Drip irrigation system
The invention relates to agricultural irrigation, in particular to drip irrigation, and can be used for irrigation of vegetable crops, fruits and vineyards, dwarf and shrub planting fruit of destination, in greenhouses, nurseries, flower farms and other places use. Drip irrigation system includes a water source, pool-lagoon, pumping station, filters and irrigation network with droppers. In drip irrigation system drip with a wide range of application rates of irrigation water are hydraulically connected in groups of nine drippers in each. Needles in groups connected by a single switch. In each group formed six sub-groups according to four droppers each. Each group of droppers is equal to the total flow of water. The drip irrigation system provides a high degree of reliability droppers, the quality of irrigation and increasing the yield of cultivated vegetable crops. 2 Il., 1 PL.The invention relates to agricultural irrigation, in particular to drip irrigation, and can be used for irrigation of vegetable crops, fruits, Vinogradovsky farms and other places of use.Known drip irrigation system including a water source, supply chain, distribution network and moisturizers with injectors in which to improve aeration in irrigated areas and provide control over the flow of water into the soil at the entrance to each injector installed hydraulic resistance, and under it in the wall of the injector made eye; to ensure an even distribution of water in irrigated areas during the change of pressure along the length of the humidifier the injectors are connected to the humidifier through the tubular inserts of different lengths; hydraulic resistance made in the form of float valve water level (SU inventor's certificate No. 545305, M CL2A 01 G 25/02. Drip irrigation system /B. I., Sigelman and N. And. Kuzyakin (USSR). - Application No. 2198288/15; claimed 10.12.1975; publ. 05.02.1977, bull. No. 5 //Open. The invention. - 1977. - №5).Despite the fact that the injectors are provided with inserts (12) of different lengths (see Fig.2) and holes (10) for air supply with irrigation water to the roots of cultivated plants, supplied air is not sufficient for normal growth of plants.The closest technical solution according to their nature and amount of common things is assein-sump, pumping station and irrigation network with droppers in which to reduce operating costs, the system is equipped with a linearly extended tubular filters, placed in the ground along the banks of the water source and recessed below the groundwater table, with tubular filters communicated with pool-sump, which is made closed (SU inventor's certificate No. 1551285 A1, M CL5A 01 G 25/02. Drip irrigation system /N. A. The tow, Century A. Shevchenko, and M. I. Romashchenko (USSR). - Application No. 4443850/30-15; claimed 06.05.1988; publ. 23.03.1990, bull. No. 11 // Opening. Of the invention. - 1990. No. 11). This drip irrigation system we have adopted as naiblizhajshee equivalent.The disadvantages of this system are, despite the high quality of water treatment, the depression of plants, particularly tomatoes, due to the lack of air in the root zone soil layer.The essence of the claimed invention.Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, increase reliability and reduce operating costs.The technical result improved quality of irrigation and yield of crops.This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known drip oromi, according to the invention dropper with a wide range of application rates of irrigation water are hydraulically connected in groups of nine drippers in each, connected by a single switch, with each formed of six subgroups on four needles in each is equal to the total water flow.The invention is illustrated by drawings.In Fig.1 schematically depicts a drip irrigation system.In Fig.2 - place a in Fig.1, the position of the group of nine droppers with a wide range of norms of irrigation water on irrigated land occupied vegetable crops (tomatoes).Information confirming the possibility of implementing the claimed invention are as follows.Drip irrigation system (see Fig.1) includes a water source 1, pool-sedimentation tank 2, a pump station 3, a filter 4, irrigation canals with pipelines 5, distribution pipelines 6, locking device 7, irrigation pipes 8, 9 dropper or microdigital. Dropper 9 (microdigital) installed on the irrigation pipeline 8.Dropper 9 with a wide range of application rates of irrigation water q1-q9hydraulically connected in groups (see Fig.2) nine drippers 9 in each of them. Nine the PP on four needles in each is equal to the total water flow: q1+q3+q9+q7; q6+q8+q4+q2; q6+q1+q8+q5; q8+q3+q4+q5; q4+q9+q2+q5; q2+q7+q6+q5. They saved is equal to the irrigation norm.Drip irrigation system works as follows.Water from source 1 by filtering through the soil comes in water-saturated clay layer, and into the pool-sedimentation tank 2. Clarification of irrigation water is carried out by filtering through