A method of burning fuel in a combustion device
The invention can be used to make acoustic influence on the combustion process in a combustion device. A method of burning fuel in a combustion device includes an acoustic effect on the combustion process. The acoustic effect is carried out in a high-frequency pulsed mode with a high-frequency component 25-160 kHz with pulse 5-240 Hz. The use of the claimed invention allows to intensify, to optimize the combustion process due to more uniform mixing of the oxidizer with the fuel, increases the rate of oxidative processes, reduces underburning more than 40-50% in comparison with the known technical solution. 1 Il.The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used to make the acoustic impact on the process of burning fuel in a combustion device.There are various ways of burning fuel in a combustion device (solid, powdered, liquid, gaseous), including both a preliminary grinding of the fuel into fine powder, and concentrated air supply to the combustion space (see, S. Bobrowski, A. M. Zimakov. “Steam nedostatki known methods are the low efficiency of fuel combustion due to chemical and mechanical nedorogo due to uneven mixing of the oxidizer with the fuel.Also known is a method of burning fuel by the effects of acoustic oscillations in the combustion zone, simultaneously with the acoustic oscillations in the combustion zone excite nonlinear oscillations, mainly sawtooth, forms with a frequency of 10-100 times higher than the frequency of acoustic oscillations, and the ratio of their amplitudes is 0.2 to 1.0 (see the description of the invention to ed. SV-Wu No. 663966, M CL2F 23 D 11/34 on “the Way of fuel combustion”).This is a technical decision was made as a prototype.The use of this method allows to increase the efficiency of fuel consumption due to the superposition of low-frequency acoustic oscillations in nonlinear oscillations with steep front in place of the peak pressure and high frequency, which, in turn, allows to increase as the intensity of heat transfer and dispersion of the fuel particles, and creates the necessary amplitude of the displacement of the fuel particles.However, the nonlinear interaction between low-and high-frequency acoustic waves with steep front in place of the peak pressure results in a lack of uniform mixing of the oxidizer with the fuel, the combustion of the fuel particles is unstable, which is not possible until the end to optimize the entire dimensional range cha the solution is the creation of a method of burning fuel, allowing to intensify, to optimize this process due to more uniform mixing of the oxidizer with the fuel and increase the speed of oxidation processes.This object is achieved in that in the method of burning fuel in a combustion device comprising an acoustic effect on the combustion process, the acoustic effect is carried out in a high-frequency pulsed mode with a high-frequency component 25-160 kHz with pulse 5-240 Hz.It is known that in the process of fuel combustion, particularly coal dust, fine particles (100 ám) and volatiles are burned quickly and spend the major part of oxygen of up to 96% of filed in the furnace, while large and medium-sized dust particles (size 300-100 μm) determining mechanical underburning, burn in oxygen-poor atmosphere (4% or less), so that the speed of oxidized processes is reduced accordingly. In addition, the high porosity of the surface with significant mass of this dust gives it a high windage, creating a synchronous moving it with a gas flow along the length of the torch and the space of the furnace, and thereby further reduces the speed of diffusion-oxidation processes.Acoustic sozdat efficiency of fuel combustion and to intensify the process of burning the entire size range of particles of fuel (in particular, coal dust, aerosols of oil) by creating a range of frequencies corresponding to the natural frequencies of vibrations of the particles of fuel, leading to a resonance effect, which causes an increase of the amplitudes of the oscillations of the fuel particles that are larger than the group of entities the border of inert gases, which are products of oxidation, and thus increases the probability of collision with oxygen.The settings of the acoustic disturbance provide the fuel particles missing during normal combustion of the relative movement of the gas stream with a pulsed regime necessary for the escape of particles from carvalhinho cloud oxidation products (where oxygen is virtually absent), which increases the probability of collisions with molecules of free oxygen the entire size range of particles and reduces the incomplete burning of more than 30-50% compared with the known solution of the prototype.When the acoustic impact of a high-frequency component of less than 25 kHz with ripple less than 5 Hz is not provided complete burning of fuel due to uneven mixing of the oxidizer with the fuel.Acoustic effects of the high-frequency component more than 160 kHz with surge more than 240 Hz economically and technically is a tick in the combustion device and the subsequent cost and complication of the method of burning fuel. In this case, the ripple more than 240 Hz not provided the necessary low-frequency component.The method is as follows.For example, the schema () method shown on the drawing: position 1 - frequency vibrations, the position of the 2 - pulse mode, and medium frequency characteristics (frequency is 90 kHz with ripple 120 Hz), b is the minimum frequency and the maximum pulsating modes (high frequency of 25 kHz with pulse 240 Hz), the maximum frequency and minimum pulse modes within the given parameters (frequency is 160 kHz with pulse 5 Hz).Depending on the quantitative ratios of dimensional scales of coarse and fine particles of a combination of high and low frequencies may be other, more optimal for a specific scenario.A method of burning fuel (coal dust, gas) carried out in the boilers TP-92 Permskaya GRES-16.The test results showed that the use of the claimed method of fuel combustion allows to intensify, to optimize the process and reduce the underburning in comparison with the known method of the prototype by 40-50%.When you exit the inventive modes observed or incomplete combustion of fuel (high-frequency components that are contributing to the work of more than 160 kHz with surge more than 240 Hz).
