Thermionic reactor converter

 

Use: nuclear energy, creating a thermionic nuclear power plants, mainly for space purposes. The inventive thermionic reactor Converter containing a neutron reflector, an active zone, recruited from electricity generation channels of the fuel rods filled with fuel material, a photovoltaic power generation channels of the fuel rods near the reflector is filled with a fuel material based on isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons and is separated from the reflector is not less than one layer of electricity generating channels of the fuel material with a lower coefficient of reproduction. As isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons selected isotopes233U239Pu and241Pu. As isotopes with lower breeding ratio of neutrons selected isotope235U. Invention provides increased reactivity margin TRD, the alignment of the field of heat dissipation in the cross section of the active zone TRD, the alignment of the average temperature of the emitter shells on the core TRD, the creation of equal conditions in thermal emission of a fuel rod and improving, thus, the energy energy from thermal emission by converting thermal energy into electrical energy and can be used to create thermal emission from nuclear power plants (NPP), mainly for space purposes.

In thermionic reactor Converter (TRD) occurs as the generation of thermal energy at nuclear fission235U in the fuel material (TM), and directly convert it into electricity. The unit cell of HSP is the electricity generating element (AGE), and the Assembly unit - electricity generating channel (TFE), which, as a rule, sequentially from the United AGE. The most widespread of AGE and accordingly EGK coaxial type. Developed TRD thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons. Order to obtain the minimum size of HSP and maximizing the volume of the active zone.C.) to accommodate TFE and obtain thus the maximum electrical power removed from the unit and.C. TRD use fast reactors, where and.C. there is no moderator. It is obvious to provide the same current density emission remove from the emission surface BNT it is necessary that the emitter of the fuel cladding in TFE worked in roughly equal temperature conditions. This requires alignment of the heat dissipation volume.C. TRD. For reactors with neutron reflector there is uneven heat dissipation, p the outskirts and.C. near the border with reflector [1]. Physical profiling conducted to equalize the heat in as well.C. TRD leads to uneven distribution of TM by volume.C. and accordingly to uneven pressures on the emitter of the fuel cladding, in different locations and.C. This is because the operating conditions of the fuel rods will be different. In fuel elements with fewer TM below the intensity of the formation of fission fragments (gaseous and solid) and correspondingly less provided by rauhauser TM and fission fragments pressure on the shell of a fuel rod. Hence, the performance of such thermionic fuel elements is higher in comparison with the fuel rods, in which TM more. Research has shown [2, 3], thermionic fuel elements with a lower content of TM, especially high temperature vented fuel elements with volatile TM (for example, UO2), the higher the reliability of the output gaseous fission fragments outside of the fuel rod. These circumstances lead to uneven resourcepools thermionic fuel elements in the core of HSP. In addition, physical profiling is not always possible, especially for TRD fast neutrons with a small amount and.C. because of problems with criticality, as in trelamenos substance.

Known TRD fast neutron reactors, described in [4]. It contains and.C. and reflector control reactor. In turn, and.C. contains thermal emission EGK, which provide the desired value of electrical power, and booster fuel elements (BEL) who are not power generation, and added in as well.C. to ensure that it is critical, as the volume fraction of fissile substances in them is significantly higher than in TFE. Bellas can be placed throughout the volume.C. EGK and Bellas contain the cooling system based on liquid-metal coolant, and Bellas, in addition, may have additional cooling system based on heat pipes. Bellas, which contain virtually only TM in the body, reduce the critical volume.C., consequently, the mass of the whole NPP. However, the introduction and.C. BAL, in addition to lowering the efficiency of nuclear power and increase the size of the NPP by increasing the surface cooler-radiator, leads to an increase in the density of the critical load TM in TRD. This, in turn, increases the nuclear danger in emergency situations with the booster at the conclusion of the SPACECRAFT with nuclear power in space.

Known thermionic reactor Converter, the content is the material on the basis of isotope235U described in [5] for NPP with the level of electric power 100...150 kW. We consider two variants of this TRD fast neutrons with batch and monoblock structure of the active zone. To ensure the adequacy of the reactivity margin to the campaign, and.C. TRD contain booster elements. The disadvantage of these options TRD is significant unevenness of heat generation and.C. So the average heat capacity of the peripheral EGK, adjacent to the reflector reaches ~12,6 kW (per EGK) average heat output in the rest of EGK ~10.8 kW. As a consequence of the fact that there is increased the temperature of the emitter shells in these EGK and reducing thus the resource characteristics of TFE and TRD in General. In addition, the use of BAL leads to a reduction in the total emission surface in TRD, lowering the efficiency of the entire NPP and the average size of a refrigerator emitter and NPP as a whole.

