# The method of determining the concentration of glucose in human blood (options)

The invention relates to medicine, in particular to laboratory diagnosis. The method provides a more accurate determination of glucose concentration in human blood. Measure the total electrical resistance of the skin or one of the components of the total electric resistance of the skin, and the concentration of glucose in the blood was determined by the expression:where G(t) determine the value of glucose concentration in the blood at time t; G

_{0}- the value of glucose concentration in the blood at initial time of measurement; q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood; G

_{1}=G

_{0}-q; a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance or the values of the components of the total electric resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose in the blood of a particular person; and

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability of external factors and characteristics of the body of a particular person; N(x) is the normalized measured values of the total electric resistance of the skin or make up a complete electrical resistance is a period of time T simultaneously measure the electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose invasive method, but these values of q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determined by approximation of the dependence of the concentration of glucose in blood obtained invasive method for the above-mentioned dependence of G{t), the time T is chosen to be sufficient for you to commit changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood associated with natural diurnal cycle changes, or artificially induced, such as nutrition, physical activity, injection drug glucose or insulin. In another case, the determination of the glucose concentration is performed in expressionwhere G(t

_{m}) - determine the value of glucose concentration in the blood at time t

_{m}; G

_{0}- the value of glucose concentration in the blood at initial time of measurement; q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood; G

_{1}=G

_{0}-q; a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance of the skin or the values of the components of the total electric resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose in the blood of a particular person; a

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability in the I full electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin, where t

_{k-1}and t

_{k}- time removal of discrete samples, starting with zero at t

_{0}=0, if k is a valid integer (k=1,2,...m), these values of q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determine at the preparatory stage, in which during the time T simultaneously measure the electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose invasive method, and the above variables q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determined by approximation of the dependence of the concentration of glucose in blood obtained by an invasive method, mentioned the dependence of G(t), the time T is chosen to be sufficient for you to commit changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood associated with natural diurnal cycle changes, or artificially induced, for example, nutrition, physical activity, injection drug glucose and insulin. 2 C. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.The invention relates to methods of medical examination of person non-surgical methods, namely the determination of the glucose concentration in the blood of the living organism on the basis of measurement of electrical resistance of the body.CSO electrical resistance (impedance) of the part of the body or components of the impedance.For example, there is a method of indicating the sugar content in the blood [1], in which the level of glucose in the blood of the patient is measured by changing the dielectric constant of the finger placed in the electric field of the transducer.There is also known a method of controlling the amount of sugar in human blood [2], in which the measurement is produced by changing the reactance oscillator circuits included in the secondary circuit of the high-frequency generator, by the direct impact of man on the elements of the oscillating circuits. Thus, the amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by changing the current in the secondary circuit of the high-frequency generator.The known method [3], which carried out the spectral analysis of the reflected away from the body or through the high-frequency radiation. The measured parameter is the phase shift between the incident and reflected or passed by the waves, which characterizes the reactive component of the resistance body. On the measured parameters of the phase spectrum is judged on the concentration in the blood of substances, in particular on the concentration of glucose.There is also known a method implemented by the device described in [4]. Yes the body at two frequencies, the definition capacitive component of the resistance of the human body and converting the obtained value of the capacitive component in the value of glucose concentration in the patient's blood.All methods have a common disadvantage: the accurate measurement of glucose concentration in human blood is considerably inferior to the accuracy of the measurements direct (invasive) methods. At the same time invasive methods that require the taking of blood samples, is clearly inferior to the non-invasive from the point of view of convenience and safety.Technical problem on which the invention is directed, is the creation of a simple and accurate non-invasive method of determining the concentration of glucose on the basis of which could be developed devices for individual use.The above methods, based on the determination of full or reactive resistance of the human body section, or components of the impedance, can not give acceptable accuracy of determining the concentration of glucose in the blood for the following reasons.As explained by the authors of the claimed invention, as full electrical resistance (impedance) of the human body and components of a complete electrorate changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood over time. Thus the rate of change of glucose concentration in the blood of every person vary within certain limits depending on various reasons, in particular external influences, physiological factors, dietary habits and metabolic processes of the body.In addition, studies have shown that the rate of change of glucose concentration over time even one person has different values depending on whether the concentration of glucose in the blood of the so-called "renal threshold" or does not exceed. This is because when the concentration of glucose in the blood exceeds a certain value (for children from 7 to 9 mmol/l, and for adults from 8 to 11 mmol/l), the kidneys begin to actively allocate glucose and it leaves the body with the urine. These values of glucose concentration, the data within individual for a specific person, called the renal threshold.Claimed two possible ways, one of which is based on continuous measurements and the other discrete measurements.In the first embodiment, the method of determining the concentration of glucose in the blood characterized by the fact that full measure the electrical resistance of the skin or one of the components �/img_data/78/785201.gif">where G(t) - determine the value of glucose concentration in the blood at time t;G

_{0}- the value of glucose concentration in the blood at the initial time of the measurement process;q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood;G

