The aqueous composition comprising the ionic polymer and the promoting viscosity additive, the method of coating paper coating based on water composition and coated paper

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a rheology modifiers to achieve the thickening effect, regulating the expiry of water retention and other properties of the water systems. In the application described aqueous composition having technical result improved rheological properties, preferably including such as improved voltage plastic flow, improved toughness and improved ability to retain moisture. These include low viscosity composition having high voltage plastic flow. The compositions of the present invention are aqueous compositions of the polymer having a net ionic charge, and promoting the viscosity of the additive with opposite ionic charge. The composition can also enter retarding additive to prevent precipitation and/or gelatinization. The invention also includes a method of applying to the paper coating from aqueous compositions and coated paper. 3. C. and 72 C.p. f-crystals, 26 PL.

Cross references to related applications

In this application claims the priority of provisional application US 60/086048, filed may 12, 1998, which is in full retina

The present invention relates to compositions having improved rheological properties, including ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive. The invention relates also to methods of preparation and use of compositions having improved rheological properties and also to compositions and methods for treatment of paper.

Description of the prior art

In various industries, there is a need in the application of rheology modifiers to achieve the thickening effect of the regulation expires, water retention and other properties of the water systems. Technically there are a number of rheology modifiers, such as noticebox-methylcellulose, hoerova gum, sodium alginate, hydroxyethylcellulose, dilaceration latexes, xanthan gum, polyacrylamide, etc.

The hydrophilic group, the presence of these various water-soluble polymers are, can be classified as nonionic, anionic or cationic. In the absence of polymeric materials with opposite charges and, therefore, problems of incompatibility of anionic or cationic water-soluble polymers used is the research Institute of paper these polymers traditionally used in the absence of cationic additives as cationic additives usually precipitated most of the anionic water-soluble polymers and, consequently, reduce their effectiveness. Similarly in most fields of technology, where do you find the use of either anionic or cationic polymers, these additives are used in the removal of materials with opposite charge. It is also known that the presence of polyvalent cationic inorganic salts such as calcium salts and aluminum, can have unintended effects on the solubility and effectiveness of anionic polymers.

However, even despite the fact that in those applications in which the use of anionic water-soluble polymers, the presence of dissolved substances with polyvalent cations usually avoid, from time to time there are data on the use of anionic polymer in combination with either water-soluble cationic polymers or cationic salts. These include the following.

In the US 3049469 we are talking about the use of anionic water-soluble polymer noticebox what iMER to increase the strength of paper.

In US no 5502091, 5318669 and 5338407 described mixture of cationic and anionic jurovich gums to increase paper strength in the dry state.

In US no 5338406 and the representative of the family of its analogues EP 0362770 described mixture of high-molecular cationic water-soluble polymers, such as cationic husarova gum and cationic polyacrylamide, anionic polymers to increase paper strength in the dry state.

In US no 3719503 describes the preparation of an aqueous gels using special mixtures of anionic water-soluble polymers with aluminum salts.

In US no 4035195 described using nitrocarburization and cationic cross-linking additives, such as salts of chromium and aluminum, with the goal of thickening brines for use in the oil fields.

In most cases, such as described in US№№3049469, 3058873, 3719503, 5502091, 5318669, 5338407 and 5338406, anionic and cationic polymers are sequentially mixed with colloids, such as paper pulp and suspended particles, to facilitate the adsorption/flocculation of colloids, water-soluble polymers. Therefore, from the aqueous phase completely remove the water-soluble Annex of the invention

The present invention relates to aqueous compositions having improved rheological properties, preferably including several improved voltage plastic flow, improved toughness, improved water retention and their combination. The present invention relates also to methods of making and using these compositions.

The compositions of the present invention can be prepared using a consistent mixture of ionic water-soluble polymer, which solution is combined with the promoting viscosity additive to that of the ionic polymer, and this promoting viscosity additive has an overall ionic charge opposite to the ionic charge of the ionic polymer. The compositions of the present invention does not necessarily include inhibiting additive to prevent or reduce the amount of generated sludge and/or gelatinization. Aqueous solutions of the present invention show unexpected rheological properties and can be used for various purposes, such as surface treatment of paper in the size press and rheological control during the coating of paper.

For the paper coating is usually used e cloth is passed through the size press, in which one or both sides of the paper usually put a solution of dissolved starch with addition on paper, usually about 3-5 wt.% dry matter, calculated on the dry weight of the raw paper. The paper web usually are vysokooborotnye that determines the penetration into the paper pores of large quantities of starch solution. This penetration is undesirable because the coating is typically necessary on the surface of the paper, and not in the pores. Thus, the penetration of the solution requires the addition of an additional quantity of starch to obtain the target coating, which causes a loss of efficiency.

Although a mixture of anionic Haraway gums with cationic Haraway gum, and a mixture of anionic polyacrylamide copolymers with cationic polyacrylamide copolymers in the technique of making paper used for different purposes when performing the present invention due to the formation of large quantities of sediment, these combinations are not effective. Thus, according to the features of the object of the present invention differs from previously proposed in the art compositions in relation to the chemical nature combined the x solution ratios and concentrations of the materials, used for preparation of solutions a new rheological mixture.

