Hydroelectric

 

The invention is intended for the generation of electric energy through hydroelectric dams. The latter contains the dam and station node (Y), is made symmetrical with respect to oriented downstream longitudinal axis. (U) has the recipient with security elements, bilateral pressure turbine and exhaust conduits (In), power station building with centrally symmetric about the vertical axis aggregate blocks with two-way input and output cross-sections (C). Between (C) are centrally symmetric flow paths aggregate blocks. At the location of the pressure and discharge (Q) and the building of hydroelectric power station at the dam water intake (At) is located at the dam. Pressure (C) made in the form of hermetically isolated from the downstream of galleries and outlet (In) is open in the lower reach of the channel. At the location (Y) prior to dam its recipient is connected to the pressure (In), which is connected to the input (C) aggregate blocks. Thus the output (S) connected to the outlet (In), made in the form of hermetically sealed from the top of the water galleries. The dam is open in the lower reach of the drain bypass arches made symmetrically from the.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to the field of hydroelectricity and hydrocarboncontaining and is intended for use in hydroelectric plants with a vertical reaction turbines.

Famous dam hydroelectric power plant (see "Hydroelectric power station", a Textbook for universities N.N. Arsenovski, M. F. Gubin, V. I. Karelin and others, Ed. by C. I. Karelin, D. I. Krivchenko. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987. C. 16-19.) one-way supply of a liquid, such as water, under pressure H and also with one-way diversion from the station building site of hydropower.

The disadvantages of these hydropower plants are unbalanced lateral force loads on the Foundation part and the bearings of the rotor unit, a high level of nevybavenost and unsteady fluid flow.

The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a hydroelectric power station with stream flow building, described in the book "Hydroelectric power station", a Textbook for universities N.N. Arsenovski, M. F. Gubin, V. I. Karelin and others, Ed. by C. I. Karelin, D. I. Krivchenko. - M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987. S. 29-33, 109-111 and contains established across the river dam and station site, vieta river and drainage of working fluid, for example, water, lower water, sinks with security features, one-sided pressure turbine and outlet conduits connected in the power station building on the input and output sections located therein aggregate blocks with turbine chambers, rotors generating units that include installed on the same shaft as the turbine and generators, and suction pipes.

However, in a hydroelectric power supply working fluid to the station building and its drainage into the lower reach is solely on the input and output sites established across the direction of flow downstream flow. In addition, there is no Central symmetry of the flow in the aggregate the blocks relative to the vertical axes of the rotors of the units. Under these conditions, the organization and the subsequent conversion expenditure-circulating currents in aggregate blocks required for the implementation of the operating cycle of the vertical reaction turbines, lead to an unbalanced force effects of hydrodynamic origin on the elements of flow paths and water power equipment hydroelectric power plants, as well as to raise them to the uneven distribution of velocities and calendarization stress state in the most loaded node design, consequently, the reliability and durability of aggregate blocks. Furthermore, the reduced throughput, increased hydraulic losses, leading to a decrease in efficiency of the turbines, and the intensity of erosive wear streamlined surfaces with a corresponding decrease in the turnaround time of operation of hydroelectric power.

The technical object of the present invention is to increase electricity generation and durability of the operation of hydroelectric dams.

This task is achieved by the fact that there are hydroelectric containing the dam, station node with the recipient with security elements, turbine pressure and outlet conduits with security elements, the building of hydroelectric power station located therein aggregate blocks comprising input and output sections, turbine discharge and the discharge conduits of the station site implemented bilaterally symmetrically positioned along its longitudinal axis of symmetry, and is connected in the power station building on the input and output sections, performed bilaterally, Central symmetrical about their vertical axes aggregate blocks along the longitudinal OS the inside of the dam, and turbine pressure and exhaust conduits and powerhouse installed behind the dam, while the discharge conduits made in the form of open channels.