_{1}=G

_{0}-q;a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance or the values of the components of a complete electrical skin resistance and glucose concentration of a particular person;and

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability of external factors and characteristics of the body of a particular person;N(x) is the normalized measured values of the total electric resistance of the skin or components of the total electric resistance of the skin.These values of q, and

_{0}and a

_{1}determine at the preparatory stage, in which during the time T simultaneously measure the electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose invasive method, and the above variables q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determined by the AP is here G(t), the time T is chosen to be sufficient for you to commit changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood associated with natural diurnal cycle changes, or artificially induced, for example, nutrition, physical activity, injection drug glucose or insulin.To improve the accuracy of the approximation mentioned measurement in the preparatory phase with increasing and with decreasing concentration of glucose in the blood. In particular, the above variables q and

_{0}and a

_{1}determine the concentration of glucose in the blood, not exceeding the renal threshold, exceeding the renal threshold, and for the values corresponding to the renal threshold.As components of the total electric resistance of the skin to measure the active component of the resistance of the skin, or reactive component of the resistance of the skin, or the phase angle between the active and reactive components of the impedance of the skin.In the particular case of insulin dependent person the value of q is chosen equal to zero.Usually, in the process, the preparatory stage is conducted for a period of T=(4-12) hours.According to the second variant of the inventive method is characterized by Thu the ski skin resistance, as the concentration of glucose in the blood was determined by the expressionwhere G(t

_{m}) - determine the value of glucose concentration in the blood at time t

_{m};G

_{0}- the value of glucose concentration in the blood at the initial time of the measurement process;q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood;G

_{1}=G

_{0}-q;a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance of the skin or the values of the components of a complete electrical skin resistance and glucose concentration of a particular person;a

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability of external factors and characteristics of the body of a particular person;N(t

_{k}) normalized measured values of the total electric resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin, where t

_{k-1}and t

_{k}- time removal of discrete samples, starting with zero at t

_{0}=0, if k is a valid integer (k=1,2,...m). In the same way as in the first embodiment, the above variables q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determine which of leather or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose invasive method, as mentioned values q and

_{0}and a

_{1}determined by approximation of the dependence of the concentration of glucose in blood obtained by an invasive method, mentioned the dependence of G(t). Time T, respectively, is chosen to be sufficient for you to commit changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood associated with natural diurnal cycle changes, or artificially induced, for example, nutrition, physical activity, injection drug glucose or insulin.As well as in the implementation of the method according to the first embodiment, to increase the accuracy of the approximation mentioned measurement in the preparatory phase with increasing and with decreasing concentration of glucose in the blood. In particular, the above variables q and

_{0}and a

_{1}determine the concentration of glucose in the blood, not exceeding the renal threshold, exceeding the renal threshold, and for the values corresponding to the renal threshold.As components of the total electric resistance of the skin to measure the active component of the resistance of the skin, or reactive component of the resistance of the skin, or the phase angle between the active and reactive components of impedance of kapitalny stage is conducted for a period of T=(4-12) hours.As components of the total electric resistance of the skin to measure the active component of the resistance of the skin, or reactive component of the resistance of the skin, or the phase angle between the active and reactive components of the impedance of the skin.The inventive method based on measuring the electrical resistance (or its components) of the human body, particularly the skin and adjacent tissues, allows more accurate to determine the concentration of glucose in the blood.The invention is illustrated graphics.In Fig.1 shows the time dependence of invasive measured glucose concentration G

_{inv}(t), the total electric resistance of N(t) and defined by the present method concentrations of G(t) of the patient "And" at the preparatory stage.In Fig.2 - 5 shows the results obtained for the referred patient "And" within one day of testing.In Fig.6 - 8 shows some results of measurements and calculations for the patient (Fig.6) and the patient (Fig.7 and 8).The inventive method is carried out as follows.At the preparatory stage of the method to simultaneously measure the full e what I do as when ascending, and lowering the concentration of glucose.Measurement of impedance or components of the impedance of human skin can be one of the known methods, in particular using radiation of high-frequency and resistance measurements using capacitive sensors. This can be used the above-mentioned device described in [4].In the description of the method will use the term "electrical resistance", which will allow us to understand not only the value of the electrical resistance, including active and reactive components of resistance, but these components separately in the electrical resistance of the skin and adjacent tissues, and combinations or derivatives of the magnitude of these components, such that the ratio of resistance to reactance.To improve the approximation accuracy of these measurements at the preparatory stage to perform at least two values of glucose concentration not exceeding the renal threshold, immediately upon crossing the renal threshold and the minimum of the two values of glucose concentration exceeding the renal threshold. These measurements are performed as if against the Oia and the concentration of glucose in the blood invasive method is carried out in six ranges of values of glucose concentration:for values not exceeding the renal threshold with increasing concentrations of glucose;for values in zone of the renal threshold when moving through him, and with increasing concentrations of glucose;for values exceeding the renal threshold with increasing concentrations of glucose;for values exceeding the renal threshold, lowering the concentration of glucose;for values in zone of the renal threshold when moving through him, and lowering the concentration of glucose;for values not exceeding the renal threshold, lowering the concentration of glucose.Obtained in the preparatory phase total electrical resistance of the skin and simultaneously measured values of glucose concentration invasive method further serve to determine the above values of q and

