Foamed urea-formaldehyde fertilizer and method thereof
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of chemistry and is used to produce fertilizers. The proposed fertilizer contains wt.%: nitrogen associated 30-32, nitrogen free of 0.2-0.3, P2ABOUT50,35-0,40, K2About 0,0015-0,0020, MgO 0,0035-0,0045 has a density 8-25 kg/m3, water absorption 330-400%, the number of open pores is not less than 85%. The method involves obtaining the foaming reaction composition containing urea, formaldehyde, an acid catalyst H3RHO4, surfactant and tanning bark extract of coniferous species, its curing (polycondensation) and drying. The invention allows to obtain high-quality fertilizer. 2 S. and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. The invention relates to the field of production of fertilizers intended for use as a substratum, fertilizer - aeronca root system in greenhouses and outdoors in cultivation of agricultural and ornamental crops.Known to cause a slow complex fertilizers based on urea-formaldehyde resins (see, for example, SU 1063801, 1983, or SU 1726467, 1992, or US 4174957, 1979).The closest to the invention is a foamed urea-formalde is it 4%, pH 5-7, density < 640,7 kg/m3(FR 2058303, 1971).However, the known fertilizer is characterized by increased leaching of formaldehyde, and high density granules. A method of obtaining foamed urea fertilizer comprising a mixture of an alloy of urea with formaldehyde in the presence of acid, the purge gas and drying (SU 700517, 1979).A prototype of the proposed method is adopted a method of obtaining a foamed urea-formaldehyde fertilizers, which includes the preparation of a reaction mixture containing urea, formaldehyde, phosphoric acid, surfactant, foaming composition for purging air, nitrogen or carbon dioxide, curing and drying in two stages: first, to a moisture content of 15-25%, and then to a moisture content of 0.5-15% (US 3231363, 1966).The disadvantage of this method is the low porosity and high density derived fertilizers, and increased content of washed out formaldehyde.The present invention is to develop a way to obtain a foamed fertilizer - low-toxic, low density, high water absorption, and enabling the receiving fertilizer in view of the formaldehyde fertilizer otkrytosti patterns, having a density of 8-25 kg/m3, water absorption 330-400%, the number of open pores is not less than 85%, which contains, in wt.%:Nitrogen associated 30-32Nitrogen free of 0.2-0.3P2O50,35-0,40K2O 0,0015-0,0020Mao 0,0035-0,0045Additional fertilizer may contain trace elements from a number of: boron, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum.Postanovlenie problem is solved also described a method of obtaining a foamed urea-formaldehyde fertilizers, which includes the preparation of reactive compositions containing urea, formaldehyde, tannic extract of the bark of conifers, phosphoric acid, surfactant and water, foaming, curing and drying.While the preparation of the composition is carried out in three stages, the first mixed urea-formaldehyde resin with tannin extract of the bark of conifers and water to obtain an emulsion, the second mixed solution of phosphoric acid with surface-active substance and subjected to air-mechanical foaming, and the third is injected emulsion in the foam solution.Preferably get an emulsion containing: 25-30 wt. parts smo is salt or minerals.Preferably, the foam is subjected to a 1.5-2.5% solution of phosphoric acid containing as a surfactant to alkylbenzenesulfonate in the amount of 1-2 wt.%, and foaming lead to multiplicity of foam about 40-60/unit Curing of the composition is carried out for 10-20 minutes, forms, and are drying to a moisture content of 6-10%.Below are examples of the method and characteristics of the fertilizer.When describing concrete examples used the following source data materials: resin worked out - 15 GOST 14231 or THE 6-06-12-88 vegetable tanning extract of the bark of conifers GOST 17-122-77, THE 17-06-18-77, as the surfactant alkylbenzenesulfonate (IBSFC) THE 2481-036-04689375-95, as acid catalyst is phosphoric acid GOST 6562-80, THE 2142-002-002-9450-96.Example 1. In thermostatic tank for emulsion loaded with 25 wt.h. urea resins brand worked out to 15 and add 10 wt.h. modifying tanning extract of the bark of coniferous species dissolved in 50 wt.h. water. The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes. In another container placed 10 wt.h. phosphoric acid concentrated, 0.5.h., alkylbenzenesulfonate IBSFC and water to obtain a 2% solution of orthophosphoric KIS is a special reactor aeration serves the resulting solution of orthophosphoric acid with a foaming agent and compressed air.As a result, the reactor is foaming, i.e., the increase in the volume of the solution with air saturation to high foam. The foam reaches 40-60 rpm units Further from the digester foamed and stabilized high foam pinoproblema the