The novelty of the present invention becomes apparent, given the fact that, in accordance with the known technical solutions assumes the impossibility of effective mixtures of anionic polymers with cationic promoting viscosity additives.

In the paper industry there is a need for compositions and methods that allow better retention of the composition for coating from deep penetration into the paper pores, thereby increasing the efficiency of the coating process. This kind of efficiency is necessary, because among other things it allows you to reduce the number of required additives, such as reinforcing means and sizing agents.

There is also a need for compositions and methods that can effectively seal the pores in the paper, reducing as a result, the porosity of the paper.

According to one of the objects of the present invention offers the aqueous composition, including at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting viscosity additive, and this at least one promoters is, which is opposite ionic charge at least one first ionic polymer, and the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 5 Dyne/cm2.

According to another object of the invention is proposed water composition is prepared by combining at least one first ionic polymer, at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive and the water environment, and this at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive is at least one second ionic polymer having a net ionic charge, which is opposite to the ionic charge of the first ionic polymer, and the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 5 Dyne/cm2.

According to another object of the invention is proposed water composition comprising water, at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting viscosity additive, and this at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive is at least one second ionic polymer having a net ionic charge, which is opposite to the ionic charge of at least one of the first ionogenic voltage plastic flow of the composition, having about the same viscosity as that of the water composition, and includes the same components as this water composition, but not containing at least one first ionic polymer or at least one promoting viscosity additives.

According to another object of the invention is proposed water composition comprising water, at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting viscosity additive, and this at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive is at least one second ionic polymer having a net ionic charge, which is opposite ionic charge at least one first ionic polymer, the aqueous composition has a viscosity greater than the viscosity of aqueous compositions, containing the same ingredients in the same concentration as the water composition, but not containing either at least one first ionic polymer or at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive, where the concentration of the component expressed in mass% calculated on the total weight.

According to another object of the invention is proposed water composition, comprising at IU is the retarding additive, and this at least one ionic polymer has an overall ionic charge, which is opposite to the ionic charge of at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive, at least one retarding additive is contained in an amount which is effective for preventing the formation of sludge or gel, precipitate or gel includes a coherent set of at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting viscosity additives.

According to another object of the present invention proposes a method of coating a porous surface, comprising applying to the surface of the aqueous composition, including at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive, and the at least one ionic polymer has an overall ionic charge, which is opposite to the ionic charge of at least one promoting viscosity additives.

According to another object of the present invention proposes a method of surface sizing paper comprising applying any one of the compositions according to the invention, as well as paper, preferably sized paper, coating the e water compositions in accordance with the invention at least one surface of the paper, and C) drying the paper from the receipt paper surface sizing.

However, according to another object of the present invention features a method of reducing the porosity of the porous surface, preferably of a fibrous sheet material, preferably paper, including the application of this porous surface compositions according to the invention. The objects of the invention include a porous surface, fibrous sheet materials and paper coating deposited using the methods and/or compositions of the present invention.

The preferred aqueous compositions are characterized by voltage plastic flow that exceeds about 5 Dyne/cm2more preferably greater than about 10 Dyne/cm2even more preferably greater than about 20 Dyne/cm2preferably greater than about 30 Dyne/cm2more preferably greater than about 50 Dyne/cm2and even more preferably greater than about 70 Dyne/cm2.

In addition, the preferred aqueous compositions characterized by plastic flow stress, which exceeds at least about 10%, preferably at least about 50%, more preferably at least about 100%, even more before the same viscosity, as these water compositions, and includes the same components as these water compositions, but not containing at least one first ionic polymer or at least one promoting viscosity additives.

The preferred viscosity by Brookfield water compositions comprise less than about 10,000 centipoise, more preferably less than about 5000 centipoise, more preferably less than about 1000 centipoise, more preferably less than about 500 centipoise, more preferably less than about 300 centipoise, and may be equal to less than about 200 centipoise or less than about 100 centipoise. The preferred viscosity by Brookfield exceed about 50 centipoise.

The compositions of the present invention include any of these systems, as solutions, microemulsions, emulsions, dispersions and suspensions.

The preferred at least one first ionic polymer has an overall anionic charge and in the preferred embodiment, includes at least one anionic polysaccharide, derived anionic polysaccharide, anionic synthetic polymer or a combination thereof.

Preferred first-ionic polymers, which are of anionic the e first ionic polymers, which are anionic derivatives of polysaccharides include carboxymethylcellulose, nutricosmetics, carboxymethyl harowuiu gum, carboxyphenoxypropane harowuiu gum, karboksimetiltselljuloza, nitrocarburization, methylcarboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethyl starch, sodium alginate, dilaceration latexes and their combinations.

Preferred first-ionic polymers, which are anionic synthetic polymers include anionic acrylamide copolymer, amphoteric acrylamide copolymer, polyacrylic acid, copolymer of acrylic acid and combinations thereof.

At room temperature the viscosity by Brookfield preferred solution comprising 10 wt.% or less of at least one first ionic polymer in water, greater than about 1000 centipoise.

