Linear induction accelerator

 

The invention relates to the field of accelerator technology and can be used to generate electron and ion beams of nanosecond duration with a high pulse frequency. Linear induction accelerator contains ferromagnetic induction system as set ferromagnetic cores covered by the magnetizing coils. To the end of the magnetizing coils attached potential and ground electrodes forming a single line. Earth electrodes forming lines are grounded through the magnetizing coil of the magnetic switch. For charge forming line uses a magnetic pulse generator, which is a sequence of circuits consisting of a capacitor and a saturable reactors. In forming the line introduced an additional electrode electrically connected with the high voltage output of the magnetic pulse generator and by means of a coil magnetization additional inductor saturation with the earth linear induction accelerator. The technical result is to increase the amplitude of the discharge voltage forming lines and reducing the time of her discharge to the load. 2 Il.

what's beams of nanosecond duration with a high frequency pulse repetition

It is known device is a linear induction accelerator containing ferromagnetic induction system as set ferromagnetic cores covered by the magnetizing coils [Bakhrushin Y. R., Anacki A. I. Linear induction accelerators. M: Atomizdat, 1978]. To the magnetizing coils are connected potential and ground electrodes forming lines.

The potential electrodes forming lines from the power source is pulse charging voltage, as a rule, positive polarity, amplitude 30-250 kV depending on the class setting. The second electrode is grounded. After turning on the switch forming lines installed in the gap of any of the electrodes, forming a single line begins to run, forming the current coils of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores of the induction system. This current induces an alternating magnetic flux that creates a vortex electric field that accelerates the electrons. The electric field strength along the axis of the induction system is defined as

where N is the number of cores; U(t) is the voltage applied to the magnetizing coils (discharge voltage forming line); L is the length of the induction si is uttaram inherent limitations on the frequency of operation. In addition, when working gaps observed erosion of the material of the electrodes, which causes to decrease the value of the switched power or to reduce the number of pulses between preventive cleaning of insulators surge arresters.

The closest technical solution to the proposed device is the design of a linear induction accelerator [Vintizenko I. I. Linear induction accelerator.//Patent RU No. 2178244, IPC H 05 H 11/04, N 05 N 9/00]. The main difference from the above described construction is the use of a magnetic switch forming lines. The magnetic switch is in the form of inductor saturation of the core of a ferromagnetic material, covered by a magnetizing coil. This switch is capable of unlimited resource to switching in the nanosecond range of selectable frequency in units of kilohertz current in hundreds of ka. However, if the magnetic switch had a low inductance required to charge forming lines for no more than several hundred nanoseconds from the magnetic pulse generator (MIG).

Such linear induction accelerator contains ferromagnetic induction system as set ferromin the earth electrodes forming a single line. Forming a line of a linear induction accelerator can be made in the form of a single pair or multiple pairs of electrodes, forming a stripe set potential and ground electrodes separated by insulating layers. Forming line to reduce the weight / size performance of the accelerator can be wound in a spiral of Archimedes around the cores of the induction system [Vintizenko I. I., Furman E., Linear induction accelerators Izv. Higher education institutions. Physics, 1998, No. 4. The app, S. 111-119]. In the case of the use of several pairs of electrodes coils of the magnetizing cores induction systems have on each side of the core a few taps. The number of taps on each side of the core coincides with the number of potential electrodes and with the number of earth electrodes. Potential and ground electrodes forming line pairs are electrically connected, forming a parallel connection. The opposite ends of the electrodes forming lines are connected to the magnetic pulse generator. Potential electrodes forming a single line connected to the high voltage output of the magnetic pulse generator. Earth electrodes forming lines through the magnetizing coil of the magnetic switch deedwania magnetic switch has multiple taps to connect all ground electrodes.

Magnetic pulse generator is a sequence of LC-circuits with increasing natural frequency [Meerovich A. A., Batting I. M., Zaitsev, E. F., Candykid C. M. Magnetic pulse generator. //M: Owls. radio, 1968, 476 C.]. The circuit contains a capacitor with lumped parameters and choke saturation. The capacitance of the capacitor circuits With1With2... WithNequal to each other. The next choke saturation Licompared with the previous Li-1has fewer turns of the winding, that is, the smaller the inductance of the winding in a saturated state of the core. When transferring energy from one circuit MIG to another compression energy: increases transmission capacity by reducing the time the charge-discharge processes. It allows you to charge forming line during the hundreds of nanoseconds.

