The method of performing tunnel
The invention relates to a shield tunnel construction and can be used mainly for conducting small diameter tunnels. The method includes the excavation, transportation outside of the tunnel, the flow of the shield on the bottom and lining of the tunnel by assembling rings of individual blocks. The construction of the tunnel lining is first performed with the use of pipe sections, which pushes jacking installation in conjunction with a shield. With increasing efforts forcing the lining tonella carried out by separate and sequential pipe jacking and supply shield to ultimately develop jacking installation efforts jacking, after which the lining is erected by the Assembly of rings of individual blocks. The invention is aimed at improving the quality of the tunnel lining. 1 Il.The invention relates primarily to underground construction, namely the tunnels with the use of jacking units for jacking case of pipe sections.A known method of performing tunnel that includes: excavation, transportation outside of the tunnel lining tunnel and feed the head section at the bottom, in which the feed I, consisting of individual blocks in the skirt of the shield (for example, see pages 15, Fig.2.2, Glorikian C. H., Hodos Century A. "Evaluation boards and complexes", M., Nedra, 1977, 326 S.). When this method of construction lining required significant additional volume of sealing joints and plugging space by lining the entire length of the tunnel.There is also known a method of performing tunnel in which the tunnel lining is in the form of a casing of the pipe sections by means of joint jacking case and the head section using complex equipment jacking installation and, as the head section equipped with jacks supply Board (see, for example, the prospectus of the company Herrenknecht AG, the shield series T). When this method of construction lining significantly reduces the complexity of additional work, however, limit the length of the tunnel is limited to the value of marginal efforts, develop applied in complex jacking station.However, in practice for tunnels, there are cases when such technology, because of the increased resistance to bursting and the limited magnitude of the pressure efforts, develop jacking installation, does not provide available and primehome and greater length of the tunnel, which is the limiting parameters of the applied jacking station, a single set of equipment while reducing labor costs and time as auxiliary (Assembly-disassembly), and operations using the maximum jacking stations and sections of pipe that provides lower costs and high quality of the tunnel, at least in the early stages of the strip.To this end, proposes a single set of equipment, comprising: podavlivaya jacking installation, transport equipment and (as head of the section of the complex) minisite, equipped with its own hydraulic cylinders supply and device for the erection of a block of lining, to keep the tunnel in three successive stages, namely: the construction of the tunnel lining to first exercise with the help of pipe sections, which pushes jacking installation in conjunction with a shield, then, with increasing efforts jacking by separate and sequential pipe jacking and supply shield (to develop extremely jacking installation efforts-through, then to build the lining Assembly of rings of individual blocks.The drawing shows a diagram illustrating the implementation of FPIC is the implementation of the method, consists of jacking installation 1, shield 2, transport equipment, for example, in the structure of the loader 3 and the transport unit 4. The shield is equipped with its own hydraulic cylinders 5 supply and, for example, the skirt 6, for Assembly at the final stage of the tunnel rings 7 lining, consisting of individual blocks. Two major parts of the length of the tunnel lining is performed by using pipe sections 8.The use of such a shield and jacking installation as part of the single set of equipment allows, if necessary, be combined into a single technological process of laying minitones two ways (technology), used now only separated and performed by different sets of equipment.The method includes: excavation, transportation to the surface and the flow of the shield on the bottom, which is the initial length of the tunnel is part of the complex equipment jacking installation (with shield) (drawing), and increasing efforts jacking (second plot) - multiple and alternate punching case (when stationary shield) and then supply shield to the design by jacks feed length L (in the absence of Pro is a longer extension, the growth of resistance to bursting, if necessary, the filing of the shield is only jacks filing of the shield and the lining of the tunnel on this site do by assembling rings of individual blocks.Thus, when applying the method and equipment for implementing the method provides the possibility of tunnel length substantially greater than the applied jacking installation, i.e. without increasing developed jacking installation, the marginal effort of pushing.