The preferred at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive includes at least one second ionic polymer, at least one salt having a polyvalent cationic functional group, or combinations thereof. In addition to at least odnom.

In a preferred embodiment, at least one second ionic polymer comprises at least one cationic polyacrylamide; epichlohydrin the reaction product polyaminoamide obtained by reaction of a polyamine with a dicarboxylic acid; a polymer of diallyldimethylammoniumchloride, polyamide-epichlorhydrin resin, the product of polymerization of Quaternary monomers, a copolymer of Quaternary monomers and other reactive monomers, the product of the merger of Quaternary epoxides and water-soluble polymers, epichlorhydrine the reaction product polyaminoamide, obtained by the reaction of adipic acid with Diethylenetriamine, or combinations thereof.

At room temperature the viscosity by Brookfield preferred solution comprising 5 wt.% at least one second ionic polymer in water is less than about 2000 CP.

At least one preferred salt with the polyvalent functional group, which in the preferred embodiment, is a cationic, includes bivalent or trivalent functional group or a combination thereof. The preferred salt is an inorganic salt, which prefer the ones includes a salt of at least one of these elements, as aluminum, magnesium, iron (III), calcium, zinc and their combinations.

In a preferred embodiment, the charge density of at least one first ionic polymer is at least about 0.5 mgecw/year In a preferred embodiment, the charge density of at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive is at least about 0.4 mgecw/, the Preferred ratio between the charges at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive exceeds 1:1, more preferably greater than about 1 to 0.6, more preferably greater than about 1 to 0.4, more preferably greater than about 1:0.3, and even more preferably greater than about 1:0,2, and most preferably greater than about 1:0,1.

The composition can include at least one retarding additive is contained in an amount which is effective for preventing the formation of sludge or gel, and this precipitate or gel includes a coherent set of at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive and this precipitate or gel would be formed in the absence of retarding additives. In predeco salt, containing divalent cationic functional group, salt carbolic acid, a solution of starch and combinations thereof.

Preferred aqueous composition of the present invention has a value of gravimetric moisture retention that is less than, preferably at least about 10% less than that of the composition comprising the same components and in the same concentration, but does not contain either at least one first ionic polymer or at least one second ionic polymer.

Composition and implementation of methods in accordance with the present invention include additives. To the preferred additives include a sizing agent; natural, semisynthetic and synthetic polymers; latex colloids; pigments; clay; fillers; biocides; surface active agents; antistatic agents; defoamers; binders (e.g., latex binders); additives that promote retention; strengthening additives and their combinations.

The preferred sizing agent include interacting with cellulose sizing agent. To the preferred sizing agents include alkylcatechols and maleic anhydride, starches, hydrophobic latex polymer, organic epoxides, acylhomoserine, anhydrides of fatty acids, organic isocyanates, and combinations thereof.

Preferred paper which is coated in accordance with the present invention, has a higher degree of sizing, as determined by the test sizing method the company Hercules, than paper which is coated with a composition for surface sizing, which is similar but does not contain at least one promoting viscosity additives.

Preferred paper provided with a coating and/or coated with composition of the present invention, has a higher porosity gerli (Gurley) than paper which is coated with a composition for surface sizing, which is similar but does not contain at least one promoting viscosity additives.

Preferred according to the invention the composition is any composition for coating paper, the composition for sizing paper, paints (e.g., latex paint), drilling muds for oil fields, working fluids for oil fields, compositions for clarification of water and additives that promote retention.

As mentioned above, the volume nice, the use of formulations and products made using the compositions and/or methods of the present invention.

Detailed description of the invention

In all cases, unless otherwise stated, amounts are expressed in mass percentages, parts, ratios, etc., the Term "room temperature" means a temperature of about 25C.

In all cases, unless otherwise specified, reference to a compound or component covers the connection itself or the component, as well as its combination with other compounds or components, such as mixtures of compounds.

Further, when the quantity, concentration, or other value or parameter is presented in the form of a list of upper preferable values and lower preferable values, it should be taken as specifically indicate all intervals, composed of a pair of upper preferable values and lower preferable values, regardless of which individually specified intervals.

In addition, in all cases, unless otherwise stated, used in the present description the term "anionic polymer" is used to refer to polymers having the total anionic charge to which such obrabotano otherwise, used in the present description, the term "cationic polymer" is used to refer to polymers having overall cationic charge, to which, therefore, are amphoteric polymers having overall cationic charge.

Mentioned in the present description voltage plastic flow is determined by the AR1000 rheometer, TA Instruments, Newcastle, pieces of Delaware) method of test for flow at shear rates of 0.2-288-1. In the case of aqueous compositions, containing no starch or a derivative of starch, the voltage plastic flow is determined at 25C. In the case of aqueous compositions comprising starch or a derivative of starch, the voltage plastic flow is determined at 65S. Used containers for samples represent a Cup-shaped device with a double gap. Between the two cylinders of the devices has a 3-mm hole. In the receiver place 8 ml of the test composition, with the aim to minimize the evaporation of the fluid during the test on the completed receiver put the cap on the device and begin the test. The device determines the shear stress with increasing shear rate from low to high values. Further, these data reologicheskih properties which can be modified according to the present invention is the viscosity. There are many methods of determining viscosity, and depending on the industry commonly used methods vary. When the viscosity of the compositions you want to map (in particular, ratios, or the percentage increase or decrease), any acceptable method of determining the viscosity, if only determination was carried out in the same way and under the same conditions for all the compared compositions. Such methods include, though not limited to, methods for the determination of viscosity by the Brookfield viscosity and the Stormer (Stormer).