For the operation of linear induction accelerator is necessary before applying the charging of the pulse forming line from the magnetic pulse generator to translate the cores of the induction system and the core of the magnetic switch in the reverse condition of saturation. For this purpose the additional current source [Butakov L. D., Vasiliev centuries, Wintility output power to the load device prototype used forming line with capacity, 1.3-1.8 times less than the capacitance of the capacitor of the last circuit MIG CN. In this case, there is an increase in charging voltage forming lines compared with the charging voltage of the capacitor CN. The discharge forming lines to the load by reducing its capacity within a short time interval. The increase of the charging voltage and the reduction in the duration of the discharge process allows you to increase the power allocated to the load by 20-50%, depending on the ratio between the capacitances of the capacitor of the last circuit MIG and capacity of the forming line. Manufactured in accordance with the scheme of linear induction accelerators experimentally demonstrated the increase of output parameters [Butakov L. D., Vasiliev centuries, Vintizenko I. I., Furman E., Linear induction accelerators magnetic elements PTE, 2001, No. 5, S. 104-110].

The disadvantage of the device prototype is reducing the efficiency of energy transfer from the formative MOMENT in line with the increase in the ratio between the capacitances of the capacitor of the last circuit MIG and forming lines. If you increase the specified ratio increases the magnitude of the residual voltage on the capacitor of the last circuit MIG. In addition, increasing values of the tion isolation.

If you enter the coefficient of energy transferwhich is defined as the ratio of the energy stored inNby the time of saturation of the inductor LN(choke saturation of the last circuit MIG), the energy stored in forming lines to the point of saturation of the magnetic switch, assuming no losses in the winding of the inductor saturation and condenser for the transmission coefficient can be written

where=CN/CFL=2 - ratio containers. Thus, for the relations of tanks loss of energy during transmission by 11 percent.

The task of the invention is to develop a linear induction accelerator with increased pulse power at the load. The technical result is to increase the amplitude of the discharge voltage forming lines and reducing the time of her discharge to the load, except for the loss in energy transfer from the condenser to form a line. At the same time there is no need for power source intended for demagnetization of ferromagnetic cores of the magnetic switch and the induction system used in the device, as a prototype, ferromagnetic induction system as set ferromagnetic cores covered by the magnetizing coils. To the end of the magnetizing coils are connected the ends of potential and ground electrodes forming a single line. Earth electrodes connected to ground through coil magnetizing the magnetic switch. Magnetic pulse generator designed to charge forming lines and is a sequence of contours with increasing natural frequency, each of which consists of a capacitor with lumped parametersiand saturating choke Li.

By contrast to the known technical solution is the introduction of a single form a line of additional electrodes located between potential and ground electrodes. Additional electrodes are electrically connected with the high voltage output of the magnetic pulse generator and by means of a coil magnetization additional inductor saturation with the earth linear induction accelerator. Thus, forming a single line linear induction accelerator is a stripe set, isolated from other potentially is insert an equivalent electric circuit shown in Fig.2, showing 1 - ferromagnetic induction system 2 - potential electrode forming a single line, 3 - ground electrode forming a single line, 4 - auxiliary electrode forming a single line, 5 - magnetic switch Lka 6 - magnetic pulse generator, 7 - coils of the magnetizing cores of the induction system, 8 - additional inductor saturation LN+1. In Fig.1 shows one set of electrodes forming a single line plenary geometry.

The proposed device comprises a ferromagnetic induction system 1 of the series set ferromagnetic cores. The ferromagnetic core is covered by the magnetizing coil 7. To endings (taps) magnetizing coil 7 is connected to the potential electrodes forming a single line 2. On the opposite side of the core to the endings magnetizing coil connected earth electrodes 3 forming a single line. Additional electrodes 4 forming a single line connected to the high voltage output of the magnetic pulse generator 6, consisting of sequential circuits Withi-Liwhereithe capacitor Ci, Li- choke saturation ind the Oia additional inductor saturation LN+1connected to earth with a linear induction accelerator. The additional core inductor saturation is of a ferromagnetic material. Earth electrode 3 forming a single line is grounded through the coil magnetizing the magnetic switch 5. Magnetic switch 5 is a single-turn choke saturation of the core of a ferromagnetic material.