ClaimsA method of burning fuel in a combustion device comprising an acoustic effect on the combustion process, characterized in that the acoustic effect is carried out in a high-frequency pulsed mode with a high-frequency component 25-160 kHz with pulse 5-240 Hz.
FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.
EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: combustion apparatus for fluent fuels.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying gas to be burnt out from the head of the burner of the torch plant in the combustion zone. The composition of gases is variable. The gas flow rate varies from 1m/s to 3.5 of sound speed due to generating excess static pressure of gas from 0.00001 MPa/cm2 to 3.0 MPa/cm2 by the movable control device. The gas jet is turbulent with a cone angle from 2o to 155o.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: combustion apparatus using fluent fuel.
SUBSTANCE: burner comprises casing made of a scroll, hollow shaft for fuel supply arranged inside the casing, sucking and exhausting branch pipes for air secured to the casing, nozzle mounted in the conical sleeve, diffuser, and drive. The shaft is mounted for rotation and provided with blades of the fan. The nozzle and conical sleeve are secured to the hollow shaft. The drive is secured to the casing inside the sucking branch pipe. The branch pipe is mounted with a space relation to the casing to provide a space for air flow. The shaft of the drive is hollow to provide fuel flow to the nozzle. The shaft of the drive and hollow shaft of the burner are axially aligned and interconnected. The drive shaft is provided with emulsifier for generating emulsion or suspension and supplying fuel and/or water emulsion and cock for fuel supply.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the method of combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel in a burner. The method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel in a burner provides, that along the burner external surface a non-corroding technical atmosphere is set in motion, chosen from a group including steam, CO 2 , nitrogen or their mixture. In the capacity of the non-corroding technical aerosphere they use steam. Combustion is carried out at the presence of steam. At least a part of the non-corroding aerosphere is added to the hydrocarbon fuel. The non-corroding aerosphere is used in an amount sufficient to dilute or replace a corroding technical aerosphere existing around the external surface of the burner. The invention allows to avoid a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners exposed to action of the corroding technical aerosphere.
EFFECT: the invention allows to prevent a corrosive spraying of the metal and carbonization of the industrial burners.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: methods of burning pulverized fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of fuel for burning, delivery of fuel, transportation of high-pressure air, mixing air with pulverized fuel and delivery of high-concentrated aeromixture to boiler burners. Transporting air is ozonized before mixing it with pulverized fuel ; part of ozonized fuel is delivered to transport of pulverized fuel and remaining part is delivered autonomous passage of burner to flame root via pipe line.
EFFECT: steady ignition of pulverized fuel; enhanced efficiency of burning process.