sleeve moves in the mixing chamber, which is equipped with an atomizer. At the same time, the metering pump to the nozzle is served emulsion. In the foam mass (foam), passing into the mixing chamber through the nozzle, spryskivaetsya homogeneous fine emulsion. When the interaction of two components uniformly distributed in the mixing chamber throughout the area, is a chemical process of polycondensation (hardening) of the polymer with gel formation and allocation of water. Partially hardened white helplearn polymer mass proprovide served to fill in forms.Full cure occurs in the forms within 15 minutes, the resulting product is dried to a moisture content of 6%.The resulting fertilizer is called “MANN”. In the method, the resulting fertilizer with the following characteristics (see table 1 and 2).Example 2The method is carried out, as 62 wt.h. aqueous extract of the bark of coniferous species with a concentration of solids of 15%, which corresponds to 12 wt.h. tannic excreta.After stirring for 10 minutes, the emulsion is further added minerals: borax, and waste ore processing plants containing Fe, Mu, Cu, Zu, Mo Curing is carried out for 20 minutes and the product is dried to a moisture content of 8%.The resulting fertilizer with the following characteristics:Component content:Nitrogen free 0,3Nitrogen total 31%P2O50,40TO2O 0,002%Mao 0,004%The micronutrient content amounted to a total of 0.005%.Density 25 kg/m3the water absorption of 400%, moisture 8%, the number of open pores 85%, the content of washed formaldehyde 0,012 g/DM3.As seen from the above examples, the obtained low-toxic fertilizer, because the extract of the bark of coniferous species containing tannins and polyphenols, reduces the toxicity of the composition due to chemical interaction of formaldehyde with polyphenols. The decrease in the content of free formaldehyde at 80% due to the formation of methylol derivatives in the interaction of formal the o groups and free formaldehyde.Received fertilizers are characterized by low acidity and a high number of open pores, that is, good air conditioning, good support water balance and improves soil structure.Studies have shown the effectiveness of the resulting fertilizer.Norms of consumption of fertilizers - aeronca “MANN” is:100-200 m3/ha mulch in the form of a pulp with landscaping (250-500 g/sq. m);200-500 m3/ha to improve soil layer thickness of 20 cm (arable and(or) subsurface soil horizons (500-1250 g/KVM);100-200 DM3/m3in horticulture for soil improvement and up to 50% by volume in artificial substracted.The method of applying fertilizers provide a method of surface perepiski. Recommended for use in soils with poor aeration characteristics (clay, loam) and to increase water-holding capacity of sandy soils. Fertilizer “MANN” refers to a group of lowered burning materials. The fertilizer - aeronca “MANN” maybe 8-10 days after manufacture, and drying. Soil “MANN” stimulates root development and growth of aboveground parts of plants. Increase culture. Fertilizer can be produced in the form of granules, chips, mats and other necessary forms. 1. Foamed urea-formaldehyde fertilizer otkrytosti structure, characterized in that it has a density 8-25 kg/m3, water absorption 330-400%, the number of open pores is not less than 85% and contains, wt%:Nitrogen associated 30-32Nitrogen free of 0.2-0.3P2ABOUT50,35-0,40TO2About 0,0015-0,0020Mao 0,0035-0,00452. Foamed urea-formaldehyde fertilizer under item 1, characterized in that it additionally contains the elements out of range: boron, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum.3. A method of obtaining a foamed urea-formaldehyde fertilizer, comprising preparing a reaction composition containing urea, formaldehyde, phosphoric acid, surfactant and water, foaming, curing and drying, characterized in that the prepared reaction composition, optionally containing tannin extract of the bark of conifers, and the preparation is carried out in three stages, the first mixed urea-formaldehyde resin with tannin extract of the bark of conifers and water to obtain an emulsion, whoroscope foaming, and the third is injected emulsion in the foam solution.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the receive emulsion containing 25-30 wt.h. resin, 10-12 wt.h. tanning extract, 50 wt.h. water.5. The method according to PP.3 and 4, characterized in that the emulsion is further added mineral salts and/or trace elements.6. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the foam is subjected to a 1.5-2.5% solution of phosphoric acid containing as a surfactant to alkylbenzenesulfonate in the amount of 1-2 wt.% and foaming lead to expansion of the foam is about 40-60./unit7. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the curing is carried out for 10-20 min in forms.8. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the drying is carried out to a moisture content of 6-10%.
