# The method of estimating the current coordinates of the emitters

The invention relates to the field of passive radar, and can be used to determine the coordinates of the emitting object for the curvature of the wavefront, taking into account the fluctuations of the phase of the signal at each receiving channel of the radio signal. The technical result is in range expansion and disambiguation measurement of distance to a source of radio emission, with an equal number of receiving channels. The method consists of receiving rejected the purpose of each signal element equidistant linear antenna array (AR), strengthening it in each receiving channel, the measurement of its frequency, the formation using phase meter signals proportional to the phase difference of the signals in the Central and each of the receiving channels, the determination of the direction of arrival of a signal, receiving a signal proportional to the difference of difference of phases symmetric with respect to the Central receiving channels, additional amplification of these signals, the summation of the received signals, calculating the distance to the radiation source, as well as perform pairwise removal of the extreme elements of linear equidistant AR and they are about evenly on the longitudinal axis of the AR within the Fresnel zone nevinson who W ill result phasing of the channels, pre-estimating the distance to the radiation source based on the values of the phase of the received signal on the rendered elements, coordinate and resolve ambiguity estimation range based on the stochastic approximation algorithm. 5 Il.The present invention relates to the field of passive radar facilities land, sea, air or space-based. It is designed to determine the coordinates of the emitting object for the curvature of the wavefront, taking into account the fluctuations of the phase of the signal at each receiving channel of the radio signal.Known methods of measurement of coordinates of the active method [1]. The pulse method is based on measuring the time delay of the echo from the target signal relative to the probe. The disadvantage of this method is that it is impossible to measure small distances and require more peak power radiation. Frequency method of measuring the distance based on the measurement of changes in the frequency of the transmitter for the delay time of the echo from the target signal. This method allows the measurement of small target range, and uses a small capacity. However, it requires the use of complex signals is of ebony. The disadvantage of this method is the ambiguity of the measurement range, the lack of resolution.Known passive methods of measurement of coordinates, based on the use of self-radiation of objects [2]. Among them the most widely used triangulation, Bashkortostani, as well as methods based on the measurement of angles of arrival of the direct signal and reflected from the surface and other objects, and analysis of changes in the intensity of received signals with the subsequent calculation of the distance to the emitting objects. The disadvantage of these methods analogous measurement range is that it does not take account of the distortion of radar signals that lead to the deterioration of measurement accuracy.The closest entity to the proposed method is a passive method of measuring the distance to the radiation source" (Hawks Y. C., B. N. Likhachev Application No. 95109676/09 (016808), a positive decision from 15.04.97) [3], namely, that emitted the purpose of the accept signal of each i-th antenna, amplify each i-th receiving channel measure signal frequency, is formed using a phase meter signals, the amplitude of which is proportional to the phase difference (i is 0, 1, 2,... , M/2) signals i-goalie difference of difference of phases symmetric with respect to the Central receiving channels, further exacerbating these signals in the i

^{2}time and summarize them, and the range to the target is determined by the formula:where L is the size of the aperture of the antenna (base), m;C is the speed of light, m/s;f - frequency of the received signal, Hz;

_{s}- the angle between the direction of the radiation source and the axis of the aperture, deg;M+1 is the number of antenna elements;i still 0, ±1, ±2,... , ±M/2 - serial number of the antenna element, and the numbers increase as the module from the Central (zero) to the extreme (-M/2 and M/2), and non symmetric with respect to the Central antenna element, different signs;

_{i}=

_{i}-

_{-i}- the difference of the difference of phases i-x symmetric with respect to the Central receiving channels;

_{i}the phase difference of signals received ±i-m and the Central antenna elements.A device for the implementation of this known method contains (M+1) identical antenna elements (AE), located relative to each other at a distance of half wavelength