The device operates as follows. Originally from external sources (figures not shown) is the demagnetization of the cores of the saturable reactors L1-LNmagnetic pulse generator 6, an additional inductor saturation Ln+1(8), the magnetic switch Lk5, the induction system 1. From external rectifier (Fig.1 and 2 is not shown) is the charge of the capacitor C1the first magnetic circuit of the pulse generator 6. When the charge With1on the findings of a saturating choke L1potential difference appears UC1causing the flow of the magnetizing current and the alternating magnetization of the core of the inductor saturation L1. The magnitude of the flux linkage of the throttle saturation L1is1=W1S1In=2.5 T for permalloy 50 NP) and is selected so that the core of the reactor were filled at the end of the charge With the1. When the saturation of its core magnetic permeability decreases from=105to=1 and the throttle saturation becomes normal air inductance. Starts the discharge With1and charge2through the inductance coils of the inductor L1in the time interval

This time interval is limited by the magnitude of the flux linkage of the throttle saturation L2. When the charge of capacitor C2to the coils of the inductor saturation L2starts to kiss the potential difference

whereThe average value of the voltage on the coils of the inductor saturation in the time interval [0,will be

where UC2the amplitude of the charging voltage of the capacitor C2.

This voltage causes an alternating magnetization of the inductor saturation2and his transition into a state with1 for the time intervalwhereIn - scale induction in steel).

When saturation of the inductor L2starts the discharge of the capacitor C2and the charge of capacitor C3through the winding inductance of the inductor saturation L2. The time interval of this process is limited by the magnitude of the flux linkage of the throttle saturation L3, i.e.

where- magnetic flux linkage of the throttle saturation, W3,S3- number of turns and diameter of the steel core inductor saturation L3<U>- the average value of the voltage on the coils of the inductor saturation L3where UC3the amplitude of the charging voltage of the capacitor C3.

Similar to the previous reasoning

where Wk- the number of turns of the magnetizing magnetic switch 5, Sk- section steel core magnetic switch, WithFL- the capacity of the forming line. Usually Wk=1 in order to provide a minimum inductance of a coil magnetizing the magnetic switch in a saturated condition aswhere,

<U>=<U>=... =<U>=<U>=1/2UC2=1/2UC3=... =1/2UCN=1/2UFL.

If aN>WithFL(as in the device-prototype), the charging voltage forming a single line will be

In addition to being a single forming line is charged to a greater voltage, it is discharged to the load in a shorter time, because its capacity is reduced. This allows you to increase the pulse power allocated to load. Moreover, the smaller the capacity of the forming line, the more power given to her load. However, as mentioned above, in accordance with (2), the efficiency of energy transfer is reduced.

The proposed device is free from this drawback. The introduction of additional electrodes 4 to form a line equivalent to the extra capacitor’FL(see Fig.2). One side> and the other side additional electrodes 4 (bottom) together with the earth electrode 3 forms a capacitor SFL. The capacitance of the capacitors are chosen from the condition

When pulse charging voltage forming lines on the high-voltage output MIG starts the charging of the capacitors’FLand CFL. In the charge circuit of the capacitor C’FLbe included magnetizing coil of the magnetic switch and turns the magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The flow of the charging current of capacitor C’FLby magnetizing coils of these elements ezmagnifier their ferromagnetic cores, which allows you to refuse used in the prototype, the additional current sources [Butakov L. D., Vasiliev centuries, Vintizenko I. I., Furman E., Linear induction accelerators magnetic elements.//PTE, 2001, No. 5, S. 104-110]. Since the charging both capacitors occurs simultaneously (capacitors connected in parallel), then condition (9) leads to a complete transfer of energy from the capacitor CNthe last circuit MIG in forming a line.

In the process of the charge forming lines with voltage to condensateremoval. After a certain time interval associated with the magnitude of its magnetic -

where WN+1, SN+1- number of turns and diameter of the steel core additional inductor saturation LN+1, <U> is the average value of the charging voltage of the capacitors’FLand CFLcore additional inductor is saturated, (magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic material will be reduced to one, the additional inductance of the inductor will decrease significantly). After the saturation of LN+1capacitor CFLwill be recharged through the coil magnetization additional inductor saturation 8. At the ends of a coil magnetizing the magnetic switch 5 will have a potential difference causing the flow of magnetizing current. The magnitude of the magnetic core of the magnetic switch is selected from the following conditions:

wheretK- the duration of the Stripping process, LN+1the inductance of a coil magnetization additional inductor saturation. In this case the saturation of the magnetic core switch and move it to the “conducting” SOS the additional inductor LN+1located in a saturated condition. Thus, relative to the magnetizing coils of the induction system capacitorsFLand With’FLare connected in series. The magnitude of the discharge voltage forming lines increases 2 times, and the discharge capacity is reduced in 2 times.