Station site can be located behind the dam, its recipient with protection elements connected to the turbine discharge conduits, which are connected to the input sections of the aggregate units, and their output sections connected to the turbine outlet conduits, made in the form of a sealed drain galleries, while the dam is equipped with overflow drain arches, arranged symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the station site.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a longitudinal section along a-a hydroelectric power station with the location of the building of the hydroelectric power station at the dam; Fig.2 shows a plan of this plant in the cross section C-C of Fig.3 presents a cross-section on In-station node hydroelectric power plants; Fig.4 shows a longitudinal section along a-a hydroelectric power station with the location of the station site before dam; Fig.5 shows a plan of the hydroelectric power plant of Fig.6 shows a section along the In-station node; Fig.7 shows a view along arrow on the dam with storonoy with hydromechanical devices turbines and hydroelectrostation.

Hydroelectric has a dam 1, station node 2, is made symmetrical with respect to oriented downstream longitudinal axis O-O and mounted on the plate 3 inception of hydroelectric power. Station site 2 includes a water intake 4 with security elements with trash grates 5 and the valves 6, bilateral pressure turbine 7 and outlet (drain) 8 conduits, anchor-line (oriented along the flow) gobies 9, building 10 hydroelectric power plants with a centrally symmetric about the vertical axis O1-O1aggregate blocks 11 having bilateral input 12 and the output 13 of the sites. Reference-stream gobies 9 installed in the turbine discharge conduits 7, the drain conduits 8 and in the area of the output sections 13. Between bilateral input 12 and the output 13 of the sites are centrally symmetric flow paths 14 aggregate blocks 11. Before dam of 1 formed in the upstream face 15, and it is the lower reach 16.

At the location of pressure turbine 7 and outlet drain conduits 8 and building 10 for hydroelectric dam 1 water intake station 4 site 2 with security elements 5 and 6 is located in the dam 1. Turbine discharge conduits 7 are made in germ form the Eph 16 channels.

When the location of the station node 2 before dam 1 its recipient 4 with security elements 5 and 6 is connected to the turbine discharge conduits 7, which is connected to the input sections 12 aggregate blocks 11. Output sections 13 aggregate blocks 11 are connected with the turbine outlet conduits 8, made in the form of hermetically sealed from the top of the tail water of 15 galleries. Dam of 1 is open in the lower reach 16 drain bypass arch 17, performed symmetrically with respect to the axis O-O.

Each modular unit 11 provides a flow path 14 having a turbine chamber 18, the chamber 19, the suction pipe 20 and hydro-mechanical device, which includes a stator 21, a guiding apparatus 22, the shaft 23 is rigidly mounted thereon a flange 24 of the impeller 25 of the turbine. On the shaft 23 in the upper part of the rigid flange connection 26 is fixed to the rotor 27 hidroelectrostroy.

Hydroelectric power plant operates as follows.

Dam of 1 creates a static pressure H of the working fluid, for example water, upstream of 15, which is supplied to the water intake station 4 node 2 through trash lattice 5 at the open gates 6. Of the receiving water body 4, the working fluid enters the turbine at the STN with the plate 3 the necessary structural strength penstocks 7 and 8, and directed into the input sections 12 aggregate blocks 11 building 1 hydroelectric power. In these aggregate units 11 streamline flow paths 14 and the working bodies of the hydro-mechanical devices, namely the turbine chamber 18, the stator 21, the guide vane 22, the impeller 25 and the chamber 19, the suction pipe 20, to overcome the load torque on gidroelectostantsia. While the impeller 25, shaft 23, the flange 24, 26 and the rotor 27 hidroelectrostroy are rotated with angular velocityand converts the mechanical energy of the working fluid into electrical energy. Then the working fluid through symmetrically located relative to the axis O-O output sections 13 and turbine discharge conduits 8 is made in the lower reach 16. Because the station site 2 is located along the river and has a longitudinal symmetry accommodation in the building 10 hydroelectric aggregate blocks 11 with two-way inlet and outlet of the working fluid through pressure turbine 7 and the outlet of the drain 8 of the conduits, the flow is divided into two generally equal parts. Therefore, for each aggregate unit 11 is supplied to the left and right in the middle half of the flow rate of the working fluid. Ka is symmetric turbine chamber 18, twists with the education necessary to implement workflow turbines expenditure-circulating flow before the axisymmetric part of the duct 14. For impeller 25, the working fluid enters the suction pipe 20 with a centrally symmetric bilateral discharge through the weekend, made diametrically opposed alignments 13 in the outlet drain conduits 8, are located symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal symmetry axis O-O of the station node 2. Thus, at the output of the axisymmetric part of the suction pipe 20, i.e. axisymmetric part of the duct 14, the flow in each aggregate unit 11 is divided into two parts.