_{capacity (i 0) AE connected to the input of the corresponding receiver, the i-th antenna element through the i-th receiver is connected to the input of the i-th phase meter, and the other input of each of the phase meter connected to the output of the Central zero receiver, which is a frequency, the first phase meter and a synchronizer connected respectively to the 1-St, 2-nd, 3-th inputs of the computing unit range, the outputs of the M phase meter connected respectively to the inputs of unit weight summation, the output of which is connected to the 4th input of the computing unit range, and the output of the computing unit of distance is the output measurement range.Method-prototype and delivers the device allows taking into account the fluctuations of the phase at each receiving channel to determine the distance to the radiation source, located in the Fresnel zone. However, firstly, the practical realization of the device corresponding to this, has a rigid structural limitations on the number of channels and the dimensions of the antenna array (AR) in almost any range of wavelengths. Imposed constraints determine the fact that the upper limit of the measurement range ranges device that corresponds to the prototype method, significantly less range of diverse functional navigation and data. Secondly, the method prototype, as all phase methods of determining the distance inherent in the ambiguity of its measurement, due to the possibility of changing the phase of the received signal at the aperture AR more than 2.The purpose of the proposed invention consists in expanding the range and eliminating the ambiguity of the measurement of distance to a source of radio emission, with an equal number of receiving channels in devices that implement the proposed method and the method prototype. The aim is achieved in that in the known method, which consists in receiving the radiated purpose of each signal of M+1 elements equidistant linear AR located relative to each other at a distance of half wavelength0a radiation source, strengthening it in each receiving channel, measuring the frequency f of the received signal, the formation using phase meter signals proportional to the phase difference of the signals in the Central and each of the receiving channels, the direction of signal arrivalS1, obtaining signals proportional to the difference of difference of phasessymmetric about the Central nervous system is s times the summation of the received signals and the calculation formula is the distance to the radiation source, is pairwise offset from each edge of the AR N/2 antenna elements (N is much less than M) and approximately equal to their location on the longitudinal axis of the AR within the Fresnel zone i-x navyazannyh elements (i is 0, 1,... , (M-N)/2), the definition of the range and angular position of the rendered elements, the calculation of the measured coordinates of the anchor points made items to the longitudinal axis AR (determination of their sequence numbers jn), the phasing of the channels made AE, a preliminary assessment of the range r1to the radiation source based on the values of the phase of the received signal to put the elements according to the formulawhere C is the speed of light;base AR formed from the (M+1) elements,the specification of the coordinate vector Rh={rh,sh} and the elimination of the ambiguity of determining the distance to emitters on the basis of the stochastic approximation algorithm:where=const;- signicade the i)}and’

_{n(i)h}- real and calculated values of the phase difference in the n-x (i-x) put (navyazannyh) channels AR;R

_{h}- random increment vector R

_{h=}{r

_{h},

_{sh}} with the average values of the parameters r

_{h}and

_{sh}equal to r

_{1}and

_{s1}and the range of possible values ofr

_{1}and 3

_{s1}respectively, where:r

_{RS}=(M’)

^{2}

^{}

_{0}/2 is the radius of the far zone for a three-AR with base L’;q

_{s}- signal-to-noise ratio at the input of the receiver.Thus, in the proposed method of determining the coordinates is the following sequence of operations:1. The takeaway from each edge of the AR N/2 (N is much less than M) AE at distances

_{n}(n = 1, 2,..., N/2) from the Central AE (i 0) and approximately uniform situated on the longitudinal axis of the AR within the Fresnel zone navyazannyh elements.2. Determination of coordinates in the rooms madej

_{n}).4. The reception and amplification of the received signal at each receiving channel.5. Determining the frequency of the received signal, f.6. The formation of stresses in the M channels is proportional to the phase difference in the i-th (n-ω) and Central (i 0) channels

_{i(n)}.7. Preliminary assessment of angle of signal arrival

_{s1}.8. Phasing rendered elements with respect to the Central element of AR.9. Subtraction of the signals in symmetric channels.10. Amplification of the generated signals in each of the M+1 channels in the i

^{2}(j

_{n})

^{2}time.11. The summation of the amplified signals.12. A preliminary assessment of the distance to the radiation source based on the values of the phase of the received signal on the rendered elements.13. Coordinate and resolve the ambiguity of determining the distance to emitters on the basis of the stochastic approximation algorithm (random search).New essential features of the invention are:- Offset from each edge of the AR N/2 elements and approximately uniform situated on the longitudinal axis of the AR within the Fresnel zone navyazannyh elements.- Determination of coordinates made jackovich numbers ±j