The viscosity of the compositions referred to in the present description, indicating the values of viscosity by Brookfield, measured using LVT viscometer, equipped with a shaft rotating at a speed of 12 rpm In the case of compositions containing no starch or a derivative of starch, the viscosity is measured at about 25C. In the case of compositions comprising starch or a derivative of starch, the viscosity is measured at about 60-70C, for example, when 65S. For viscosities in the range of about 0-450 JV apply shaft #1 for viscosities in the range of about 450-2250 JV apply shaft #2, for values Wescott shaft #4.

The viscosity of the colored pigments compositions for coating paper can be measured with the use of RTV viscometer and a rotation speed of 100 rpm at 25C. For viscosities in the range of about 0-1800 SDR apply shaft #4, for values of viscosity in the range of about 1800-3600 SDR apply shaft #5, and for viscosities in the range of about 3600-9000 SDR apply shaft #6.

In the scientific literature States that the rate of penetration of aqueous solutions into the porous substrate in the case of solutions of similar viscosity must be the same. However, it is now established that solutions of the present invention containing a mixture of water-soluble ionic polymers with a viscosity modifier additives that are significantly lower penetration of the mixture into the absorbent substrate than the comparative control solutions with equivalent viscosities.

The equation describing the rate of absorption of solutions of the porous media, published in the scientific literature, including equations of Lucas-Washburn (Lucas-Washborn) and the law Darcy (Darcy). The Darcy law can be roughly expressed as follows:

where V0indicates the speed of absorption solution porous the value of pressure, and indicates the viscosity of the solution. Although this equation is valid for a Newtonian fluid, it is believed that this equation adequately describes the behavior of polymer solutions.

In many industries and areas of application in water or other aqueous liquid, add the modifier to control the rheological properties and, thus, achieve useful properties of fluidity. One such rheological properties is "voltage plastic flow", which is the voltage, critical, or shear rate, which must exceed in order to cause the expiration of some non-Newtonian fluid. Voltage plastic flow associated with the ability of a solution to perform the functions of the additives that promote suspendirovanie. Voltage plastic flow of the composition is a characteristic property of this composition. Thus, the voltage plastic flow does not depend on the nature of the surface or vessel in contact with the composition.

In equation 1 member P denoting the pressure in a static situation may be equal to the capillary pressure. Thus, R depends on many factors, Cavallino, R is not a characteristic property of the fluid, but depends on the properties of the surface and the fluid and the interactions between them. Not based on any theory, I believe that although the voltage plastic flow of the composition and is its characteristic property, it is associated with the speed of absorption of the fluid surface. Suppose that the voltage plastic flow effectively reduces to equation 1 applied pressure P, thereby reducing the speed of absorption. Thus, the voltage of plastic flow can be a variable affecting the ability of a solution to keep the polymers, for example, solutions of starch, in contact with porous surfaces such as paper.

Scope of the present invention includes a composition which is an aqueous solution containing a first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive. These compositions can exhibit a high voltage plastic flow at low viscosity.

Voltage plastic flow is determined in accordance with the method, which is presented in the following examples section. The voltage values of plastic flow is preferred in the present izaberete is about 10 Dyne/cm2even more preferably at least about 20 Dyne/cm2preferably at least about 30 Dyne/cm2even more preferably at least about 50 Dyne/cm2and most preferably at least about 70 Dyne/cm2. Although the specific target upper limit voltage plastic flow of the solution according to the present invention is missing, usually the preferred voltage plastic flow is less than about 100 Dyne/cm2.

The compositions of the present invention exhibit increased voltage plastic flow in comparison with compositions that do not contain either of the first ionic polymer, or promoting the viscosity of the additive. Compositions of the present invention, including retarding additive being even more increased voltage plastic flow in comparison with compositions that are inhibiting additives do not contain.

The preferred voltage plastic flow of the composition according to the present invention at least about 10% greater than the voltage plastic flow composition having about the same viscosity and includes the same components is key, more preferably greater than at least about 50%, even more preferably greater than at least about 100%, even more preferably greater than at least about 200%.

The preferred viscosity of the solutions of the present invention is such that these solutions are suitable for transfusion and pumping the pump. Viscosity by Brookfield determined in accordance with the method, which is presented in the following examples section. The preferred viscosity by Brookfield solution ionic polymer/promoting the viscosity of the additive in accordance with the present invention comprise less than about 10000 CPS, more preferably less than about 5000 SP, even more preferably less than about 2000 SP, even more preferably less than about 1000 SP, more preferably less than about 500 CPS, more preferably less than about 300 SP, and can be equal to less than about 200 JV or less than about 100 CP. The preferred viscosity exceeds about 50 JV, more preferably exceeds about 100 CP. Thus, the preferred range of viscosity include from about 50 to 10000 CPS, more preferably from about 50 the school more preferably from about 100 to 300 SP.

