The method of operation of a combined-cycle power plant with combined fuel (solid, gaseous or liquid) and combined-cycle power plant for its implementation

 

The invention relates to industry steamgasturbines, in particular to a combined-cycle power plants. The method of operation of a combined-cycle power plant with combined fuel includes the combustion of solid fuels with the formation of superheated steam, mixing the products of combustion with water vapor, expansion of gas-steam mixture to convert its potential energy into mechanical energy with the simultaneous conversion of the latter into electrical, heat recovery from exhaust gases, condensation and compression. Pairs derived from recycled heat the exhaust gases before mixing with the combustion products combined with the steam circuit. Combined-cycle power plant includes a steam path and the gas path. In Gazoprovod circuit included the boiler, the heat exchanger preheating the condensate and condenser, cooling unit condensate and booster compressor shaft which is connected with a gas turbine engine, or steam turbine. Combined-cycle power plant is provided a node of a selection pair, whose input is connected simultaneously to the outputs on a couple of the recovery boiler and the intermediate superheater steam generator and its output to the camera is training equipment entrance of water through the tank to the outlet of the condenser, and its output to the feed pump steam generator or intermediate heater. The invention improves the efficiency of the power plant. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.,1 PL.

The invention relates to the field steamgasturbines, in particular to a combined-cycle power plants.

As adopted similar method of operation of a combined cycle power plant combined organic fuel (particulate + gaseous or liquid), including the processes of compression of the air, burning it gaseous or liquid fuel, conversion to mechanical work potential energy of the products of combustion in their expansion, the burning in their flow of solid fuel and generating steam, converting its potential energy into mechanical work during the expansion with reheat, condensation and mixing of combustion products with atmospheric air (see Ryzhkin C. J. Thermal power station. - M.: Energy, 1976, 447 S.)

The known method has the disadvantage that the temperature (heat capacity) of the generated steam is low (about 600C). Consequently, the share of thermal energy of steam, prevremeno, including compressed air in the compressor with subsequent supply of fuel into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine and combustion turbine combined cycle with a secondary zone, the expansion in the turbine the combustion products then cooled in waste heat boilers, additional cooling of the products of combustion turbine combined cycle with condensation of water vapor, the flow of condensate in the heat recovery steam generators with further heating, evaporation and separation of the steam separators and steam overheating and mixing of the superheated steam with the air supplied into the combustion chamber steam and gas turbines, as part of the water from the separator is introduced into the heat and mass transfer-obmenit in contact with selected after compressor compressed air with partial evaporation and cooling of water and heated air-steam mixture, the latter is additionally heated by the warmth of combustion products before cooling them in waste heat boilers and served in the combustion chamber steam and gas turbines, and ohlazhdeniya water is mixed with the condensate (see SU 1830421 A1, class F 01 To 21/04, 30.07.93, bull. 28).

As a prototype adopted combined-cycle power plant comprising a compressor, a combustion chamber with a gas turbine and a combustion chamber with steam-turbine shaft which is connected with the economical recovery boilers, are your inputs on the water associated with the condenser for vapor-gas mixture is connected with the output of the boiler steam and gas turbines. Between steam and gas turbine and heat recovery boiler installed heater steam-air mixture, which is associated with deploysolution in which hot water is drawn from the drum-separators of waste heat boilers, get steam-air mixture in a stream of air taken for the compressor.

The combustion gas-steam turbine is connected by pipelines to the heater air-steam mixture and a couple with heat recovery boilers (see SU 1830421 A1, class F 01 To 21/04, 30.07.93, bull. 28).

The known method has the disadvantage that it cannot be used as fuel coal and brown coal.

The invention solves the problem of creating a method of operation of a combined cycle power plant with combined fuel (solid, gaseous or liquid).

