniformly distributed in the operation volume of the apparatus, that predetermines the stable hydrodynamic situation. At that the mass exchanging process is intensified due to the highly developed surface and the strong turbulization of the gas-liquid layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the gas-liquid layer uniform distribution in the operation volume of the apparatus, the stable hydrodynamic situation, intensification of the mass-exchange process.
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of fill0in heads for mass transfer apparatuses and it car be used in heat-mass transfer processes in liquid-vapor(gas) systems, for instance at rectification, absorption, desorption, distillation a dn other processes. Proposed head member for mass transfer apparatuses has cut elements curved to circle of side surface. According to invention, head member is made in form of parallel cylinders formed by cut elements arranged in rod height, curved to circle in turn, inside and outside. Cylinders are connected by bridges and are arranged relative to each other so that their diametral planes from side surface of regular polygonal prism.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-mass transfer by increasing surface of phase contact owing to reduction of drop formation and uniform distribution of phase surface in volume of heat-mass transfer apparatus.
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing gas with a portion of the circulating gas-liquid mixture, bringing the mixture produced in a contact with the finally dispersed drops in the first stage and with liquid condensed on the nozzle members in the second stage, pumping the main portion of the gas-liquid mixture through the pipes to the top layer of the liquid, and entraining the remainder portion by means of vortex funnels toward the bottom liquid layer in the third stage. A portion of the mixture is directed to the recirculation, and the remainder portion is forced to contact with the drops of circulating liquid in the fourth stage. The final contact is produced in series in the nozzle chamber of the fifth stage, aeration towers, and bubbling chambers of the sixth stage. The sprinkling chamber of the first stage receives acoustic ultrasonic disperser provided with longitudinal ultrasonic wave ducts. The sprinkling chamber of the fourth stage receives the deflecting shields with a diameter of 30-80 mm made of interconnected cylinders of different diameters. The cylinders have longitudinal cuts from the bottom cylinder to the top cylinder and additional cuts in the cylinders. The members for charging the nozzle chambers in the second and fifth stages are made of balls with a diameter of 20-70 mm provided with six-nine hollows in the spherical surface whose axes intersect at the ball center. The thickness of the walls between the hollows decreases toward the ball center.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil-refining industry; oil-processing industry; gas-processing industry; metallurgical industry; by-product-coking industry; environmental protection; production and operation of the packed mass-exchange apparatuses for the "gas-liquid" systems.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the packed mass-exchange apparatuses for the "gas-liquid" systems and may find application in chemical, petrochemical, oil-and gas-processing industries, metallurgical industry and the by-product-coking industry, and also in the industrial ecology at purification of the flue gases and the ventilation emissions. The packed column contains the cylindrical body and the head made in the form of the multi-row located in it rings, the lateral surface of the rings of the head is bent along the circumference with R=0.08-0.1 m. The rings are vertically installed with the shift in the rows of the convex side towards the axis of the body of the packed column in such a manner, that the upper protruding edge of each ring of the lower row number is located inside the ring of the upper row. The technical result of the invention is the increased degree of the purification of the gases at the expense of intensification of the process of the mass-exchange between the gas and the liquid.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased degree of the purification of gases at the expense of intensification of the mass-exchange process between the gas and the liquid.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to novel catalyst fillings containing physical mixture of catalytically active and catalytically inactive molded particles wherein catalytically inactive molded particles have rounded edges on their friction surfaces.
EFFECT: reduced mechanical wear inside catalytic filling and preserved low pressure drop over the filling.
FIELD: engines and pumps; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor system comprises reactor tube, which contains compressed layer of molded carrier material, which may include catalytic component. Molded carrier material, for instance, aluminium oxide, has geometric configuration of hollow cylinder. Catalyst contains silver. Hollow cylinder has ratio of rated length to rated external diameter from 0.5 to 2, and ratio of rated external diameter to rated internal diameter, which exceeds 2.7. Reactor system also has such combinations of reactor tube diameter and geometric parameters of molded catalyst carrier, which make it possible to produce compressed layer of catalyst in reaction system with high density of package with minimum pressure drop via compressed layer of catalyst.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
21 cl, 7 dwg, 3 tbl, 7 ex