As noted above, proposed by the present invention compositions include aqueous solutions containing a first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive. These first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive capable of forming coherent set sufficiently high molecular weight to act as a non-Newtonian medium. In a preferred embodiment, the presence of one or both of such components as the first ionic polymer and promoting viscosity additive, give the opportunity to prepare high molecular coordinated complex comprising high-molecular polymer, i.e. a polymer having a high molecular weight. Preferred first ionic polymer has a high molecular weight.

The combination of the first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive in aqueous media, such as water, forms a true solution of a harmonized set. The viscosity of the resulting solution is greater than the viscosity of the solution or only the first ionic polymer, or only promoting the viscosity of the additive. In other words, the viscosity of the resulting solution is greater than the viscosity of solutions containing the same number of t is As noted above, either one or both of the first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive in the preferred embodiment, is a polymer with high molecular weight. Under the mean molecular polymer, the preferred molecular weight which is sufficiently high to a solution in water containing 10 wt.% or less of the polymer at room temperature was determined viscosity according to Brookfield, greater than about 1000 CP. Although the preferred upper limit of molecular weight of high molecular weight polymer does not exist, in the preferred embodiment, a solution in water containing 1 wt.% or less of the polymer at room temperature causes the viscosity by Brookfield less than about 10,000 centipoise.

Depending on the needs in the application of the first ionic polymer can be anionic, amphoteric or cationic, if only he had a net ionic charge. Preferred first ionic polymer is anionic or amphoteric, more preferably having a total anion charge, and more preferably anionic. This is the first ionic polymer is water-soluble, which means that at room temperature (n is Ni ion substitution can be determined on the basis of the known structure of the polymer by the equation

Ion substitution can be determined experimentally, for example using the techniques of colloid titration.

The preferred degree of ionic substitution of the first ionic polymer, which in the preferred embodiment, is anionic, is at least about 0.04 mEq/g, more preferably at least about 0.5 mEq/g, even more preferably at least about 0.1 mEq/g, even more preferably at least about 1 mEq/g, and most preferably at least about 3 mEq/g, the Preferred degree of ionic substitution is less than about 10 mEq/g, more preferably less than about 5 mEq/g, and most preferably less than about 4 mEq/g

Preferred ionic polymers, which can be selected as the first ionic polymer is anionic and in the preferred embodiment, have a high molecular weight. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, anionic water-soluble polymers in combination with cationic promoting viscosity additives when the viscosity of the solution contribute significantly improved voltage is under cationic promoting viscosity additives. Therefore, in a particular embodiment, the object of the invention is the preferred aqueous solution 1) as the first ionic polymer of high molecular weight anionic water-soluble polymer and (2) as the promoting viscosity additives polyvalent cationic additives such as water-soluble polymer with high charge density, or cationic inorganic additives, such as calcium salts and aluminum.

Anionic water-soluble polymers in accordance with the invention include, though not limited to, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, nitrocarburization, pectin, carrageenan, carboxymethyl harowuiu gum, sodium alginate, anionic polyacrylamide copolymers, dilaceration latexes, carboxylmethylcellulose, carboxyphenoxypropane harowuiu gum and other anionic carbohydrate derivatives, and mixtures comprising one or more of such polymers. In a preferred embodiment, the anionic polymers include sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, nitrocarburization, pectin, carrageenan, carboxymethyl harowuiu gum, sodium alginate, nekoliko of such polymers.

Technically available products that may be used as the anionic water-soluble first ionic polymer or as a component thereof, include SMS M (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Hercules Incorporated), SMAS-N (karboksimetiltselljuloza, the company Hercules Incorporated), Pectin LM104 AS-Z (anionic pectin, Hercules Incorporated), Carrageenan J (Hercules Incorporated), Galactosol (carboxymethyl husarova gum, Hercules Incorporated), Alcogum L-29 (dilacerations latex, firm Aico Products), Kelgin MV (sodium alginate, firm Keico, San Diego), Reten 215 (anionic polyacrylamide, Hercules Incorporated) and others, such as mentioned in the following examples section.

Cationic water-soluble polymers of the present invention include, though not limited to, cationic polyacrylamide polymers and copolymers; epichlorhydrine the reaction products polyaminoamide obtained by reaction of polyamines with dicarboxylic acids, and polymers of diallyldimethylammoniumchloride (DADMAC), and mixtures containing one or more of such polymers. Among them, preferred are products Reten 203 (Hercules Incorporated) and Kymene 557H (Hercules Incorporated).

The combination of Prairie plastic flow in comparison with these settings solution, not containing either of the first ionic polymer, or promoting the viscosity of the additive. Preferred promoting viscosity additive comprises a second ionic polymer and/or polyvalent salt. For example, when the first ionic polymer is an anionic polymer, cationic additive as promoting the viscosity of the additive is either cationic polymer or polyvalent cationic salt.

When promoting viscosity additive is a second ionic polymer, the second ionic polymer includes ionic polymer having a net ionic charge, which is opposite to the ionic charge of the first ionic polymer. It may include monomer units having charge of the same sign, and that the total charge of the first ionic polymer, if only the total charge of the second ionic polymer was opposite ionic charge of the first ionic polymer.