_{n}rendered elements).- Phasing relative to the Central AE channels n-x-n-x made elements.- Preliminary assessment of the distance to the radiation source based on the values of the phase of the received signal on the rendered elements.- Coordinate and resolve the ambiguity of determining the distance to emitters on the basis of the stochastic approximation algorithm.The introduction of significant new features allows you to extend the range and to resolve the ambiguity of measuring the distance to the radiation source, with an equal number of receiving channels in devices that implement the proposed method and the method-prototype.The invention is illustrated in Fig.1-5.In Fig.1 presents a set of operations that constitute the essence of the proposed method, where indicated:known operations: 4-7, 8-11;the newly introduced operations: 1-3, 8, 12, 13.In Fig.2A, b and C presents the drawings illustrating the process of determining the coordinate of the rendered elements and their phasing relative to the Central element AR, where indicated:a)

_{0}/2 - the distance between the elements of art;M+1 is the total number of elements in the AR in the initial position;b)

_{n}- the distance between the phase centers of the Central andthe n-th submitted item;

_{n}- the angular position of the rendered elements;j

_{n}=max|j

_{n}| - anchor n-th and n-th submitted to the longitudinal axis AR in the initial position;Z

_{-n}

_{0}/2 - the distance between the anchor pointthe n-th rendered element and a Central element AR;in)

_{s1}the direction of arrival of the signal emitters;L’ - base of the antenna system, consisting of M+1 elements after performing the procedure phasing rendered elements.In Fig.3 presents an exemplary diagram of a device that implements the proposed method, where indicated:1 receiver;2 - phase meter;3 - frequency;4 - clock generator (ICG);5 - controlled phase shifter;6 - unit weight summation;7 - measuring angle of arrival of the signal emitters;8 is a block prevariti);11 is a block refinement of coordinates and disambiguate estimate the distance to a source of radio emission;12 - antenna switch (AP).In Fig.4 shows a block circuit 6 weight summation of difference of difference of phases, where indicated:13 - Converter binary code additional code in the binary number;14 - a memory buffer;15 is a storage device (memory) of the coefficients of the i

^{2}and j

^{2}

_{n};16 - adder of two numbers;17 is a multiplier of two numbers;18 - adder M numbers.In Fig.5 shows a variant of construction of the device (Fig.3) using the computer, where indicated:19 - hardware interfacing;20 computer.According Fig.1 (numbering made in accordance with the above enumeration) the whole process of determination of the current coordinates of the emitters organizational divided into three main stages. Originally performed 1-3 preparatory phase, the essence of which consists in the following.Previously with each edge AR, consisting of M+1 antenna elements and a similar device prototype (Fig.2A), submitted for distances

_{n}from the Central AE N/2 antenna elements is adalah Fresnel zone navyazannyh antenna elements [4]

_{1}<

_{2}<... <

_{N/2}Determine the range and angular position of the rendered elements. This task, for example, can be performed using a known method [3]. For the AR lattice deploy to90 degrees in the direction of the imposed elements (Fig.2B) and, in turn giving them the signal settings at a frequency f

_{0}define range

_{n}and the angular position of the

_{n}rendered elements (operation 2)where L is the base AR, consisting of (M-N+1) is not made elements;

_{1}the phase difference between adjacent (Central and first) nevyvezennymi elements AR receipt of a signal settings withthe n-th rendered element.The expression (1) is converted to the form (3) replacement works {... } end total extent of natural numbers of the form[5] the I (3, 4) simplify and take the form:Given the lack of restrictions on the power of the signal settings, the required accuracy of the estimates of the coordinates of the n-th elements provided corresponding value of the signal (configuration)/noise at the receiver input [6]:wherek=2/

_{0}is the wave number;I

_{i}- gain of the i-th element of the direction finder;q - signal (configuration)/noise at the receiver input;

_{i}- the distance between the phase centers of the Central and the i-th navyazannogo element AR.After determining the coordinates of the rendered elements of art return to its original position.For certain values of

_{n}is binding n-s elements to the Central element of the AR (3), consisting in the determination of sequence numbers j

_{n}rendered elements. Values are numbers j

_{n}, �src="https://img.russianpatents.com/chr/177.gif">

_{n}determine the inaccuracy of symmetry of the n-th and n-th rendered elements with respect to the Central. The maximum of two values of j

_{n}and j

_{-n}is the origin of the n-th and n-th AE to the longitudinal axis AR in the initial position (Fig.2B), located at a distance of

_{jn}from the Central AE.where Q

_{n}- the remainder of the left side of the expression (8).Further operations are performed 4-11 stage phasing made channels and preliminary estimates of the coordinates of the radiation source.When the presence of a signal of the radiation source, it is detected by each of the (M+1) receiving channels (step 4) and the definition of its carrier frequency f (operation 5). Similarly, the method prototype in the future is the generation of signals proportional to the phase difference signals

_{i(n)}in the channels of the i-th (n th) and the Central AE (operation 6). Further, for example, similarly to [3], the phase method is a preliminary assessment of the direction to the source of radio emission

_{s1}(7)whereGiven that in practice the n-th and n-th rendered elements are arranged asymmetrically relative to the Central element of AR, i.e.