ClaimsMethod of tunneling, including excavation, transportation outside of the tunnel, the flow of the shield on the bottom and lining of the tunnel by assembling rings of the individual blocks, characterized in that the lining of the tunnel is first performed with the use of pipe sections, which pushes jacking installation in conjunction with a shield, and increasing efforts jacking by separate and sequential pipe jacking and supply shield to ultimately develop jacking installation efforts jacking, after which the lining is erected by the Assembly of rings of individual blocks.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.
EFFECT: prevention of ground and object deformation in tunnel boring machine movement area, increased backfill layer elasticity and tunnel lining impermeability.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating conditions favorable for chemical reaction between chemical element oxides basically constituting rock and graphite for rock fusion. For this rock is heated up to high temperature at face by thermal electric arc energy transmission through metal front tunneling machine wall. Electric arc is generated between electrodes inside discharge chambers arranged on inner surface of front tunneling machine wall. Electric current is supplied to electrodes via graphite mass moving through electrically-insulated pipes. Graphite is forced via electrodes and introduced into face through nozzles connected to front tunneling machine wall.
EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.
SUBSTANCE: method of boring hard rock by means of tunnel boring machine equipped with disks of hardened steel projecting from cutting head consists in supply of foamed water liquid to cutting head; this composition corresponds to surface active substance -SAS and lubricating material - polyethylene oxide with molecular wt from 4.500.000 to 8.000.000. The said ingredients are measured separately in a water form, are added into water and are transformed into a foam using anionic or nonionic SAS; the said composition is obtained by dilution of concentrate with water on site.
EFFECT: reduced wear of cutting components; increased boring efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, in particular to mechanised performance of underground mine tunnels with round shape of cross section. Method for performance of underground mine tunnel of round cross section includes formation of oriented cavity in the Earth bowels, cutting of helical and longitudinal radial channels in edge zone of tunnel in surrounding rock mass, loading and transportation of broken muck, maintenance of stripped area by erection of support and organization of ventilation. Together with cavity formation they cut three longitudinal radial channels, evenly distributing them in plane of tunnel cross section. At the same time one of longitudinal radial channels is oriented along line of most probable largest action of external load from forces of rock pressure. Damaged rock is removed from longitudinal radial channels and loaded in transport vehicle. In longitudinal radial channels they install embedded elements, to which support elements are connected. Besides depth of longitudinal radial channel makes at least half of radius of cross section of produced tunnel.
EFFECT: higher reliability of mine tunnel maintenance in operational period.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, in particular to shield driving of tunnels, and may be used in shield driving of through collector tunnels with concrete lining. Method for shield driving of tunnel consists in erection of shield chambers by method of "slurry-type wall" for assembly and turns of shield on track of arranged tunnel. Walls of shield chambers, at least those, where holes are provided for passage of shield, are made of concrete, having compression strength of not more than 11.5-14.5 MPa, are reinforced with glass-plastic reinforcement from rods with diametre from 4 to 10 mm with ultimate strength in case of cutting across fibres of at least 165 MPa and developed by working element of shield. Formation of concrete lining, in process of collector tunnel driving, at least in joint of shield chambers walls and on length of tunnel from two to ten of its diametres, is carried out by at least two concentric layers, between which additional internal hydraulic insulation layer is arranged, and application of hydraulic insulation coating onto inner surface of concrete lining is carried out after complete drying of surface layer of tunnel walls.
EFFECT: improved reliability of tunnel arrangement and its hydraulic insulation, higher speed of underground communications construction.