Therefore, in the turbine conduits 7 and 8 because of their axial symmetry in all points located in a horizontal plane symmetrically to the longitudinal axis O-O of the station node 2, speed (modules) and the pressure is on average equal to each other and transverse to the axis O-O components of the velocities have opposite directions. Accordingly, in flow paths 14 aggregate blocks 11, due to their Central symmetry about their vertical axes O1-O1aggregate blocks 11, each pair being diametrically protivopar>

Symmetry flow in hydro power plants relative to the longitudinal axis O-O of the station node 2 and their Central symmetry about the vertical axis O1-O1aggregate blocks 11 allows you to balance the transverse thereto dynamic loads on the elements of flow paths and water power equipment from the forces of pressure and change the amount of movement of the working fluid.

At the location of the turbine pressure water conduits 7, the turbine outlet conduits 8 and building 10 for hydroelectric dam 1 building 10 of the plant in its upper part does not perceive the water pressure from the side of the upstream 15 and simplifies the removal of the working fluid in the lower reach 16 carried out in open channels - turbine downstream conduits 8.

When placing a station node 2 before the dam 1 is simplified supply pressurized working fluid to the aggregate blocks 11, in which it comes directly from the water 15 through the inlet sections 12 with installed security features in the form of trash grates 5 and gate 6. When the sections 12 also combine the functions of water intake 4 and the turbine pressure water conduits 7. The fluid withdrawal of aggregate blocks 11 through the weekend FA 15. Then through the drain bypass arch 17 working fluid flows in the lower reach 16. Reference-stream gobies installed in galleries 12, which, as the building 10 hydroelectric power plants are under static pressure H.

The Central principle of symmetry aggregate blocks 11 with bilateral supply to them through the sections 12 and discharge through the sections 13 of the working fluid from the separation of the flow into two equal parts allows to:

- to provide a virtually uniform in the circumferential direction distribution of radial and tangential velocities at the entrance to the axisymmetric part of the duct 14 aggregate blocks 11 with saving even for high-speed (low-pressure) vertical axial turbines constancy values of the angular momentum of the working fluid at the corners of the scope of the stator 21 of the circulation flow equal to 330360;

- at the exit of the axisymmetric part of the suction pipe 20 to reduce and to provide a smooth deformation of the flow, changing the direction of flow in this pipe 20 from vertical to horizontal, thereby to reduce the uneven distribution of the kinetic energy of the exhaust from the duct 14 flows along the transverse Secunia while supplying the working fluid from the conduit 7 to the sections 12 and diversion of sections 13 in the conduits 8 to change the direction of the currents with respect to the axis O-O of the station node 2 from longitudinal to transverse, conversely, insignificant due to the low speeds (~1 m/s) in these areas of flow paths.

The use of the invention increases the production of electricity and durability high-performance operation of hydroelectric dams.

Claims

1. Hydroelectric containing the dam, station node with the recipient with security elements, turbine pressure and outlet conduits, building hydroelectric power plants located therein aggregate blocks comprising input and output sections, wherein the turbine discharge and the discharge conduits of the station site implemented bilaterally symmetrically positioned along its longitudinal axis of symmetry and connected in the power station building on the input and output sections, performed bilaterally, Central symmetrical about their vertical axes aggregate blocks along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the station site.

2. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that the receiving water station node with security elements located inside the dam and the turbine discharge and the discharge conduits and building hydroelectrolytic under item 1, characterized in that the station site is located in front of the dam, its recipient with protection elements connected to the turbine discharge conduits, which are connected to the input alignments aggregate blocks, their output sections connected to the turbine outlet conduits, made in the form of a sealed drain galleries, while the dam is equipped with overflow drain arches, arranged symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the station site.

 

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FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.

SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.

EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.

14 cl, 9 dwg

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