_{n}not equal to

_{-n}and

_{n}not equal to

_{-n}(Fig.2B), there is a necessity of operation phasing rendered elements with respect to the Central (operation 8). This operation is the calculation of the phase additives

_{n}, the introduction of which into the receiving channels made of elements corresponds to a virtual move in symmetrical relative to the Central element, the points ±j

_{n}on the longitudinal axis AR in the initial position (Fig 2B).It is followed by the formation of signals proportional to the phase difference of the signals in symmetric channels

_{i(n)}(operation 9).The received signals

_{(n)}further exacerbating the i

^{2}(j

_{n})

^{2}time (operation 10) and summarize (operation 11)where M’=2max| j

_{n}|

_{};base AR formed from the (M+1) elements.Thus the unambiguous range measurement range for the three elements (two extreme and made the Central antenna elements, the antenna system is [4]:where r

_{D. C}=(M’)

^{2}

^{}

_{0}/2 is the radius of the far zone for a three-AR with base L’.The final step is to perform a more accurate coordinate Rh={r

_{h},

_{sh}} and elimination of ambiguity estimates of distance to a source of radio emission (operation 13) based on the stochastic approximation algorithm [7-10]where- root mean square error (RMSE) of estimation of phase with the h-th iteration of the search vector R

_{h};=const;’

_{n(i)}and’

_{n(i)h}- real and calculated values of the phase difference in the n-x (i-x) put (navyazannyh) channels AR;R

_{h}- random increment vector R

_{h}={r

_{h},

_{s1}and the range of possible values ofr

_{1}(15) and- signal-to-noise ratio, respectively.In Fig.3 shows an example of a device that implements the proposed method. This device operates as follows. Initially, each region AR, consisting of M+1 antenna elements mounted on a stable rotating platform [11], submitted N/2 at AE and evenly installed in compliance with the conditions (2) about the longitudinal axis of the AR (1). Next AR consistently deploy to90 degrees in the direction of the imposed elements and output high-stability oscillator (block 10) to the input of one of the n-th antenna element signal settings (SN) at a frequency f

_{0}. Receiving channels other made items at the time of radiation of the signal settings are blocked antenna switch 12 (AP). Similarly, the device that implements the method-prototype, in accordance with expressions (5, 6) is the coordinates of p

_{n}and

_{n}made item, the values of which are digitized and entered into percia 2) AR return to its original position. Unit 9 in accordance with (8, 9) is the definition of anchor points (sequence numbers ±j

_{n}each pair made of elements (the n-th and n-th) to the longitudinal axis AR in the initial position (step 3). Following this operation completes the stage of preparing the device for operation.In the presence of a radiation source, its signal is received by all the antenna elements and flows into the receiver (unit 1). Each of the M+1 receiver performs detection, i.e., selection against the background of internal noise and other interfering signals, amplification of up to normalized levels and the binary digitization of the received signal (operation 4). Signal with high frequency analog output Central (zero) the receiver is fed to the input of a frequency counter (block 3), which carries out the measurement of the frequency f of the received signal and converting its value in binary code (operation 5). Next, the received signals are fed to the phasemeter (2 blocks). Each of the M phase meter, determining the degree of correlation of two signals [12], generates a binary code, is proportional to the phase difference

_{i(n)}between the signals from outputs of ±i-th (n-th) and Central (i 0) receivers (c="https://img.russianpatents.com/chr/177.gif">

_{n}next enter the buffer memory 14 (Fig.4) block 6 weight summation and phase 5, respectively. The output signal of the first phase meter in addition to unit 6 to the input of the angle meter (unit 7), which is the phase difference

_{s1}in accordance with (10) determines the provisional value of sine of angle of signal arrival

_{s1}and translates it into binary code (operation 7). Based on the coordinates of the rendered elements and information about the direction of signal arrival