When promoting viscosity additive is a polymer, it may have a high or a low molecular weight. If the first ionic polymer is a high molecular weight polymer, preferably anionic first ionic polymer, topardim mean polymer, the solution in which the water concentration of 5 wt.% at room temperature, has a viscosity according to Brookfield, when it is determined in accordance with the method described above, less than about 2000 CP. In case the promoting viscosity additives, high molecular weight polymer is a product that is not a low-molecular polymer, i.e. the polymer, the solution of which in water at a concentration of 5 wt.% at room temperature, has a viscosity according to Brookfield above about 2000 CP.

Preferred to be used as the promoting viscosity of the additive polymer is highly charged. This means that the preferred degree of charge promoting such viscosity additives exceeds about 0.05 mEq/g, more preferably greater than about 0.1 mEq/g, even more preferably greater than about 1.0 mEq/g, and most preferably greater than about 3 mEq/g While any preferred upper limit of the degree of charge promoting polymer viscosity additive is missing, it is usually less than about 10 mEq/g, more preferably less than about 5 mEq/g, even more preferably less than about 4 mEq/g, the Preferred polymers used>cationactive water-soluble polymers as the promoting viscosity additives include, though not limited to, (a) cationic polyacrylamide polymers and copolymers; b) epichlorhydrine the reaction products polyaminoamide obtained by reaction of polyamines with dicarboxylic acids, and (C) polymers of diallyldimethylammoniumchloride (DADMAC). Cationic polyacrylamides (a) include copolymers of acrylamide or methacrylamide and cationic monomers, such as DADMAC, methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and acrylonitrilebutadiene. They also include mixtures containing one or more of these polymers. Preferred cationic polymer of type (b) is the product Kymene® 557H, available on the company Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware. Kymene® 557H is a product of the interaction of epichlorohydrin with polyaminoamide, derivateservlet as the reaction product of adipic acid with Diethylenetriamine. The preferred type polymer (C) is a product of Reten® 203, poly (DADMAC), available on the company Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware.

Anionic polymers as promoting viscosity additives include, although their sleep is emery, and also mixture comprising one or more of such polymers.

Polyvalent salts, which can be used as the promoting viscosity additives of the present invention include salts containing polyvalent functional groups. For example, depending on the nature of the first ionic polymer multivalent functional groups can be anionic or cationic. To balance charge multivalent functional groups can be used any ions.

Thus, as the promoting viscosity additives for the first ionic polymer, which is anionic, can be used salts containing polyvalent cationic functional groups. What cationic functional group is polyvalent, meaning that its value is at least +2. Thus, the preferred polyvalent cationic functional group include those which are divalent, trivalent, tetravalent or more valence, preferably divalent or trivalent. In a preferred embodiment, a tetravalent metals, tacit. Preferred salts containing polyvalent cationic functional group, include salts of polyvalent metals, including alkali-earth metals, transition metals and metals of group IIIA. Such salts include salts of aluminum, magnesium, iron(III), calcium and zinc. Preferred are salts of calcium and aluminum, such as aluminum acetate and calcium chloride. Can also be used a mixture containing one or more such salts, for example a mixture of two or more salts listed.

As mentioned above, the scope of the present invention are also mixtures promoting viscosity additives. Therefore, in addition to mixtures of salts or mixtures of the second ionic polymers, as mentioned above, promoting the viscosity of the additive may also comprise a mixture of at least one salt and at least one second ionic polymer.

In a preferred embodiment, the first ionic polymer is contained in excess, preferably in large excess, before promoting viscosity additive, if we consider the ratio of the charges. To calculate the ratio of the charges, the value of ionic substitution of the first ionic polymer (for example, calculated OYe come and promoting viscosity additive (is it for example, a salt, a polymer or a mixture), receiving the "total charge" promoting the viscosity of the additive. "The charge ratio is determined by the ratio between the total charge of the first ionic polymer and the total charge of promoting the viscosity of the additive. The preferred ratio of the charges of the first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive exceeds 1:1, more preferably greater than about 1 to 0.6, more preferably greater than about 1 to 0.4, more preferably greater than about 1:0.3, and even more preferably greater than about 1:0.2 and most preferably greater than about 1:0,1.

When cationic materials, such as alum, product Kymene N and other cationic materials, mixed with anionic polymers such as carboxymethyl cellulose, usually noted as the possible formation of a precipitate or gel. One of the signs of sludge is to reduce the viscosity of the composition. The result of the formation of the gel, on the contrary, is a composition with a very high viscosity, and the viscosity cannot be easily adjusted in such a manner, as, for example, dilution water environment. To avoid gel formation and/or sludge anionic and cationactive additive is a solution with improved viscosity and modified rheological properties.

As retarding additives may be used any material which prevents or reduces the deposition and/or gelatinization in the interaction of cationic and anionic polymers. Preferred are cationic or anionic retarding additives. Retarding additives preferred types include inorganic salts containing polyvalent cationic functional groups, salts containing anionic functional group, and the solutions of starch.