Compare the power allocated to the load for the two cases: the device is a prototype and the proposed device. For calculations we will choose the value of the load resistance in the equivalent circuit, providing aperiodic discharge forming lines. In this case, can be used analytical formulas given in [Kaplyanskii, A. E., Lysenko A. P., Bolotovsky A. C. Theoretical foundations of electrical engineering. M: State energy publishing house, 1961, s.]. On pages 340-341 the above correlation for calculation of time1when the discharge capacity on the series ohmic resistance and inductance when the current in the ohmic load maximum and the magnitude of the current through resistive load IR:

For the device prototype will choose the parameters of the equivalent circuit corresponding to the current linear induction accelerator LIU 04/6: L=Lk=510-9GN - inductance of a coil magnetizing the magnetic switch in a saturated condition; Lload.=510-9GN - load inductance; LFL=10-8RH inductance forming lines, formed by a system of potential and ground electrodes; R=200/N22(N is the number of cores of the induction system). The division of the load resistance on the N2due to the fact that we consider the processes in the primary circuit of a linear induction accelerator.

Select the capacitance of the capacitor of the last circuit MIGN=0,310-6F and calculate the value of IRfor the variant WithFL==0,210-6F. Note that in this case the capacitor MIG and forming lines are misaligned and the transfer of energy is lossy. Charging voltage of the capacitor of the last circuit MIG will choose 50 kV, while charging voltage forming lines will be in accordance with (8) 61,2 kV. Therefore, the value of discharge voltage forming a single line is equal to UC=30,6 kV. E is he amplitude of the current at the load IR1=14,23 kA and the power allocated to the load of 4.05 GW.

For the proposed linear induction accelerator will choose the following parameters of the equivalent circuit of: L=Lk+Le.g.+LFL3010-9GN, where Lk=510-9GN - inductance of a coil magnetizing the magnetic switch; Lload.=510-9GN - load inductance; LFL=210-8RH inductance forming a line formed by the system of the potential-free and ground electrodes, R=200/N22. Take the capacitor of the last circuit MIG equalN=0,310-6F and calculate the values of t1and IRfor forming lines with capacity CFL=0,310-6F. Note that in this case the capacitor MIG and forming lines are equal and the energy transfer is lossless in contrast to the above considered case for the device prototype. The specified value capacitance forming line consists of capacity, Omi electrodes, each 0.1510-6F. charging the capacitors WithFLand With'FLconnected in parallel and charged to each voltage of 50 kV. The magnitude of the flux linkage magnetic switch in accordance with condition (11) is such that it is fully charge (inverting voltage) of the capacitor CFL. When the saturation of the magnetic core switch starts the discharge to the load capacitorsFLand With’FLthat “line up” series, which reduces the equivalent capacitance discharge to=0,07510-6F., and which you must substitute the calculations. The amplitude of the discharge voltage forming lines, formed by two series-connected capacitors WithFLand With’FLis Uc=50 kV.

Calculations by formulas (12) show that the rise time to the maximum is 40 NS and the amplitude of the current at the load: IR2=20,9 AC in power 8,73 GW.

Thus, the power allocated to the load, the proposed linear induction accelerator exceeds 2 times the power developed by the prototype.

Thus, use in forming lines of a linear induction accelerator dapolito magnetization additional inductor saturation with the earth, causes an increase in the capacity to load more than 2 times in comparison with the device prototype. Performing a linear induction accelerator on the proposed scheme eliminates energy losses during energy transfer from MOMENT to form a line. In addition, compared with the device-prototype eliminates the current source for demagnetization of ferromagnetic cores of the induction system and the magnetic switch.

Claims

Linear induction accelerator containing ferromagnetic induction system as set ferromagnetic cores covered by the magnetizing coils, the endings of which is connected potential and ground electrodes forming a single line charge from the magnetic pulse generator, ground electrodes are connected to ground through coil magnetizing the magnetic switch, characterized in that in forming a single line between potential and ground electrodes, an additional electrode electrically connected with the high voltage output of the magnetic pulse generator and by means of a coil magnetization additional inductor saturation with land line ind is

 

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