_{s1}unit phasing in accordance with (11) calculation of phase additives

_{n}. Signals phase additives

_{n}in the binary code are received at the control inputs of phase 5. Phasers made, for example, on the basis of the digital adders [12, 13], is carried out in accordance with (11) forming a binary discrete

_{n}’ (8), which serves to corresponding inputs of block 6 weight summation. Simultaneously with the formation of signals

_{-i(n)}in additional code binary numbers [12] and using adders 16 generates modules discretes |

_{i(n)}|=|

_{i(n)}-

_{-i(-n)}| (operation 9), additional multipliers 17 amplifies the received signals in the i

^{2}(j

^{2}

_{n}) times (operation 10) and sums them up (operation 11). In the operations 9-11 at the output of the adder M numbers 18 unit weight summation 6 is formed of discreteentering the input unit 8 (Fig.3) a preliminary assessment of the range. Unit 8 in accordance with (14) carries out predvaritelnoe determining the values of the distance to the source

_{1}(12), which, along with information about its angular position

_{s1}as the source data is passed to the block 11 (Fig.3) clarify the coordination and (16) performs a final procedure for the refinement of the coordinates of the radiation source and eliminate possible ambiguity estimates range up to him (operation 13). The output unit 11 is output. If necessary, several times, R={r,

_{s}} may be the definition of derivatives of these coordinates.The design of the proposed device is based on the use of elements and technical difficulties is not.It is obvious that the invention is not limited to the above example of its implementation. It may provide other options, such as using the computer (Fig.5). In this case, the high frequency part of the device remains unchanged, and digital information about the incoming signal from the outputs of the receivers 1 through the apparatus pair 19, performing the matching function, is fed directly to the computer 20. Then the operations 1, 2 (in part use of generator settings 10), 4 and 5 is similar, and operations 2 (part of the calculation of the coordinates of the rendered elements) 3, 6-13 implemented by an appropriate computer software.Assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method was carried out using the mathematical methods of computer modeling. Operation 4-7, 9-11 known, their implementation is similar to the prototype and doubt[1, 3, 4, 6].

_{0}and determining their coordinates in accordance with the method of the prototype [3]. The required accuracy of the estimates of the coordinates of the n-th elements (positions of the phase centers) is determined by the error location phase centers navyazannyh AE on the longitudinal axis AR every

_{0}/2 and is provided with a corresponding selection signal power [4, 6] generator settings.Operations 3 and 8 on reference made items to the longitudinal axis AR (determine their sequence numbers) and their phase are calculated and can be implemented using the computer.The possibility of implementing operations 4 was estimated by the formula of electronic intelligence [15].When the calculations were:equivalent to the sensitivity of the receivers - 130 dB/watt, equivalent to the peak power of the radiation source 40 dB/W, the wavelength of the radiation sourceFor these conditions, the range of the intelligence signal emitters R

_{RTR}300 km.The expression (14) according to preliminary estimates range (operation 12) obtained from the expression (3) by adding additional termstaking into account the values of weight coefficients and phase of the received signal to put the elements after performing the operations of their binding and phasing. This approach allows similar prototype to evaluate the range taking into account the fluctuations of the phase of the signal in all the receiving channels and corresponds to the case of determining the distance along the curvature of the wavefront symmetric sparse antenna array [4].The procedure refinement of coordinates and disambiguate estimate the distance to the source (13) is based on the quite well-known in theory of adaptive antenna arrays and extreme control algorithm (16) stochastic approximation [7-10]. In terms of possible mnogoe is cnica and its angular position) the use of this algorithm is the most preferred with respect to other adaptation algorithms (gradient, direct treatment of the sample covariance matrix, and recurrent cascade, and so on). Its use in the procedure 13 allows the most effective method is definitely to find the global extremum (to avoid ambiguity) valued functions, when about the nature of its conduct almost nothing is known [7-10].After operation 13 is achieved potential estimation accuracy of the angular position and distance to the radiation source symmetric sparse antenna array [4, 6]whereImplementation of the algorithm 16 is carried out on computers and much difficulty is.If necessary, calculation of radial V

_{r}and tangential Vthe speed of movement of the carrier radiation source operations (4-13) are repeated through timet. As a result of this estimated distance changer and angular position