_{0}and a

_{1}linking the measured electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose in the blood, and which are individual for each person. The description of these parameters and their definitions are given below. Fundamentally, for the subsequent implementation of the method requires a single cycle of the specified measurements of the preparatory phase. However, the random error in the determination of the concentration of g is (clov.To account for systematic error that prolonged the process can accumulate due to changes in the human body, it is advisable to periodically (e.g. once every few months) to repeat the procedure described preparatory phase. However, to account for these changes, as will be shown below, using only the results of measurements of impedance in the typical areas, for example, when changing the values of the concentration of glucose in the blood through the renal threshold.In General, the dependence of the impedance Z(t) from time-varying values of glucose concentration G(t) can be expressed by a polynomial of the formwhere M is the polynomial order (or the order of approximation used in the model), with M[1,);i - exponent values of glucose concentration G(t);j - exponent time derivative values of the rate of change of glucose concentration dG/dt;b

_{ij}numerical coefficients.The expression (1) describes a generalized model of the relationship between the concentration of glucose in blood and full of zaimosvyazi and use appropriate algorithms for determining the estimated values of glucose concentration on the measured electrical resistance. The accuracy of the description of this relationship increases with the order of approximation M, but it increases the complexity of the procedure of determining the concentration of glucose.Experimental testing has shown that to determine the concentration of glucose in the blood with the main relative error of the order of 10-15% is sufficient to use the model (1) with the approximation of the first order (M=1).Usually used for the calculation of the linear model of the relationship between glucose concentration and the measured total electrical resistance, for example, as shown in [5], has the formand is a special case of the incomplete model of the first order. As can be seen, for example, from [6], and which is confirmed by research carried out by the authors, this model leads to a poor approximation accuracy.The full linear model of the first order relationship between the glucose concentration and the measured total electrical resistance corresponds to valueIt is convenient to introduce a differential equation of first order in the form ofusing the following substitutions:

the bathrooms are measured values of the impedance of human skin, which are normalized to the value of G_{r}glucose concentration at time t_{r}crossing the renal threshold at this

_{r}- coefficient of normalization;a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance and glucose concentration of a particular person and which for him is quite stable for a significant period of time;q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood (for healthy people q0, and for insulin-dependent diabetics, the value of q close to zero);and

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability of external factors and features of the human body. Its value also depends on the direction of change of glucose concentration in blood and weakly depends on the speed of its change.In the above error bounds determine the concentration of blood glucose ratio

_{1}can be taken as constant on the intervals of monotonicity of change of glucose concentration.The procedure of finding all of these values for each individual ChELOVEKA cases characterizing the two groups of people.The values of the coefficients and

_{1}>>1 and |a

_{1}/a

_{0}|1 correspond to the case when the total electrical resistance of human skin is proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood, i.e., N(t)~G(t). Among diabetics, people with such a directly proportional dependence as a percentage, not a lot, but all of the above known methods measure the use of such a model.The other limiting case when |a

_{0}/a

_{1}|0 and |a

_{0}|0 corresponds to the situation when the total electrical resistance of the skin is proportional to the rate of change of glucose concentration in the blood, i.e., N(t)~dG(t)/dt). In this case, the measured electrical resistance in time will have many highs and lows, reflecting the behavior of the rate of change of glucose concentration.Describes the limiting cases occur infrequently. In practice, usually, there are intermediate cases.The solution of the differential equation (4) individual dependency of the values of blood glucose from the normalized measured values of the total electric resisting film to prevent the 0 - the value of glucose concentration in the blood at the initial time of the measurement process, a N(x) is the normalized measured values of the total electric resistance of the skin or components of the total electric resistance of the skin.For discrete normalized data samples impedance of the formula (6) is converted into the following form:where t

_{k-1}and t

_{k}- time removal of discrete samples, starting with zero at t

_{0}=0, ak is a valid integer (k=1,2,...m);Expressions (6) and (7) are working formulas to determine the values of glucose concentration G(t) normalized measured values of the total electric resistance of human skin N(t) in continuous and discrete measurements, respectively. For each person you need to define individual coefficients q and

_{0}and a

_{1}separately for the following mentioned ranges of glucose concentration: up to the renal threshold and after the renal threshold, decreasing, and with increasing concentrations of glucose.Determination of the coefficients of q, and

_{0}and a

_{1}is the standard mathematical treatment, for example, methods ub>0and a

_{1}to the dependence (6) (or dependence (7)) was as close to a dependence of the concentration of glucose measured by an invasive method in the preparatory phase. The dependence of G(t), found by an invasive method, take residually. Dependence, which is calculated by the formula (6) or the formula (7) will be called corrected (approximating). The convergence of these dependencies can be performed using, for example, a widely used software MATLAB. For this approximated and corrected dependencies must be entered in the subroutine "curvefit" MATLAB, to allocate land approximated dependence with a positive slope and the corresponding time plot of the corrected dependencies to find such values of the coefficients q and