SUBSTANCE: ingredients are contained in water solution at the following mole ratio: bivalent metals, such as manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt, magnesium, nickel, iron II: dihydrate of versene equal to 14,8:1. Content of ingredients in 10 l of liquid concentrated solution makes as follows: 10 g of potassium dichromate, 100 g of ferric (II) sulfate, 3 g of nickel sulfate, 600 g of zinc sulfate, 250 g of copper sulfate, 900 g of magnesium sulfate, 40 g of cobalt sulfate, 50 g of ferric (III) chloride, 25 g of lithium chloride, 80 g of ammonium paramolybdate, 60 g of sodium tetraborate, 50 g of boric acid, 3 g of selenium (IV) oxide, 150 g of manganese sulfate, 50 g of urea.
EFFECT: invention allows fulfilling the specified purpose.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method includes application of mineral fertilisers into the soil, drill sowing of the main spring nurse forage crop, followed by complementary seeding of intermediate forage crop, for example, spring rape, repeated mowing of herbage for animal feed. And after each mowing the stubble is combed and sprayed with insecticides. Sowing of the main spring nurse forage crop is carried out with seeds of sorghum crops, such as Sudan grass or forage millet with low seeding rate up to 50% and 75% respectively. Before sowing, as a mineral fertiliser, a controlled-release carbamide-formaldehyde fertiliser is applied in the soil containing 0.1-0.3 moles of formaldehyde per 1 mol of carbamide. The fertiliser is applied to the soil at the rate of 60-90 kg of active ingredient per 1 ha.
EFFECT: method enables to intensify the growth of plants due to preplant application of controlled-release carbamide-formaldehyde fertiliser and to increase the number of cuttings.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural production and can be used in fertiliser application for plowing. The method comprises crushing of urea-formaldehyde fertiliser to pieces. From the crushed mass the fraction of 5-10 mm homogenous by size is isolated, which is kept in a solution of potassium salt to filling of the its pore space. Then the wet mass is encrusted with phosphorus fertiliser and dried. Livestock wastes can be used as the solvent of potassium salt.
EFFECT: proposed method of preparation of foamed urea-formaldehyde fertiliser to for application for plowing enables to apply at one time in the soil the main mineral fertiliser in a slow acting available for plants form, which is not subject to washing out into the ground water, distributing them on the field.
SUBSTANCE: sub-standard carbamide-formaldehyde resin after its service life with the help of composting in mixture with waste waters sludge - poultry manure, swine manure, cattle manure and wood chips can be used at the plants producing resins for chemical, wood-processing, furniture and construction industries.
EFFECT: possibility to utilise three types of wastes simultaneously: waste waters sludge, wood chips, resin obtained at production of resin-bonded chipboard and simplify, make cheaper the technology of obtaining organic-mineral fertilisers and improve the fertilising value of the end target product.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing a complex slow-acting fertilizer based on urea-formaldehyde resin, thus, to intensify manufacturing and improve agrochemical properties of fertilizer contains the following: the sewage containing dissolved formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resin is added with orthophosphoric acid until pH = 2,0, then introduced with urea in mole ratio of formaldehyde to urea of 1.0: 1.5. The resulting mixture is held for 3.5-4.0 hours. The resulting polymer is filtered off and dried in vivo. And then it is mixed with ash, considering that the content of K2O is 10 wt %.
EFFECT: invention ensures to obtain a slow-acting complex fertilizer based on urea-formaldehyde resin with the complete and non-waste disposal of waste water and combustion products of wood wastes from woodworking enterprises, allowing to reduce the entry of radionuclides of cesium-137 in agricultural products, and to improve nitrogen phosphorus and potassium nutrition of plants.
5 tbl, 5 ex