the soil from a water source 1 to the pool tank 2. Pump station 3 takes the clarified water from the pool tank 2 and delivers it to the filters 4. From a group of filters 4 purified from sediment water flows into the pipeline 5 and through a shut-off device 7 into the distribution pipes 6. Irrigation pipelines 8 together with drippers 9 laid along the rows previously planted tomatoes, planted seedlings in a width of 0.6...0.7 m and a spacing of not less than 1.4 m for the passage of mechanized harvesting-transport units during the inter-row treatments and mass harvest.Let's consider several examples of drip irrigation of tomatoes with consumption norms Capel the areas from q1=1 l/h to q9=9 l/h; with intervals of 0.5 l/h in the range of norms of water consumption from 0.5 to 4.5 l/h and other ranges.It was established experimentally that under drip irrigation of agricultural crops the greatest effect on irrigation water is achieved when adjacent dropper issue 9 different irrigation norm, and between the borders closing of water in the rooting zone has a layer of air from the dry or mahovljani (HB<60%) of the soil. This is achieved saturation sucking and skeletal roots of tomato atmospheric air. For available moisture and air in the soil layer provides intensive growth of the vegetative mass of tomatoes, flowering and maximum loading of the crop during the period of fruiting and ripening.When the supply of irrigation water in the subgroup of droppers 9 index q7-q1-q3-q9with the cost of irrigation water, respectively 0,7; 0,1; 0,3; 0,9 l/h total flow of water is 2.0 l/hWhen putting these drippers 9 according to the scheme in Fig.2 along the length of the irrigation strip, occupied tomatoes will be alternating from moist areas with irrigation norms 0.4 l/h and 1.7 l/hWhen the subgroup of drippers 9 index of rate of q6-q8-q4-q2, sub>4=1,0 l/h).When switching subgroup IV index q6-q1-q8-q5the total water consumption will also be 2.0 l/h, but on the edge of the strip is poured less water (0.1 l/h).During planting vegetable seedlings are all droppers 9. Total consumption of irrigation water (qi) is 4.5 l/h For this switch droppers 9 out of water “in group” is switched to the position “total submission”.On light soils with good filtration (permeable) capacity total flow droppers 9 can be increased up to 45 l/h, while the scheme for the placement must be saved (Fig.2). With an equal amount of water for the irrigation pipeline 8 and issued to groups IV 9 not plugging cavities last light impurities in irrigation water.Describes the distribution pattern of artificial precipitation is preserved when any water flow (see table) declared in drip irrigation system.
ClaimsDrip irrigation system including a water source, pool-lagoon, pumping station, filters and irrigation network with Capel is Ana in groups of nine drippers in each, connected by a single switch, with each group formed six subgroups on four needles in each is equal to the total water consumption.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: irrigation amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has water outlet, porous casing with stopper at lower end and replaceable porous member positioned in casing and in stopper. Replaceable porous member is made in the form of parts of cylinder joined to one another with their diametrical surfaces. Channels are formed on cylindrical surface of each cylindrical part. Upon joining of cylindrical parts along cylinder, channels define vertical channels. Cylinder may have one, two or three detachment surfaces. Helical channels are formed on cylindrical parts of replaceable porous member. Helical channel pitches in parts of cylinder to be joined are not multiple one another. Water outlet is equipped with float valve arranged inside water outlet above pressure suppressing chamber. Stopper at lower end of porous casing is equipped with accumulating chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency owing to selective dispensing of water to plant roots.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: irrigated agriculture, in particular, equipment used for watering of perennial plants.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing and cover with inlet and outlet branch pipes, respectively, throttle and elastic balancing member with openings. Throttle is made in the form of hollow biconcave lens and positioned in casing cavity above elastic balancing member. Spherical segment-shaped slot is formed in cover body below inlet branch pipe. Radius of spherical part of said slot is equal to radius of throttle lens spherical part. Similar slot is formed in bottom part of casing above inlet branch pipe. Radius of said slot is greater than radius of spherical part of throttle biconcave lens part by value equal to thickness of balancing member. Channels are formed on casing bottom part surface and on slot surface to define spiral branches. Holes are made on peripheral part of elastic balancing member.