_{0}and a

_{1}when the substitution which is corrected in dependence of the mismatch between the two dependencies in these areas is minimal, then select plot approximated dependence with a negative slope and the corresponding time plot of the corrected according to set value found coefficients and

_{0}q and find the second value of the coefficient a

_{1}when the substitution toTo calculate the normalization factor k

_{r}on approximated according allocate all points in time, corresponding to a value of G

_{r}that is crossing the renal threshold, corrected dependencies are relevant to the specified time value of the measured impedance, determine the arithmetic mean value and take it beyond the level of Z(t

_{r}appropriate renal threshold, then calculate the k

_{r}=G

_{r}/Z(t

_{r}).On the stage directly to the implementation of the method, after determining the coefficients and

_{0}, q, and

_{1}, k

_{r}and the initial values of the glucose concentration G

_{0}are determined only normalized values of the total electric resistance of the N(t) by the formula N(t)=k

_{r}Z(t). If measurements are made continuously, to obtain the estimated values of glucose concentration in the blood G(t) is the relation (6), derived from the General expression (1). In the case of discrete measurements using the dependence (7), derived from the General formula (1) and the selected discretization method (e.g., trapezoid method). To improve the reliability of determining the concentration of glucose in the blood, it is necessary to know uvee dG(t)/dt can be obtained by estimation and forecast values of glucose concentration on the basis of previous measurements, or by statistical analysis of the results of the current measurements, or, for example, to change the shape of electrocardiograph, which is associated with changes in the level of glucose in the blood, as stated in [7].It is important that the implementation of the method is possible clarification of the values G(t) without additional invasive measurement of glucose concentration in blood. It was observed that the total electrical resistance of human skin with the passage of the renal threshold is usually characterized by sharp changes of resistance values, in particular in the form of jumps in the total electrical resistance in a short period of time. This allows for the kind of dependence Z(t) to determine the moment of passing the renal threshold. Considering the fact that the value of G

_{r}for the person determined in advance at the preparatory stage, can the value of N(t) obtained for the point in time corresponding to the transition through the renal threshold, replace the value of N(t

_{r})=G

_{r}. Thus in the measurement process to adjust the resulting calculated values of G(t), without resorting to additional repetition of the operations of the preparatory phase, associated with blood collection and measurement of glucose concentration invasive method. A resistance, namely, using the information that this person's renal threshold corresponds to a value of glucose concentration obtained in the preparatory phase.The moment of passage of the renal threshold for adjustment values of the concentration of glucose in the blood, produced by the claimed method may be determined based on the measurement of other parameters of the person, such as control of cardiac activity, action potentials in acupuncture points and so on.The inventive method also allows to determine the required dose injection, for example, insulin for diabetes patient at a specific point in time. The required dose can be determined based on the level and rate of change of glucose concentration in the blood at any given time based on the characteristics obtained in the preparatory phase. After the introduction of this specific dose of a medicine you can enter additional adjustment of the current values of G(t), using information on the variability of the coefficient a

_{1}received at the preparatory stage.Briefly fix the sequence of the performance of the proposed method. At the preparatory stage of full measure electric weather resistance the holding of glucose in the blood is one of the known invasive techniques, for example, using glucosemeter type "ONE TOUCH" or "GLUCOTREND". Measurements are made at increasing the glucose content in the blood and decreasing the concentration of glucose in the blood. These changes in concentration of glucose in the blood provided by the natural daily cycle changes or artificially stimulated with diet, exercise, drugs, glucose and insulin. You need to have made at least two full reference electrical resistance and glucose concentrations as when ascending and descending concentrations of glucose in the blood. To improve the accuracy of approximation of dependence of glucose concentration from the measured resistance of these samples receive as when the values of glucose concentration not exceeding the renal threshold, and when the values of glucose concentration above the renal threshold, as well as directly by passing the renal threshold. Accordingly, the total time of measurement of the preparatory phase should be sufficient to capture significant changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood.The preparatory step of the method allows to obtain the functional dependence of the concentration of glucose in the blood from the options time when it is descending and ascending order, accepted as "true" (corresponding approximated dependencies) with the error used invasive method.In addition, to reduce the errors of the subsequent determination of glucose concentration suitable for the preparatory phase to obtain detailed time dependence of the total electrical resistance and the concentration of glucose in the blood, especially in the area of passage of the renal threshold. The latter condition allows you to find the normalizing factor k

_{r}by the formula (5).Next, measurement results of the preliminary stage determine the individual coefficients a

_{0}q and a

_{1}for the two ranges of values of glucose concentration: not exceeding the renal threshold and exceeding the renal threshold, decreasing, and with increasing concentrations of glucose. For discrete or continuous measurements, the coefficients a

