Guidance method floating bridge in the freezing
The invention relates to bridge engineering, in particular to methods aiming floating bridges in the winter when there is ice cover. Guidance method floating bridge when freeze-up includes markup axis of the bridge, the breakdown of the ice cover on the ice maps and their cutting, Assembly, ferries, consisting of at least two pontoons and the relevant sections of the superstructure, the butt-joined to each other and transverse pinning their relatively ice cover. What is new is thatevery ice map cut on the axis of the bridge with the dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of each of the pontoons or ice under the nose of the pontoon and the Assembly ferries performed by setting each of the pontoon to the appropriate ice map and the subsequent erection of decks installed on pontoons. The technical result of the invention is to reduce the complexity of the bridge due to the Assembly of the ferry along the axis of the bridge with the installation of pontoons directly on pre-cut in ice cover ice card with the subsequent installation of the pontoon sections spans and the ability to implement it from the original shore when the ice thickness, which does not allow proizvodi the bridge, in particular to methods aiming floating bridges (NM) in the winter when there is ice cover.There is a method aiming NM in winter, including unloading pontoon links on the ice, opening them at the place of the bridge, the movement of each link on the ice or snow to the installation site, the sequential splicing of the links along the length of the bridge (1).The disadvantage of this method guidance NM in winter is the need of the presence of ice cover in the proper thickness, excluding its prolamine.The closest technical solution is known a method of guidance NM in winter, including markup axis of the bridge, the breakdown of the ice cover on the ice maps and cuts, education lane corresponding width along the entire length induced bridge with ice cleaning card under the ice cover, the sequential Assembly of ferries, consisting at least of two pontoons with a pre-mounted on them of the relevant sections of the superstructure, main afloat in the original shore, moving each of the collected ferry to the opposite shore, serial installed in-line bridge their subsequent coupling to each other and transverse fixation (2).The disadvantage of IDate lane around the bridge and to maintain it ice-free during the operation of the bridge through various means, for example, by means of pneumatic conveying systems and self-propelled vessels.The technical result of the proposed method guidance NM when the freeze-up is to reduce the complexity of the bridge due to the Assembly of the ferry along the axis of the bridge with the installation of pontoons directly on pre-cut in ice cover ice card with the subsequent installation of the pontoon sections spans and the ability to make it from the original shore (“head”) when the thickness of the ice, not enabling work from the surface of the ice cover.The technical result is achieved in that in the method of pointing floating bridge during freeze-up, including markup axis of the bridge, the breakdown of the ice cover on the ice maps and their cutting, Assembly, ferries, consisting of at least two pontoons and the relevant sections of the superstructure, the butt-joined to each other and transverse pinning their relatively ice cover, according to the invention each ice map cut on the axis of the bridge with the dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of each of the pontoons or ice under the nose of the pontoon and the Assembly ferries performed by setting each of the pontoon on the corresponding the tsya drawings, wherein Fig.1 shows a diagram of splitting and cutting ice cards on the ice field, intended to bridge the gap;in Fig.2 - option schemes of splitting and cutting ice cards;in Fig.3-4 - technological scheme of the Assembly of the ferry.Method guidance NM in winter, when ice is as follows. An example of pointing floating railway bridge (NGM) when freeze-up.Pre-plan the ice field to bridge the gap, clean it snow by snow removal equipment such as a bulldozer to plow the snow.Then on the ice field 1 determine the position of the longitudinal axis 2 of the bridge, which is celebrated by, for example, a metal peg (not shown) hammered into him, arranged symmetrically about her and at a certain distance from each other. Then, in accordance with the design scheme induced bridge on the ice field 1 produce a breakdown of the relevant lines that represent the boundaries of the ice maps 3 and cross cut 4 and 5 longitudinal slits in the layer of ice on its whole thickness, for example, by means of chainsaws, each of chopped ice maps 3 is a horizontal potency schema cutting ice maps 3, so, for example, to exclude intensive freezing ice on sharoobraznye the bevel of each of the pontoons above the waterline under the nose of the pontoon is cut into a certain length corresponding lane 6 with pure water (Fig.2).For each received ice map 3 set one pontoon 7, for example, by means of a cantilever valve 8 (Fig.3). Then on the pontoons 7 mount section of the superstructure 9 (Fig.4). The collected vapor 10 leave on the axis 2 of the bridge is in the design position. Jib crane 8 return to the Assembly area for the pontoon 7 of the next 10 ferry, and then produce the ferry dock 10 with the gathered part of the bridge.After this sequence of Assembly processes is repeated on the next ferry. Then produce transverse pinning ferry relatively ice cover with pre-installed respectively in the ice field 1 ice anchors (not shown).The use of the proposed method guidance NM in winter when freeze-up provides in comparison with known methods, the ability to reduce labor costs, reduce the intensity of work about 3-4 times, eliminating the need to use self-propelled craft that due the hundred, because it is produced not by the edges of the ice-field, and in General for him.Guidance method NIM when the freeze-up is tested in the ice on the river Volga.Sources of information1. RU # 710277, 184.108.40.206. Floating railway bridge (NGM-56). Technical description and instructions for installation, transportation, storage and operation, Moscow, Military publishing house, 1977, 181-182 C. (prototype).
ClaimsGuidance method floating bridge during freeze-up, including markup axis of the bridge, the breakdown of the ice cover on the ice maps and their cutting, Assembly, ferries, consisting of at least two pontoons and the relevant sections of the superstructure, the butt-joined to each other and transverse pinning their relatively ice cover, characterized in that each ice map cut on the axis of the bridge with the dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of each of the pontoons or ice under the nose of the pontoon, and the Assembly ferries performed by setting each of the pontoon to the appropriate ice map and the subsequent erection of decks installed on pontoons.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: ice crossing construction method refers to ice-technology industry, and can be used when designing ice crossing meant for load transportation. Snow shall be removed from ice surface, and the latter shall be covered with air-tight film. Space between ice surface and film is ventilated with fan cold ambient air. Cold air flow intensifies heat exchange on ice surface and provides its fast cooling, and thickness increase.
EFFECT: fast putting into operation of ice crossing.
FIELD: construction, road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of bridge engineering and is intended for erection of pontoon bridges over water obstacles on a tight schedule and with the least material and labour expenses. It is achieved by the fact that pontoon bridge comprises pontoons open at the bottom, on which bridge supports are mounted to carry spans and road way, and spacers that connect peripheral parts of pontoon to fixed anchors on soil, and every pontoon is arranged in the form of packet of vertically oriented adjacent tanks that are inverted upwards with their bottoms and are connected to system of air supply and its pressure control in every of them, at that spacers are located on the opposite sides of pontoon to form triangular figures with every of them, which are oriented in crossing planes, and have dampers and/or control mechanisms, preferably with remote control, their stretching in process of bridge erection and/or its operation. At that vertically oriented tanks form rows of cells in section with horizontal plane, which are evenly located on at least part of section area.
EFFECT: higher reliability of pontoon bridge operation at different dynamic effect at it, also from wave and wind loads due to provision of stability in pontoons that carry spans and provision of their controlled submersion at specified depth.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ice ferry consists in cleaning ice surface of snow, placing a layer of heat-isolation material through the cut, along the ice ferry routed, and pressing aforesaid layer to the ice layer lower surface. A continuous layer of ice floats is placed between the ice surface lower surface and the said heat-isolation material.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of ice ferry.