EFFECT: simplified construction and improved watering quality.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has casing equipped with inlet and outlet openings, main float-type regulating members and additional regulating member, said members being located inside casing. Main float-type regulating member is made as biconcave lens formed in spherical layer of waterproof material having density below 1 t/m3. Additional regulating member is made in the form of elastic membrane with central opening. Protrusions made as parts of spherical segments are disposed in casing cavity below inlet opening and above outlet opening. Radius of upper protrusion spherical part is equal to radius of spherical part of biconcave lens. Radius of lower protrusion spherical part is less than radius of spherical part of biconcave lens by value equal to thickness of elastic membrane. Radial channels are formed in apex part of lower protrusion. Apparatus provides for normal operation in the process of drop irrigation with water without preliminary cleaning thereof.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, uniform and high-quality irrigation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has casing with inlet and outlet branch pipes. Float and locking member are located in casing. Hollow float is made in the form of biconvex lens. Slot is made in casing cavity of inlet branch pipe. Slot is formed as spherical segment with radius of sphere equal to or smaller than radius of sphere of float biconvex lens. Spherical segment shaped slot is formed in casing cavity of outlet branch pipe. Radius of sphere of said slot exceeds that of float biconvex lens. Locking member is defined by elastic membrane located in casing between float and outlet branch pipe. Inlet branch pipe and slot joined with membrane surface are equipped with radial channels. Dropper of such construction operates in any spatial position and does not require strict vertical positioning.
EFFECT: simplified construction and uniform and high-quality irrigation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural amelioration, in particular, drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dozer-dropper has plastoelastic valve provided in irrigation pipeline. Plastoelastic valve adapted for supplying of water into injector has detachable casing with water supply channel formed as helical groove with conical openings at its surface, said openings being adapted for connecting helical channel with casing outer surface. Diameter of conical opening joined with said channel is smaller than that at casing outer surface.
EFFECT: increased yield of farm crops and reduced irrigation norms.
FIELD: agricultural amelioration, in particular, subsurface irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: injector has detachable casing with water feeding channel. Casing cavity is equipped with helical groove having conical openings on casing surface. Openings are hydraulically communicated with helical groove. Diameter of each of said openings joined with helical groove is smaller than that of outer surface of casing.
EFFECT: improved uniformity in distributing of precipitation in root layer of soil during the entire irrigation season.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular drop irrigation equipment.
SUBSTANCE: dropper has cover, casing, regulating member, and water outlet. Cover with feeding connection line is mounted on irrigation pipeline. Water outlet with discharge pipeline is mounted in lower part of casing. Cover with feeding connection pipe and water outlet with discharge pipe are equipped with flares arranged in opposite relation with respect to one another. Regulating member has flexible elastic membranes equipped with dosing orifices and float positioned for loose displacement between flexible membranes. Membranes are fixed in casing by means of threaded cover and water outlet.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, utilization in irrigated agriculture for drop irrigation of soil, preferably for tree seedlings.
SUBSTANCE: injector has porous casing with inlet and outlet openings and water outlet. Float-type regulating member arranged in water outlet is equipped with water locking valve arranged in its upper part. Air discharge valves are provided in upper part of water outlet above float-type regulating member. Openings of different depth are formed in porous casing. Said openings are extending in parallel with outlet opening, in ribs of ground engaging devices. Number of ribs of ground engaging devices exceeds two. Ribs have saw-shaped form.
EFFECT: provision for differentiated distribution of precipitation in accordance with amount of sucking roots of wood plantations in soil horizons.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: irrigation equipment, in particular, fine-dispersion or drop sprinkling equipment used in mobile and stationary sprinkler units for producing of sprays with droplet sizes admissible for irrigation of wide range of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: sprinkler unit has hollow cylindrical casing with partition wall, wherein guiding rod is rigidly fixed centrally of partition wall. Conical deflector with curved grooves is fixed on guiding rod for displacement along it. Location of conical deflector in predetermined position on guiding rod is provided by means of adjustment nut which may is fixed by lock nut. In order to form uniform liquid film around perimeter of conical deflector, grooves are provided in such a manner that they do not reach edge by distance equal to width of casing outlet opening ring, when conical deflector is lifted to maximal extent. Fluoroplastic layer is built in friction surface of conical deflector.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in producing of finely dispersed uniform spray, simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.