_{0}q and a

_{1}determined on the basis of processing of dependencies obtained in the preparatory phase, as described above.Before determining the concentration of glucose in the electric resistance is also determined by the value of g

_{0}- initial anchor point of the value of the impedance of a concentration of glue human skin and by the formula (6) or (7) determine the values of the concentration of glucose in the blood.In the process of measuring the impedance of the nature of the change of this resistance determine (fix) the moment of transition of the renal threshold and adjust the current calculated value of G(t), equating it to the value of

_{r}.If necessary, adjust the value of G(t) by taking into account data on the number entered medicines.Experimental studies of the proposed method was carried out on 12 patients with diabetes mellitus and 6 healthy people. The patient group was comprised of insulin-dependent men and women aged 17 to 60 years with diabetes experience from 9 to 33 years. For all diabetics for the above reason, in the determination of glucose concentration according to the formula (7) used a value of q=0.The first day has been a preparatory phase, during which we measured the concentration of glucose in blood of the test-invasive method and complete the electrical resistance of the skin of the finger. The results of these measurements was determined by individual factors and

_{0}and a

_{1}for two areas of concentration of glucose: before the renal threshold and after the renal threshold, decreasing, and with increasing concentrations of glucose. Also, was the value of k

_{r}.Fig the day, i.e., at the preparatory stage. Here's a graph of the normalized values of N(t) the total electrical resistance when the normalization factor k

_{r}=9/400 (adjustable dependence), where the numerator is equal to 9 mmol/l, consistent with the value of glucose concentration when passing through the renal threshold for a given patient, and the denominator equal to 400 Ohms, the value of the corresponding impedance of the module of the impedance. Found in the process of approximation coefficients amounted to:

_{0}=0,005; a

_{1}-0,0018 (for only part of the decline in glucose concentration); and

_{1}+0,0215 (for the entire plot of the rise of glucose concentration). A graph of calculated values of glucose concentration G(t), obtained by substituting these coefficients into the formula (7), also shown in Fig.1 and shows the model for the preliminary stage quality adjustments. As can be seen from the graphs, the relative deviation based on approximated do not exceed 20%, with an average modulo the deviation is not more than 10%.In the following days, with a range from 2 days to 3 months, the value of glucose concentration G(t) were determined by a discrete-time measurement full and

_{1}received on the first day, as well as initial values of glucose concentration G

_{0}defined in these days. To establish the accuracy of the proposed method was determined values of glucose concentration invasive and G

_{inv}(t).The error in determining the concentration of glucose in the blood by the claimed method at best amounted to 8% in the worst - 17% (for different patients), and on average 11%.Carried out comparative tests of the proposed method with the known method described in the certificate of the Russian Federation for useful model No. 9703, in which the glucose concentration is determined by multiplying the measured values of the total electric resistance by a constant factor. The error in determining the concentration of glucose in this way is, according to the authors, an average of 32%. As already mentioned, according to the authors, this is due to the fact that the known method does not take into account the influence on the impedance rate of change of glucose concentration in human blood.In Fig.2 - 5 shows the results obtained for the referred patient "And" within one day of testing.In Fig.2 shows graphs of the values of G

_{inv}(t) and N(t) to this day.In Fig.3 shows the calculated values of G'(t), nuntia in Fig.3 and 4 also shows the dependence of the concentration of glucose, measured invasive method G

_{inv}(t).As can be seen from the graphs, the dependence of the total electrical resistance of the skin of the finger does not coincide with the curve of glucose concentration in blood obtained by an invasive method (see Fig.2), and therefore the determination of the glucose concentration in the blood G'(t) in a known manner (see Fig.3) gives a much greater error.At the same time, the concentration of blood glucose G(t) by the claimed method (see Fig.4) gives good agreement with the values of glucose concentration G

_{inv}(t), obtained with invasive way.In Fig.5 shows an example of adjustment for renal threshold calculated values of glucose concentration G(t) by the claimed method. As can be seen from the graph, this adjustment can further increase the accuracy of determining the concentration of glucose in the blood.In Fig.6 - 8 shows some results of measurements of the impedance of N(t) and calculations of values of glucose concentration G(t) for the patient (see Fig.6) and the patient "S" (see Fig.7 and 8). Each plot shows the normalized values of the total electric resistance of the N(t), the values of glucose concentration G(t) defined by the claimed method, and the values of G

_{inv}(t) the concentration glucarate reduce the concentration of glucose in the same patient in a normal situation without insulin (see Fig.7) and with ingestion of large doses of fast-acting insulin (see Fig.8). Insulin was accompanied by adjustments in the expression (7) values of the coefficient a

_{1}taking into account its variability identified in the preliminary stage. As can be seen from the above graph, it is possible to improve the accuracy of determining the concentration of glucose in the area of recession.Thus, the above examples show the procedure of the proposed method and demonstrate its adaptive capabilities and typical level of error in determining the concentration of glucose in the blood.SOURCES of INFORMATION1. RF patent №2073242, IPC G 01 N 33/48, 1997.2. RF patent №2088927, IPC G 01 N 33/49, 1997.3. U.S. patent No. 5792668, IPC G 01 N 27/00, 1998.4. Certificate of utility model of the Russian Federation No. 9703, IPC And 61 In 5/00, 1999.5. U.S. patent No. 5890489, IPC And 61 In 19/00, 1999.6. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements in patients with diabetes //Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 64(supply): 515S-8S. Printed in USA. 1996 American Society for Clinical Nutrition.7. U.S. patent No. 5741211, IPC And 61 In 5/00, 1998.