SUBSTANCE: birotating tunnel shield unit consists of three sections. Two front sections, starting from bottomhole, are mounted on diaphragm by means of ball runnings with toothed collars of conical gear, engaged at diametral opposite sides with master conical gears of section rotation drives arranged on diaphragm, which is mounted at front end of beam with drive by means of Hooke joint and hydraulic cylinders with stems, fixed on beam and diaphragm by means of journals. Beam with drive is mounted in guides of back section, at the same time auger with a separate drive is mounted inside beam. On external surface of back section there are elements of conrotation arranged in the form of plates aligned along longitudinal axis of section, at the same time on external surfaces of front rotary sections there are helical blades arranged with opposite direction of winding. Besides, small actuating elements with individual drives and sleeves with augers are mounted upstream each blade and element of conrotation. Hollow beam is mounted in the centre of diaphragm, inside which there is an auger with drive fixed, at the same time outside - at bottomhole of beam there is a socket and loading rotor with drive mounted, connected to the main actuating element.
EFFECT: unloading of back section from torque and from longitudinal braking force.
SUBSTANCE: tunnelling header unit comprises serially arranged head and tail sections. The head section comprises a helical blade on the external surface, an actuator and an auger mechanism for broken mass discharge, besides, a rotation mechanism is also located in the head section. The tail section comprises longitudinal support elements, aligned along the longitudinal axis of the unit, a drive of the rotation mechanism. The sections are connected to each other with the possibility of the head section rotation relatively to its longitudinal axis. The rotation mechanism is arranged in the form of a hollow shaft, where two wave generators are installed, being arranged with eccentricity relative to the axis of the driving shaft, a geared crown arranged on the inner surface of the head section, a separator connected to the end section and intermediate solids of revolution. Number of teeth in the geared crown is more than the number of intermediate solids of revolution by one. The sections have a rigid kinematic link in the axial direction, which consists of two touching circular ledges, one ledge is located on the separator, the second ledge is arranged on the inner surface of the head section. The driving shaft is installed in rolling bearings, with one bearing installed in the head section, and the other one - in the end section. The driving shaft at the side of the stripped area has a driving gear arranged with the possibility of rotation from motors via a motor gear, and the motors are fixed at the inner surface of the end section.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the unit operation, loading capacity of the unit drive and efficiency of tunnelling, expanded area of the unit application.
SUBSTANCE: tunnelling combine (90) for horizontal mines comprises a rotary cutting head (93), where there are many cutting assemblies (10) installed as capable of rotation. Multiple units of instruments (50) are connected with a rotary cutting head, at the same time each unit of instruments comprises a distal end in contact with the appropriate cutting assembly. Units of instruments comprise multiple sensors, including an accelerometer (32), a magnetometer (33) and a temperature sensor (34) to monitor the appropriate cutting assembly. Sensors are installed at the remote end of units of instruments pressed for contact with a cutting assembly. Units of instruments comprise a wireless transceiver and are connected to each other into a circuit of data transfer or a peer-to-peer network. A source (176) of power supply, such as a battery pack, is provided for each unit of instruments. Sensor data may be used to control operation of a tunnelling combine for horizontal mines and/or for monitoring condition of cutting assemblies.
EFFECT: enhancing effectiveness and reliability of tunnelling operation.
27 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: duplex geovehicle consists of three sections. Two front sections are mounted on load-carrying beams with drives by means of ball races with toothed rims of bevel gear. Section rotation drives are located on diaphragms that are mounted on front ends of load-carrying beams with drives. Each load-carrying beam with a drive is mounted in the guides of rear section with possibility of its retraction. A screw with a separate drive is mounted inside the load-carrying beam. On external surfaces of front rotating sections there located are screw blades with opposite winding direction. Before each blade there mounted are small actuating elements with individual drives and sleeves with screws. In the centre of diaphragms there mounted are hollow beams inside which screws with drives are mounted Flared ends and loading rotors with drives are mounted on the front side of face ends of hollow beams. Drives and actuating elements of rear section are located on its front wall. Outside the front wall: at the top and at the bottom - horizontally, and in the centre - vertically. Drag conveyor, tray and screw with a drive are located behind the front wall inside rear section.
EFFECT: increasing the strength of out-contour layer of rock mass.