The problem is solved in that in the method of operation of a combined-cycle power plant with combined fuel, including the fuel combustion with the formation of superheated steam, the partial expansion of the superheated steam by converting its potential energy into kinetic, and kineticenergy on the intermediate superheat in the steam circuit, and including the processes of compression of the air, burning it to the fuel in the combustion chamber, for mixing in the combustion chamber the products of combustion with water vapor, expansion of gas-steam mixture and heat recovery from exhaust gases in the recovery boiler in the gas circuit, according to the invention in the combustion chamber carry out the combustion of gaseous or liquid fuel, the heat of the exhaust gas after the boiler is made with the receiving condensate and doumanian exhaust gases, and water vapor supplied into the combustion chamber, get pre-Association pair of gas-steam circuit formed in the heat of condensation in the exhaust-heat boiler, and steam of the steam circuit after reheated derived from preheated by the heat of the exhaust gas condensate-vapor path from the combustion of solid fuel, while the expansion of the gas mixture is performed converting its potential energy into kinetic energy, and kinetic energy into mechanical energy with the simultaneous conversion of the latter into electric, with vapor steam circuit before reheat expand until the pressure PR is a (power), containing steam circuit, consisting of the United steam generator, a steam turbine associated shaft with a Converter of mechanical energy into electrical energy, and an intermediate superheater steam system of the regenerative heaters, feed water pump, and gas-steam circuit, consisting of getprotobyname engine, comprising sequentially located a compressor, a combustion chamber with a supply of steam and the turbine, and consistently located on the movement of the exhaust gas heat recovery boiler according to the invention a combined circuit is further provided with successive movement of the exhaust gas after the boiler heat exchanger preheating the condensate, condenser and a booster compressor, announced his exit from the atmosphere and associated shaft with getprotobyname engine shaft connected with a Converter of mechanical energy into electrical energy or steam turbine, the condenser, the output of water through the deaerator connected to the input of the boiler and at the same time his exit and entrance of water connected respectively to the input and output of the cooling unit condensate, and combined-cycle power plant is further provided with a filling steam heater of the steam generator and its output to the combustion chamber getprotobyname engine and the heat exchanger preheating the condensate is connected to an input of water through the deaerator to the output capacitor and its output through a feed pump and a system of regenerative heaters to the steam generator.

A new set of essential features missing in the known technical solutions and provides the following benefits:

- significantly increases thermal capacity of the steam generated by the heat energy of the solid fuel and thereby significantly (almost 2 times) increases its performance, which significantly increases thermodynamic efficiency of the power plant;

- provides a significant (approximately two times) reduction of harmful emissions into the environment;

- significantly reduces the size, weight and cost of a kilowatt of installed capacity of the power plant.

All these benefits are aimed at improving production efficiency and lowering the cost of electric power.

The drawing shows a heat scheme combined-cycle plant that implements the proposed method.

Combined-cycle power plant consists of two circuits of steam and vapour. Steam circuit includes progenerate generator), intermediate superheater vapor 4, the system of the regenerative heaters 5 and pump 6. Gas-steam circuit includes getprotobyname engine 7 sequential compressor 8, a combustion chamber 9 and the turbine 10 and sequentially placed on the movement of exhaust gases of the recovery boiler 11, the heat exchanger preheating the condensate 12, a capacitor 13 and a booster compressor 14, whose output is communicated with the atmosphere and connected with getprotobyname engine 7 or steam turbine 2. Getprotobyname the motor shaft 7 is connected to the inverter 15 mechanical energy into electrical energy. The capacitor 13 and the output of water through a deaerator (not shown) connected to the inlet of the waste-heat boiler 11 and at the same time their exit and entrance of water connected respectively to the input and output node 16 of the cooling of the condensate. Combined-cycle power plant equipped with an additional site collection pair 17, which has its inputs connected simultaneously to the outputs on a couple of the boiler 11 and the intermediate superheater steam 4 of the steam generator and the heat exchanger preheating the condensate 12 is connected to an input of water through the tank to the inlet of the condenser base

The method is carried out with a CCGT unit, as follows. Preheated in the heat exchanger 12 and the system of the regenerative heaters 5 condensate serves nutritious pump 6 into the steam generator 1, where it is vaporized and the resulting vapor overheat and sent to the steam turbine 2, where partially expand to a pressure that exceeds the pressure in the combustion chamber 9 getprotobyname engine 7 3-4 bars, transforming this part of the potential energy of steam into kinetic energy, and kinetic energy into mechanical energy, which is simultaneously converted into the generator 3 into electricity. After the turbine 2 pairs sent to the superheater 4 of the steam generator 1 for reheated by the heat of the solid fuel. Simultaneously, the air through the compressor 8 getprotobyname motor 7 is supplied to the combustion chamber 9, where direct gas or liquid fuel and is burned. The resulting combustion products are mixed in the combustion chamber 9 with steam supplied from a node collection pair 17. Moreover, a portion of the steam serves in the primary zone of the combustion chamber (combustion zone) to suppress NOx, and therefore he is called ecological ferry. Obtained in the combustion chamber 9 Prohaska, which is then converted into mechanical, and the resulting mechanical energy is simultaneously converted into electric power generator 15. The exhaust turbine 10, the gas-vapor mixture (exhaust gas) is sent to the HRSG 11, where disposed of her warmth with the formation of water vapor, which is served in a site collection pair 17 and mix it there with the submitted there by steam from the reheater 4 of the steam generator 1, where the received steam mixture is sent into the combustion chamber 9. Cooled in the exhaust-heat boiler 11 exhaust gases directed into the heat exchanger 12 preheating of the condensate, where bootilicious their warmth with the transfer of its condensate, which through the feed pump 6 and the system of the regenerative heaters 5 is sent to the steam generator 1. After the heat exchanger 12 dokladnie exhaust gases fed into the condenser 13, where they cool and condense the water vapor in contact with the condensate, chilled node 16 cooling of the condensate. Filed and received in the condenser 13, the condensate is separated into two streams: one through the deaerator is sent simultaneously to the inputs of the waste-heat boiler 11 and heat exchanger 12 preheating of the condensate, and the second node 16 x win up to atmospheric pressure, and absorbed into the environment.