Claims

1. The method of determining the concentration of glucose in the blood, characterized by the fact that full measure the electrical resistance of the skin or one of the components of the total electric >p>where G(t) - determine the value of glucose concentration in the blood at time t;G_{0}- the value of glucose concentration in the blood at the initial time of the measurement process;q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood;G

_{1}=G

_{0}-q;a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance or the values of the components of the total electric resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose in the blood of a particular person;and

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability of external factors and characteristics of the body of a particular person;N(x) is the normalized measured values of the total electric resistance of the skin or components of the total electric resistance of the skin,these values of q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determine at the preparatory stage, in which during the time T simultaneously measure the electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose invasive method, and the above variables q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determine the way the cost G(t), the time T is chosen to be sufficient for you to commit changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood associated with natural diurnal cycle changes, or artificially induced, for example, nutrition, physical activity, injection drug glucose or insulin.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the preparatory phase of the measurement carried out by increasing and decreasing the concentration of glucose in the blood.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the preparatory phase of the quantities q, and

_{0}and a

_{1}determine the concentration of glucose in the blood, not exceeding the renal threshold, exceeding the renal threshold, and for the values corresponding to the renal threshold.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that upon reaching the renal threshold in the value of G(t) to introduce an amendment, equating certain at this point, the value of G(t) to the value of the concentration of glucose in the blood corresponding to the renal threshold and received at the preparatory stage invasive method.5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the components of the total electric resistance of the skin is measured active component soprotivlenie full electrical resistance of the skin.6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for insulin-dependent person, the value of q is chosen equal to zero.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the preparatory phase is conducted for a time T=412 PM8. The method of determining the concentration of glucose in the blood, characterized by the fact that the discrete measured values of the total electric resistance of the skin or components of the total electric resistance of the skin, and the concentration of glucose in the blood was determined by the expressionwhere G(t

_{m}) - determine the value of glucose concentration in the blood at time t

_{m};G

_{0}- the value of glucose concentration in the blood at the initial time of the measurement process;q - value, which characterizes the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis with respect to the concentration of glucose in the blood;G

_{1}=G

_{0}-q;a

_{0}- coefficient characterizing the relationship between values of the total electric resistance of the skin or the values of the components of the total electric resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose in the blood of a particular person;and

_{1}- coefficient taking into account the variability EXT is I full electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin, where t

_{k-1}and t

_{k}- time removal of discrete samples, starting with zero at t

_{0}=0, if k is a valid integer (k=1,2,...m),these values of q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}determine at the preparatory stage, in which during the time T simultaneously measure the electrical resistance of the skin or components of a complete electrical resistance of the skin and the concentration of glucose invasive method, and the above variables q and

_{0}and a

_{1}determined by approximation of the dependence of the concentration of glucose in blood obtained by an invasive method, mentioned the dependence of G(t), the time T is chosen to be sufficient for you to commit changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood associated with natural diurnal cycle changes, or artificially induced, for example, nutrition, physical activity, injection drug glucose and insulin.9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that in the preparatory phase of the measurement carried out by increasing and decreasing the concentration of glucose in the blood.10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that at the preparatory stage of the above variables q, a

_{0}and a

_{1}Opredelenie for values relevant renal threshold.11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that upon reaching the renal threshold in the value of G(t

_{m}) introducing the amendment, equating certain at this point, the value of G(t

_{m}the value of glucose concentration in the blood corresponding to the renal threshold and received at the preparatory stage invasive method.12. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the components of the total electric resistance of the skin to measure the active component of the resistance of the skin, or reactive component of the resistance of the skin, or the phase angle between the active and reactive components of the impedance of the skin.13. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that for insulin-dependent person, the value of q is chosen equal to zero.14. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the preparatory phase is conducted for a time T=412 o'clock

**Same patents:**

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out urological examination for determining hydrodynamic resistance of ureter calculated from formula Z=8Lμ/(πR^{4}), where Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, L is the ureter length, R is the ureter radius, μ is the urine viscosity. Angle α at which the ureter enters the urinary bladder is determined from formula cosα = 8l1μ/(ZπR^{4}), where l1 is the perpendicular drawn from the upper edge of the ureter to the its exit projection line, μ is the urine viscosity, Z is the hydrodynamic resistance of ureter, R is the ureter radius. Vesicoureteral reflux recidivation is predicted when the angle of α+90° is less than 120°.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in reducing the number of recidivation cases.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: one should measure electric impedance of patient's middle ear. Electrodes should be applied in three localizations: auditory canal, anterior end of lower nasal concha and frontal skin. Electric impedance should be measured at the frequencies of sinusoidal signal being equal to 10, 30, 250 and 1000 Hz, the data obtained should be compared by values of electric impedance in the given area (middle ear) in the group of healthy patients. This method provides the chance to obtain comparative data for diagnostics of middle ear diseases.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of evaluation.