Preferred cationic retarding additives include inorganic salts containing divalent cationic functional group, and include cationic salts, which can be used as the promoting viscosity additives. Thus, the compositions of the present invention cationic salt may be capable of performing functions such as promoting the viscosity of the additive and retarding additives. When retarding additive in the compositions of the present invention is a cationic salt, in a preferred embodiment, such a cationic salt in the composition should not also serve as the promoting vascongada functional groups. Salt containing anionic functional groups suitable for use in conjunction with the first ionic polymer, which is anionic or cationic. In the preferred embodiment, this salt is a salt of polybasic carboxylic acids. Thus, the preferred anionic functional groups are carboxylate, of which preferred are at least two carboxylate groups, one of salt, i.e., the preferred salts are salts of carboxylic acids. Preferred anionic functional groups include citrate, formiate, bicarbonate, maleate, malonate, acetate, oxalate, succinate etc. Specific salt, ensuring the presence of anionic functional groups suitable for use in the present invention include sodium citrate (e.g., trinatriytsitrat or diacritical), potassium citrate, sodium formate, potassium formate, sodium acetate and the low viscosity sodium polyacrylate, potassium and ammonium.

Other retarding additives include solutions of starch, preferably hot starch solution. Not based on any theory, I believe that although krahm the selected groups, which to a small extent reported starch anionic character. Thus, I believe that the effectiveness of the starch solutions as retardants due to the presence of these carboxylate functional groups.

Therefore, another object of the present invention include a water composition, representing a solution of the first ionic polymer, promoting the viscosity of the additive and retarding additives. Not based on any theory, I believe that on this subject matter promoting viscosity additive slows down the interaction between the ionic polymer and the promoting viscosity additive, thereby preventing deposition or gelatinization, which would occur in the absence of this retarding additives. In other words, I believe that these components form a coherent set, in which ions inhibiting additives act as a "buffer" between the ionic polymer and the promoting viscosity additive. The negotiated complex remains soluble in water and shows unusual rheological properties.

Aqueous compositions of the first ionic polymer and promoting the viscosity of the additive can be prepared sommese the ionic polymer, either anionic or cationic in the water. Further in the preferred embodiment, the mixture modify by adding the promoting viscosity additives. Can also be used other additives, as discussed in more detail below. When using other supplements, you can enter them at any stage and in any component. In the preferred embodiment, other additives are combined with the first ionic polymer, preferably in an aqueous environment, before merging with the promoting viscosity additive.

Aqueous compositions of the ionic polymer, promoting the viscosity of the additive and retarding additive is prepared by the slow introduction of the additive or the first ionic polymer, or in promoting the viscosity of the additive, preferably in the first ionic polymer, to match that of the first ionic polymer with promoting viscosity additive. Retarding additive and the component with which it is combined (or the first ionic polymer, or promoting viscosity additive) may have the net ionic charges of the same or opposite signs. You can also mix the first ionic polymer with a first retarding additive, promoting the viscosity of the additive from the second retarding additive, and the nation's rheological properties compared with the properties of the solution, containing the same amounts of the same components, but without ionic polymer, promoting the viscosity of the additive or retarding additives. Preferred reologicheskie modified composition is characterized by high viscosity and/or high voltage plastic flow in comparison with the properties of solutions containing only one first ionic polymer, promoting viscosity additive or retarding additive.

Not based on any theory, I believe that the formation of a coherent complex improves voltage plastic flow of these solutions. Acquisition solution with a low viscosity by Brookfield essential for the solution of the voltage values of plastic flow is a notable phenomenon that has a strong opposition to cross-linking effect, which manifests in the concentrated polymer solution with high viscosity Brookfield, aimed at the formation of the gel.

Other rheological property, which in the preferred embodiment modifies the composition of the present invention is moisture retention. In many materials, such as compositions for the manufacture of paper, it is necessary to improve methods for the tested moisture determined according to the method of gravimetric moisture retention (BS), such, which corresponds to the techniques described in the following examples section, moisture retention is expressed in grams per square meter, and smaller values indicate improved retention.

The compositions of the present invention exhibit improved moisture retention when compared to comparative compositions that do not include either of the first ionic polymer, or promoting the viscosity of the additive. Thus, the compositions of the present invention showing the values of the BS that is less than values of SE In the comparative compositions defined above. Preferred values the BS compositions of the present invention is less than about 0.9 values of the BS comparative compositions (i.e., less than about 10%), more preferably less than about 0.8 values of the BS (i.e., less than about 20%, and even more preferably less than about 0.7 of the value BS of the comparative compositions (i.e., less than about 30%). Although any preferred lower limit value, the BS proposed according to the invention compositions is missing, these values of BS usually approximately 0.01 times exceed the value of the BS comparative composition, more typically about even more typically exceed about 0,025 times is the BS of the comparative compositions. Thus, the preferred values of the BS compositions of the present invention are in the range from about 0.9 to about 0,01 values from the BS comparative composition, more preferably in the range from about 0.9 to about of 0.0125 values from the BS comparative composition, more preferably in the range from approximately 0.8 to approximately 0.02 values from the BS comparative composition, more preferably in the range from approximately 0.7 to approximately 0.025 values from the BS to the comparative compositions.