Close to the invention of the technical nature can be considered TRD for space NPU "Topaz" [6] with useful electric power of about 6 kW. TRD contains a reflector, an active zone, recruited from electricity generation channels of the fuel rods filled with fuel material on the basis of isotope235U. the Active area on the beryllium. In the side reflector placed controls reactor in the form of 12 rotary cylinder of beryllium with sector neutron-absorbing plates of boron carbide. The outer casing EGK cooled coolant (eutectic alloy of Na-K). Are relatively large leakage of hydrogen from the inhibitor in the active zone, which falls into the interelectrode gap and thereby contributes to the degradation of the electric characteristics of the reactor, corresponding to the decrease in initial conversion efficiency average relative velocity (5-7)10-3%/H. in Addition, it was noted in this TRD change in reactivity caused by the relatively large leakage of hydrogen from the moderator (approximately 80-85% of the total change of reactivity). According to the results of flight tests it was noted that the average rate of decrease in reactivity was higher than the values obtained in the corresponding ground-based tests.

The objective is to increase the reactivity margin TRD, alignment field dissipation on section A. C. TRD, the alignment of the average temperature of the emitter casings and.C. TRD, the creation of equal conditions in thermal emission of a fuel rod and improving, thus, energy is holding a neutron reflector, active zone recruited from electricity generation channels of the fuel rods filled with fuel material, a photovoltaic power generation channels of the fuel rods near the reflector is filled with a fuel material based on isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons and is separated from the reflector is not less than one layer of electricity generating channels of the fuel material with a lower coefficient of reproduction. As isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons selected isotopes233U239Pu,241Pu. As isotopes with lower breeding ratio of neutrons selected isotope235U.

The use of isotopes (U233,239Pu,241Ri) with a higher breeding ratio of neutrons in the TM of a fuel rod in comparison with TM on the basis of isotopes with lower breeding ratio of neutrons (235U) are caused, primarily, by the fact that provides a significantly higher reactivity margin TRD with the same proportion of fuel in the reactor[7, 8, 9, 10].

Perhaps the alignment of the heat dissipation volume.C. TRD variation in Fe shares of TM with higher and lower odds of reproduction. Thermionic fuel elements is another part of the fuel rods filled with fuel material, which isotope235U is replaced completely or partially by isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons, and the density of these isotopes in the fuel material in the fuel rods is reduced, on average, forming a smooth dependence on the radius and length of the active zone TRD from the periphery to the center of the active zone, varying from a maximum value at the periphery of the active zone to zero in the center of the active zone. The location of TFE and Fe with TM on the basis of isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons in the active zone of the TRD and the changes in the density of these isotopes on the radius and the height.C. due primarily characteristic of the nuclear reactor curve distribution of heat across the reactor [11].

In Fig.1 shows a structural diagram of the proposed TRD. In Fig.2 shows a cross section of HSP with monoblock structure of the active zone. In Fig.3 is a structural diagram of the EGK.

TRD 1 contains an active zone 2, which is drawn from TFE 3, 4, the neutron reflector 5, in the side part of which is placed the bodies of the control system and protection system (CPS) 6, for example, in the form of a rotatable cylinder with neutron-absorbing inserts 7. EGK 3, 4 are connected in series Assembly AGE da of the fuel material 10. EGK 3 rods 9, filled with TM on the basis of isotope235U. In the area of the active zone 2, near the reflector 5, posted by EGK 4 rods 9, filled with TM on the basis of isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons, which is separated from the reflector 5 is not less than one layer of TFE 3 with TM on the basis of isotope235U. Thermionic fuel elements 9 EGK 3, adjacent to the reflector 5, at least one layer filled with TM 10 based on isotope235U, for another part of the EGK 4 rods 9 are filled TM 10, in which the isotope235U is replaced completely or partially by isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons, and the density of these isotopes in TM 10 rods 9 is reduced, on average, forming a smooth dependence, varying from a maximum value at the periphery of the active zone 2 to zero in the center of the active zone 2 (Fig.2 this fact is expressed by the density of shading of the cross-section EGK 4, gradually decreasing from the periphery and.C. 2 to its centre).