2 ex

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves doing multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram and carrying out functional tests. Recording and storing rheoencephalograms is carried out additionally with multi-channel recording of electroencephalogram synchronously and in real time mode in carotid and vertebral arteries. Electroencephalograms and rheoencephalograms are visualized in single window with single time axis. Functional brain state is evaluated from synchronous changes of electroencephalograms, rheoencephalograms and electrocardiograms in response to functional test. The device has electrode unit 1 for recording bioelectric brain activity signals, electrode unit 2 for recording electric cardiac activity signals, current and potential electrode unit 3 for recording rheosignals, leads commutator 4, current rheosignal oscillator 5, synchronous rheosignal detector 6, multi-channel bioelectric brain activity signals amplifier 7, electrophysiological signal amplifier 8, demultiplexer 9, multi-channel rheosignal amplifier 10, multi-channel analog-to-digital converter 11, micro-computer 12 having galvanically isolated input/output port and personal computer 13 of standard configuration.

EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of differential diagnosis-making.

11 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has acting upon skin between electrodes with DC potential of given magnitude for producing temporary breakdown. Skin impedance is measured between measuring electrode first negatively polarized relative to control electrode and the control electrode, and then, DC current resistance is measured once more by means of measuring electrode positively polarized relative to the control electrode. Ratio of the obtained values is used for determining internal organ health state, corresponding to skin area.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of diagnosis.

11 cl, 14 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: poultry science.

SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with visual evaluation in chicken followed by testing them by the value of bioelectric potential. Chickens with bioelectric potential being significantly higher against average values are considered to be stress-resistant ones and those with bioelectric potential being significantly lower against average values in concrete population are concluded to be stress-sensitive ones. The method is very simple in its implementation and efficient for large-scale selection in poultry on stress-resistance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: the method deals with measuring geometric body size and electric impedances of patient's hands, body and legs at their probing with low- and high-frequency current due to current and potential electrodes applied onto distal parts of limbs, and, thus, detecting extracellular, cellular and total volumes of liquid in patient's hands, body and legs. While implementing the method one should additionally apply current electrodes onto left-hand and right-hand parts of neck, and potential electrodes - onto distal femoral parts. Body impedance (Z_{b}) should be measured due to successive measuring the impedance of its right-hand Z_{rb} and left-hand Z_{lb} parts at probing current coming between electrodes of similar sides of patient's neck and legs to detect Z_{b}, as Z_{b} = Ѕ x (Z_{rb} + Z_{lb}), impedance of legs Z_{l} should be detected due to measuring femoral impedance Z_{f} and that of shins Z_{s}, as Z_{l} = Z_{f} + Z_{s}. At detecting the volumes of liquid in body and legs one should apply measured values of Z_{b} and Z_{l}, moreover, as geometric body size one should apply the distance against the plane coming through the upper brachial surface up to the middle of radiocarpal articulation in case of patient's hand being along the body.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection.

5 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves applying electrodes to injured extremity tissue under study. The electrodes are arranged in diametrically opposite points of horizontal plane transaction to extremity surface. Two electrodes are applied to the other extremity. The electrodes are arranged in diametrically opposite points of horizontal plane transaction to extremity surface. An initial point is selected relative to which pairs of electrodes are equidistantly arranged on the extremity. Active and reactive impedance components are measured at the places of electrodes positioning. Viability condition of the injured extremity tissue under study is diagnosed depending on ratio of reactive to active impedance component on injured and intact extremity and difference between reactive impedance component on injured and intact extremity. Device has transducer unit, computer and unit for processing signals having interface units, central subscriber station, autonomous transmission center, commutator which input is connected to transducer unit output and commutator output is connected to central subscriber station input, the first input is connected to autonomous transmission center output.

EFFECT: high accuracy in diagnosing biological object condition.

5 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: medicine, psychotherapy.

SUBSTANCE: the method deals with correcting neurological and psychopathological disorders with anxiety-phobic symptomatics due to individual trainings. The method includes evaluation of body reaction to stimulating signals, seances of individual training performed due to the impact of two quasiantipodal stimulating signals of similar physical modality applied in time of sporadic character, and as a signal one should present biological feedback for the altered value of physiological parameter adequately reflecting body reaction to the impact of stimulating signal. At the first stage of training it is necessary to achieve body adaptation to the impact of quasiantipodal stimulating signals, at the second stage it is necessary to obtain conditional reflex for one out of stimulating signals, for this purpose one should accompany this stimulating signal with discomfort impact, during the third stage, finally, due to volitional efforts one should suppress body reaction to stimulating signal. The devise suggested contains successively connected a transformer of physiological parameter into electric signal and a bioamplifier, an analysis and control block with a connected block to present the signals of biological feedback, a block for presenting discomfort impact, an indication block and that of forming and presenting quasiantipodal stimulating signals. The innovation enables to have skills to control one's emotions, decrease sensitivity threshold to environmental impacts and learn to how behave during stress situations.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of training.