FIELD: methods of burning hydrocarbon fuel.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel includes separate delivery of fuel and air to burner; fuel is delivered mainly to central area of air flow and is burnt over periphery of flame at excess air mode and at excess of fuel in central area of flame; vapor is fed to central area of flame and field of acoustic oscillations is applied. Burner proposed for burning the gaseous hydrocarbon fuel includes air box, hollow gas manifold with outlet gas holes; it is coaxially arranged inside vapor swirler manifold made in form of hollow cylindrical body with profiled passages and mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; cylindrical body has nozzle hole; one end face of vapor swirler is blanked-off and opposite end face is smoothly engageable with nozzle hole in body. Burner for combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuel includes air box and injector mounted on fuel swirler and vapor swirler which are mounted in cylindrical body at radial clearance; said cylindrical body is provided with nozzle unit made in form of hollow detachable cap with holes over spherical end face; mounted at spaced relation inside this cap is cap of smaller diameter and similar in shape; smaller cap has holes which are coaxial to outer cap; outer cap is provided with additional holes; inner cap is not provided with such holes.
EFFECT: reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions by power-generating boilers at enhanced combustion of fuel.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fuel burning devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ejection burner has body with branch pipes for delivery of combustion components, stabilizer, purging ports and injector additionally provided with mixing ejector consisting of body, contraction passage, fuel and oxidizer supply pipe unions; its construction makes it possible to regulate sectional areas of ejecting and ejected flows due to change of penetration of oxidized supply pipe union into contraction passage of ejector. Widening of flow of fuel-and-gas mixture in injector is made in two sections at different taper angles; diameter of spherical cover exceeds diameter of flow section of injector. Purging ports are made in form of three-stage system; first-stage purging ports are made in form of holes in burner body; second-stage purging ports are made in form of row of holes in combustion chamber; their flow sections change by means of regulating ring moved over surface of combustion chamber; third-stage purging port is made in form of coaxial circular passage copying the combustion chamber geometry. Stabilizer tube is twisted in form of cylindrical spiral. Proposed burner makes it possible to improve quality of mixing and evaporability of fuel in injector and to obtain complete combustion of fuel at extended range of stable operation by excess air coefficient.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; enhanced stability of combustion.
FIELD: burning separated oil-containing wastes formed during operation of ships.
SUBSTANCE: proposed incinerator burner includes several injectors for delivery of oil and diesel fuel wastes sprayed by air. Air injector equipped with swirler is located in front of oil and diesel fuel waste injectors; oil waste injector is located closer and distance of both fuel injectors may be changed relative to air injector whose axis lies at right angle relative to axes of fuel injectors; mounted in front of fuel injectors are jets whose orifices have diameter lesser than that of injectors.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of burning fuel; reduction of toxic emissions from reactor.
FIELD: mode of incineration of hydrocarbon fuel and an arrangement for its realization refers to engines and power engineering with working processes including preliminary processing of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention may be applied for incineration of fuel as in a periodic regime which is characteristic for reciprocating motors of internal combustion so as for fulfillment of streaming regimes of incineration of fuel, for example, in jet, turbojet, gas turbine engines and power installations. The mode realizes induced destruction of molecules of metastable intermediate products of incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons, accumulated in gas volume of fuel-airy mixture, by way of power impact leading to explosive three-dimensional spontaneous combustion of gas mixture. Peculiarity of the mode consists in that fuel-airy mixture is enriched with free electrons and power impact on molecules of the mixture for excitation of oscillatory degrees of freedom of molecules is fulfilled by means of their inelastic concussion with free electrons, speeded up by electric field, which tension E is less than tension of switching to independent gas discharge. Enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons is fulfilled by way of its ionization or by way of injection of electrons. The installation for realization of this mode has a combustion chamber with a source of power impact. The source of power impact consists of a unit of enrichment of fuel-airy mixture with free electrons and a source of a speeded up electric power which includes a system of electrons with controlled multiplexer switch connected to the sources of high-voltage tension. The invention allows to realize in a necessary moment of time momentary development of three-dimensional radical explosion in fuel-airy mixture due to simultaneous destruction of the majority of accumulated metastable molecules of intermediate products. Destruction of molecules of intermediate products generates a great number of active radicals and particles dividing and creating new circuits of reaction of oxidation of hydrocarbon and leads to development of chain-radical explosion.
EFFECT: high effectiveness of incineration mode.
21 cl, 7 dwg