Thermionic reactor Converter operates as follows. After Assembly of HSP 1 and connect it to all systems of the NPP, carried out the necessary checks and, if space use, TRD 1 part NPU is displayed in the space on radiationoncology in the side reflector 5 absorbing inserts 7 from the active zone 2. Upon reaching criticality TRD 1, in the fuel material 10 of the fuel rods 9 EGK 3 and TFE 4 begins to stand the heat. Because the fuel rods 9 EGK 4 include fissile material on the basis of isotopes with a high rate of reproduction of neutrons compared to TFE 3, and are located in the zone of minimum dissipation.C. 2 TRD 1, which leads to equalization of heat along the radius.C. 2, which causes uniform heating emitters 11 in AGE 8. This circumstance leads to the alignment of the operating conditions of the fuel rods 9 and AGE 8 around the TRD 1, resulting in improved energy performance and efficiency of HSP.

Thus, the proposed solution increases the reactivity margin TRD and allows you to:

to increase the electrical output of TRD, at a constant total heat capacity of HSP, due to more uniform distribution of heat capacity by volume of the active zone TRD;

to get a higher average specific energy characteristics taken from a unit volume of the active zone TRD at a constant maximum temperature emitters EGK;

to obtain a higher efficiency of converting thermal energy into electrical energy in TRD due to more uniform distribution of temperature emitter shells, AGE in Ernie of the fuel cladding, AGE from rauhauser fuel material;

to increase the share of structural materials, the relative proportion of porosity in the fuel rods of AGE, which leads to the increase of the resource characteristics of TFE and TRD in General.

In addition, TM isotope233U instead isotope235U allows not to change the physico-chemical characteristics of TM, in particular its characteristics for compatibility with the material of the emitter membrane to retain a share of TM in the fuel rods, to achieve such nuclear profiling practically ravnopravnosti thermionic fuel elements throughout the active area of HSP.

LITERATURE

1. Samoilov, A., Fuel elements of nuclear reactors. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1985, S. 15.

2. Kornilov C. A., Sukhov Y. I., yuditsky C. D. Method of calculation of temperature fields of heterogeneous fuel core thermionic fuel element. Nuclear energy, 1980, volume 49, issue. 6, S. 393 and 394.

3. Kornilov C. A., yuditsky C. D. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in the core thermionic fuel elements. Atomic energy, 1982, volume 53, issue. 2, S. 74-76.

4. Patent RU No. 2138096 C1. MCI H 01 J 45/00. Thermionic reactor Converter. Publ. 20.09.99, bull. No. 26.

5. Combined nuclear power plant "TEMP" reactor-Converter fast neutrons. reports./Under the General editorship of Professor I. I. Vedika, 1 o'clock. - Podolsk, Moscow. region, 1999, S. 94.

6. The main tasks and results of flight tests NPU program "Topaz"/I. P. Bogush, G. M. Gryaznov, E. E. Jabotinsky and other Nuclear energy, so 70, vol. 4, 1991, S. 214.

7. Handbook of nuclear physics./Ed. by Acad. L. A. Artsimovich. - M.: Fizmatgiz, 1963, S. 267 and 338.

8. Jacobs A., Klein, D., Remic F. Fundamentals of nuclear science and reactors. - M.: gosatomizdat, 1962, S. 61 and 188.

9. Simovski A. S., Kalashnikov centuries, Golovnin I. C. Fuel elements of nuclear reactors. - M.: gosatomizdat, 1962, S. 9.

10. Emelyanov C. S., Evstyuhin A. I. metallurgy nuclear fuel. - M.: Atomizdat, 1968, S. 12 and 298.

11. [1], c.16.

Claims

1. Thermionic reactor Converter containing a neutron reflector, an active zone, recruited from electricity generation channels of the fuel rods filled with fuel material, wherein the electricity generating channels with the fuel rods near the reflector is filled with a fuel material based on isotopes with higher breeding ratio of neutrons and is separated from the reflector is not less than one layer of electricity generating channels of the fuel material with a lower coefficient of playback IMEI: the more high breeding ratio of neutrons selected isotopes233U239Pu,241Pu.

3. Thermionic reactor Converter under item 1, characterized in that as isotopes with lower breeding ratio of neutrons selected isotope235U.

 

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