15 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: medicine; medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method involves recording multichannel electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram record and carrying out functional test and computer analysis of electrophysiological signals synchronously with multichannel record of electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram in real time mode. Superslow brain activity is recorded, carotid and spinal artery pools rheoelectroencephalogram is recorded and photopletysmogram of fingers and/or toes is built and subelectrode resistance of electrodes for recording bioelectrical cerebral activity is measured. Physiological values of bioelectrical cerebral activity are calculated and visualized in integrated cardiac cycle time scale as absolute and relative values of alpha-activity, pathological slow wave activity in delta and theta wave bandwidth. Cerebral metabolism activity dynamics level values are calculated and visualized at constant potential level. Heart beat rate is determined from electrocardiogram, pulsating blood-filling of cerebral blood vessels are determined from rheological indices data. Peripheral blood vessel resistance level, peripheral blood vessel tonus are determined as peripheral photoplethysmogram pulsation amplitude, large blood vessel tonus is determined from pulse wave propagation time data beginning from Q-tooth signal of electrocardiogram to the beginning of systolic wave of peripheral photoplethysmogram. Postcapillary venular blood vessels tonus is determined from constant photoplethysmogram component. Functional brain state is determined from dynamic changes of physiological values before during and after the functional test. Device for evaluating functional brain state has in series connected multichannel analog-to-digital converter, microcomputer having galvanically isolated input/output ports and PC of standard configuration and electrode unit for reading bioelectric cerebral activity signals connected to multichannel bioelectric cerebral activity signals amplifier. Current and potential electrode unit for recording rheosignals, multichannel rheosignals amplifier, current rheosignals generator and synchronous rheosignals detector are available. The device additionally has two-frequency high precision current generator, master input of which is connected to microcomputer. The first output group is connected to working electrodes and the second one is connected to reference electrodes of electrode unit for reading bioelectrical cerebral activity signals. Lead switch is available with its first input group being connected to potential electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of inputs is connected to outputs of current rheosignals oscillator. The first group of outputs is connected to current electrodes of current and potential electrodes unit for recording rheosignals. The second group of outputs is connected to inputs of synchronous detector of rheosignals. Demultiplexer input is connected to output of synchronous detector of rheosignals and its outputs are connected to multichannel rheosignals amplifier inputs. Outputs of multichannel bioelectrical cerebral activity signals amplifier, multichannel rheosignals amplifier and electrophysiological signal amplifier are connected to corresponding inputs of multichannel analog-to-digital converter. Microcomputer outputs are connected to control input of lead switch, control input of multichannel demultiplexer, control input of multichannel analog-to-digital converter and synchronization inputs of current rheosignals oscillator and synchronous detector of rheosignals. To measure subelectrode resistance, a signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f_{1} exceeding the upper frequency f_{up} of signals under recording is supplied. A signal from narrow bandwidth current generator of frequency f_{2}≠ f_{1}>f_{up} is supplied to reference electrode. Voltages are selected and measured at output of each amplifier with frequencies of f_{1}, f_{2} - U_{f1} and U_{f2} using narrow bandwidth filtering. Subelectrode resistance of each working electrode is determined from formula Z_{j}=U_{jf1 }:(J_{f1}xK_{j}), where Z_{j} is the subelectrode resistance of j-th electrode, U_{jf1} is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f_{1}, K_{j} is the amplification coefficient of the j-th amplifier. Subelectrode resistance of reference electrode is determined from formula Z_{A}=U_{jf2 }:(J_{f2}xK_{j}), where Z_{A} is the subelectrode resistance of reference electrode, U_{jf2} is the voltage at output from j-th amplifier with frequency of f_{2}, J_{f2} is the voltage of narrow bandwidth current oscillator with frequency of f_{2}.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

15 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has divider, comparison unit, oscillator, acoustic radiator, controllable current source, stable constant voltage source, perspiration equivalent unit, key member, illumination source, conductivity transducer having two electrodes, the first commutator, delay unit, trigger, inverter, discharge unit, the second commutator and feeding voltage availability indicator unit. The first delay unit inputs and the first commutator inputs are connected to comparison unit output. The first commutator input is connected to the first oscillator input which delay unit, trigger and inverter are connected in series. Inverter output is connected to the second input of the first and the second commutator. The first input of the second commutator is connected to the other conductivity transducer electrode and its output is connected to device body via resistor.

EFFECT: reduced current intensity passing through patient skin; excluded negative influence upon skin during prolonged operation time on patient arm during hypoglycemia attack; low power consumption.

2 cl, 4 dwg