_{s}between the phase centers of the carrier radiation source straightforward,Mathematical calculations showed that the proposed method provides a wider range of measurement of distance to the radiation source, with an equal number of identical receiver channels in devices that implement this method and prototype method. For example, assuming the distance between the AE is equal to 0.05 m (equal to 0.1 m) and the number of channels (M+1) in the proposed device and the device prototype is 61, obtained in accordance with [4] the following values of the ranges of determining the distance to the radiation source (the boundaries of the Fresnel zone):a) the method and the device prototype.The radius of the near zoneThe radius of the far zoneThe measured rangeb) the Proposed method and the device.Taking the total number of proposed antenna elements N equal to 10, we determine the boundaries of the Fresnel zone for AR, consisting of navyazannyh elements (AP1)We believe the operation of removal, positioning, binding and phasing n-s elements are made so that their phase center of the om case, the maximum base L’ AR consisting of M+1 antenna elements, is 250 feet, Then the potential measured ranges is:Thus, the proposed method has the potential to increase the measured range in comparison with the prototype more than 7 thousand times and achieve the potential accuracy of the estimated coordinates of the radiation source (17).Limiting the upper limit of the measured range range of electronic intelligence R

_{RTR}for the above conditions can determine the required size of L

_{Tr}AR (maximum distance of removal of the n-th antenna elements).For such sizes AR lower limit of the measured range is 2.7 kmIn the case of approximation of the radiation source to the lower limit of the measured range may further support the goal range. This purpose is consistent exception handling channels at made of elements that corresponds to the sequential reduction of the geometric dimensions (base) AR, and hence the lower boundary of the measured range.Thus, the purpose of the invention, which consists in expanding diaphramic channels in the device, implementing the proposed method and the method-prototype achieved.Literature1. Theoretical bases of radar /Shirman J. D. Golikov, C. N., Busygin I. N. and others /Edited. editor J. D. Shirman - M: Owls. Radio, 1970.2. Van Brant L. B. Handbook on methods of electronic suppression and protection systems with radar control. TRANS. from English. under. edit Fomicheva K. I., L. Yudin M. M.: Voenizdat, 1985.3. Hawks Y. C., B. N. Likhachev Way of measuring the distance to the radiation source. Application No. 95109676/09 (016808), a positive decision from 15.04.97.4. Spatial-temporal signal processing /Kremer, I. J., Kremer, A. I., Petrov, C. M., and others /edited by I. J. Kremer. - M.: Radio and communication, 1984.5. Gradstain Acting, Ryzhik, I. M. Table of integrals, sums, series, and products. M.: Nauka, 1971.6. Ponkin C. A., Romanov, A. D. On the potential accuracy of the measurement range in passive radar. - Technology and electronics, 1983, T. 28, No. 8, an offprint, S. 1660-1661.7. Krasovskii, A. A., and others, theory of correlation-extremal navigation systems. M.: Nauka, 1979.8. Monzingo R. A., Miller, T. C. Adaptive antenna arrays: introduction to theory: TRANS. from English. - M.: Radio and communication, 1986, - 448 S.9. I. Beloglazov, N. Correlation-extremal system. rockets, and spacecraft. /Ed. by L. S. Pushkin. M.: Owls. radio, 1968.12. Digital radio system (reference). /Ed. by M. I. Zajickova. - M, Radio and communications, 1990.13. Gorshkov, B. I. Electronic device (Handbook). M.: Radio and communication, 1984.14. Bova N. T., Reznikov, B. Antennas and microwave devices. Kiev, high school, 1982.15. Wakin S. A., Shustov L. N. The basics of jamming and electronic reconnaissance. M: Owls. Radio, 1968.

Claims

The method of estimating the current coordinates of the emitters, which consists in receiving the radiated purpose of each signal of M+1 elements equidistant linear antenna array (AR), located relative to each other at a distance of half wavelength_{0}a radiation source, strengthening it in each receiving channel, measuring the frequency f of the received signal, the formation using phase meter signals proportional to the phase difference of the signals in the Central and each of the receiving channels, the direction of signal arrival

_{s1}, obtaining signals proportional to the difference of difference of phasessymmetric with respect to the Central receiving is the formation of the received signals and the calculation formula is the distance to the radiation source, characterized in that conduct pairwise offset from each edge of the AR N/2 antenna elements, where N is much less than M, and approximate them evenly placed on the longitudinal axis of the AR within the Fresnel zone i-x navyazannyh elements, where i=0, 1, ... , (M-N)/2, determine the range and angular position of the rendered elements, calculated using the measured coordinates of the anchor point made items to the longitudinal axis AR and thus determine their sequence numbers j