Compared with the prototype of the proposed method of operation of a combined-cycle plant provides power for the combined (solid, gaseous or liquid) fuel. Compared to similar proposed method of operation of a combined cycle power plant combined organic fuel can significantly increase its efficiency, i.e. thermodynamic efficiency. This is because the share into the operation of the heat supplied to the working body, clearly depends on its temperature.

L=Q(1-Tabout/Tt),

where L is the employment share of heat into work);

Q is the heat supplied to the working body;

TaboutTtis the absolute temperature, respectively, the environment and the working fluid at the turbine inlet.

From dependence can be seen that at constant temperature The environment the more heat is transformed into work than above Ttthe temperature of the working fluid at the turbine inlet. In the same and other similar known analogues, Ttdoes not exceed 873 K and its growth prospects not yet in sight. Therefore, theoretical amount of heat into work, do not exceed the otherwise share the warmth, turn in work to 81%. Considering further the new increase Ttthe share of heat into work, will still increase. In addition, it will sharply increase from approximately 1.7 to 2 times the power density of the power plant, which significantly reduces capital investment, and hence reduces the cost of a kilowatt of installed capacity. This is confirmed by the following dependence, from which it follows that the power of the combined-cycle plant grows proportionally to the temperature of the working fluid at the turbine inlet.

NT=GCpTt(1-1/PK-K1/Kt)t

where G is the flow rate of the working fluid;

Withp- enthalpy of the working fluid;

Tt- gas temperature at the turbine inlet;

Ptthe degree of expansion of the working fluid in the turbine;

t- the adiabatic efficiency of the turbine;

Ntpower on the turbine shaft.

At the same time more than 2 times reduced emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere per unit of work performed.

The table below shows comparative data PTU with the discharge of exhaust gases of the gas turbine in the furnace of the steam generator (analog) and the proposed parogazovoi combined-cycle power plant not only provides for combined fuel but this significantly increases its thermodynamic efficiency (increase efficiency) and at the same time significantly increases the power density, which significantly reduces the cost of a kilowatt of installed capacity of the power plant.

Claims

1. The method of operation of a combined-cycle power plant with combined fuel, including the fuel combustion with the formation of superheated steam, the partial expansion of the superheated steam by converting its potential energy into kinetic energy, and kinetic energy into mechanical energy while simultaneously converting it into an electric with a further supply of steam after expansion in the intermediate superheat in the steam circuit and includes the processes of compression of the air, burning it to the fuel in the combustion chamber, the implementation of the mixture in the combustion chamber the products of combustion with water vapor, the expansion of the gas mixture and heat recovery from exhaust gases in the recovery boiler in the gas circuit, characterized in that what in the combustion chamber carry out the combustion of gaseous or liquid fuel, the heat of the exhaust gas after the boiler is made with the receiving condensate and Doge is inanam pair of gas-steam circuit, educated in the heat of condensation in the exhaust-heat boiler and steam of the steam circuit after reheated derived from preheated by the heat of the exhaust gas condensate-vapor path from the combustion of solid fuel, while the expansion of the gas mixture is performed converting its potential energy into kinetic energy, and kinetic energy into mechanical energy with the simultaneous conversion of the latter into electricity.

2. The method of operation of a combined-cycle power plant under item 1, characterized in that the vapor steam circuit before reheat expand to a pressure that exceeds the pressure in the combustion chamber at 3-4 bars.

3. Combined-cycle power plant (power plant) containing steam circuit, consisting of the United steam generator, a steam turbine associated shaft with a Converter of mechanical energy into electrical energy, and an intermediate superheater steam system of the regenerative heaters, feed water pump, and gas-steam circuit, consisting of getprotobyname engine, comprising sequentially located a compressor, a combustion chamber with a supply of steam and turbine and consistently located at discretefemale placed on the movement of the exhaust gas after the boiler heat exchanger preheating the condensate, the condenser and the booster compressor, announced his exit from the atmosphere and associated shaft with getprotobyname engine shaft connected with a Converter of mechanical energy into electrical energy or steam turbine, the condenser, the output of water through the deaerator connected to the input of the boiler and at the same time his exit and entrance of water connected respectively to the input and output of the cooling unit condensate, and combined-cycle power plant equipped with an additional site collection pair, which has its inputs connected simultaneously to the outputs on a couple of the recovery boiler and the intermediate superheater steam generator and its output to the combustion chamber getprotobyname engine and the heat exchanger preheating the condensate is connected to an input of water through the deaerator to the output capacitor and its output through a feed pump and a system of regenerative heaters to the steam generator.

 

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