_{n}perform phasing channels n-x made antenna elements, where n=0, 1, ... , N/2, pre-evaluate the range of r

_{1}to the radiation source based on the values of the phase of the received signal to put the elements according to the formulawhere C is the speed of light;M’=2max|j

_{n}|

_{};

_{i}=

_{i}-

_{-i}and

_{n}=

_{n}-

_{-n}- the difference of the difference of phases i-x and n-x are symmetric relative to the Central receiving channels, respectively; and

_{i}and i-m andn-m and the Central antenna elements, respectively; andbase AR formed from the (M+1) elements, specify the coordinate vector R

_{h}={r

_{h},

_{sh}} and eliminate the ambiguity of determining the distance to emitters on the basis of the algorithm stochastic approximationwhere=onst;- root mean square error (RMSE) of estimation of phase with the h-th iteration of the search vector R

_{h};’

_{n(i)}and’

_{n(i)h}- real and calculated values of the phase difference in the n-x (i-x) put (navyazannyh) channels AR;R

_{h}- random increment vector R

_{h}={r

_{h},

_{sh}} with the average values of the parameters r

_{h}and

_{sh}equal to r

_{1}and

_{s1}and the range of possible values ofr

_{1}and 3

_{s1}respectively; andr

_{RS}=(M’)

^{2}

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2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining the elevation coordinate of a low-flying target, involving reception of a composite signal reflected from the target and the underlying surface at outputs of four antennae; plotting discriminator curves of the coordinate metre in two orthogonal planes S_{x} and S_{y} and positioning the maximum of the main lobe of the resultant beam pattern of the antenna system of the coordinate metre in the direction of the point of projection of the target on the underlying surface, characterised by that the centres of the four antennae of the coordinate metre are paired symmetrically in the horizontal and vertical planes; an additional signal is generated at one the outputs of the coordinate metre, which is the difference of composite signals of pairs of the elements of the antenna system lying in the horizontal and vertical planes, which is used to plot an additional discriminator curve, and the elevation coordinate and (for known inclined range) altitude of the low-flying target are determined from the relationships using the obtained discriminator curves.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining coordinates of a target.

8 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a receiving-direction-finding station with signal correlation processing, lying at a first position. The novelty lies in placing at a second position a directional passive repeater at the receiving-direction-finding station lying at the first position, wherein the sufficiency of the transfer constant of the passive repeater is determined by the relationship: where E_{01} is the sensitivity of the receiving device of the receiving-direction-finding station; r_{23} and r_{12} denote the distance from the radio source to the passive repeater and from the passive repeater to the receiving-direction-finding station, respectively; λ is the wavelength; E_{32} is the energy potential of the radio source in the direction of the passive repeater.

EFFECT: eliminating a device unmasking radiation, low power consumption and easier servicing of the receiving station in special application conditions.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: movements of athletes in coordinates of the playing field are determined using radio signal sources mounted on the athletes and receivers of these signals which are fixed near the playing field. Results of calculation at each given time interval using high-speed computing devices are used to record in digital form coordinates of movements of athletes during the game and resultant displacement and the path of movement of an athlete are determined. The invention enables to evaluate the efficiency of movement of each athlete in a team and evaluate their influence on the outcome of the game.

EFFECT: enabling simultaneous digital recording of parameters of movements of athletes during a game and faster recording.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: integrates algorithms based on their consistent use. In this case, switching between algorithms is performed depending on the estimated sizes and distance to the tanker. To do this, you must perform the following actions: to receive and analog-to-digital conversion of the image signal of each frame; select image processing algorithm: object detection algorithm, small and medium size tracking algorithm, large object tracking algorithm, and cone tracking algorithm, depending on the aircraft size estimates and the distance to it; detect the aircraft and evaluate its trajectory parameters by the chosen algorithm.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities, expansion of application conditions for onboard vision systems and increasing the accuracy of estimating the trajectory parameters of the tanker, which makes it possible to create an on-board information and control system to provide refueling in air using the bar-cone method against the starry sky in automatic mode, and can serve additional system for relative navigation in manual mode.

4 cl