Compositions and methods of the present invention are acceptable for use in different areas of technology. Such areas include, though not limited to, application to the paper surface coating, introduction to mass supplements for strength in the dry state, the thickening latex paints, drilling muds for oil fields, working fluids for oil fields, water, additives that promote the retention, when used in those cases when it is necessary high voltage plastic flow and when it is used in those cases when it is necessary to reduce surface absorption and/or reduced surface porosity.

Compositions and assistancecall supplements. When using supplements, which is preferable in the manufacture of paper, in the preferred embodiment, they include any combination of sizing agents; natural, semisynthetic and synthetic polymers (e.g., natural or modified starches); pigments; fillers; biocides; surface-active agents; antistatic agents; defoamers; binders (e.g., latex binders, proteins, starches); additives that promote the retention and strengthening additives.

The compositions of the present invention can be an aqueous solution including only the first ionic polymer and promoting viscosity additive or including retarding additive, and may include aqueous compositions containing other additives. Moreover, when the compositions of the present invention include other additives, these compositions may be solutions, colloids (e.g., microemulsions, emulsions or dispersions or suspensions. Thus, the compositions of the present invention may include other additives, including water compositions that are solutions, emulsions, dispersions or suspensions. Such compositions and their use cover is S="ptx2">

The compositions of the present invention can be used to increase the voltage plastic flow of water compositions. In numerous publications xanthan gum, nonionic polymer, as discussed exhibiting appreciable voltage plastic flow in dilute aqueous solution. It was found that the solutions of the present invention, which include a combination of at least two interacting materials at equivalent values of viscosity by Brookfield achieve higher voltages plastic flow than xanthan gum, for example in dilute solutions, and this indicates that the present invention could be widely used in such fields of technology, such as industrial equipment requiring high voltage plastic flow.

In those applications in which a porous surface must be coated, the compositions and methods of the present invention can be applied to improve the efficiency of the coating. By improving the efficiency of the coating compositions of the present invention can be used to improve Sumerian paper, for example, increased efficiency of the coating provided by the present invention, can result in reduced dusting paper and can afford to produce a paper with a low content of paper pulp.

In the manufacture of paper compositions can be applied by any means, including the external application, in particular by coating the surface in a sizing press, and/or processing in the mass, in particular by adding a liquid pulp mass. In a preferred embodiment, the composition is applied to the outer side of the paper. These compositions can be applied as a means for coating paper in any quantity, which is defined as effective for this specific purpose. Pigmented surface additives typically applied in an amount of from about 10 to 40 wt.% in terms of dry weight of the paper, more preferably from about 20 to 30 wt.% in terms of dry weight of paper. Non-pigmented surface additives, such as starch additive, usually applied with a flow rate of from about 3 to 10 wt.% in terms of dry weight of the paper, more preferably from about 5 to 8 wt.% in terms of dry weight of paper.

When the solutions of the present invention are administered together with significant, than in the absence of other additives. Ordinary specialist in the art is able to determine the viscosity by any method for this purpose. In the preparation, delivery to market or transportation, for example in the form of a concentrate, the viscosity Brookfield can be as high as warranted industrial practice, usually about 10000 CPS or less, in particular 100-10000 SP. When used in the form of starch solutions, for example in the manufacture of paper, the viscosity according to Brookfield typically is in the range from about 50 to 300 CP. When the compositions of the present invention is used in the form of pigmented materials for coating paper, the viscosity according to Brookfield typically is in the range from about 1000 to 5000 CP. When the compositions of the present invention is used in the composition of pigmented materials for coatings, such as latex paint, the viscosity Stormer typically is in the range from about 80 to about 120 units Krebs.

As already noted, the compositions of the present invention can be in the form of concentrates. Later these concentrates as needed can be diluted or mixed with other additives. vcoi, and/or occupied warehouse space. Concentrated form stipulates, inter alia, a higher viscosity than the composition when it is diluted and prepared for use. The upper limit values of viscosity of such compositions no. However, for convenience, the preferred viscosity is less than about 10000 CPS, making the composition can be poured and pumped pump without specialized equipment.

When the compositions and methods of the present invention is used with a sizing agent, you can use any sizing substance, preferably interacting with cellulose adhesives. Preferred interacting with cellulose adhesives include ketonovye dimers and multimer, alkenylamine anhydrides, stramenopile anhydrides, organic epoxides containing from about 12 to 22 carbon atoms each, acylhomoserine containing from about 12 to 22 carbon atoms each, anhydrides of fatty acids derived from fatty acids containing from about 12 to 22 carbon atoms each, and organic isocyanates containing from about 12 to 22 carbon atoms each. Preferred interacting with cellulosimicrobium multimer and/or alkenylamine anhydrides. Compositions and methods of the present invention also include mixtures sizing substances, preferably containing at least one interacting with cellulose sizing agent.

Ketonovye dimers and multinary represent materials of the formula I

in which n denotes an integer from about 0 to about 20; R and R’, which may be identical or different, denote a saturated or unsaturated remotemachine or branched alkyl group containing 6-24 carbon atoms, and R’ denotes a saturated or unsaturated remotemachine or branched alkyl group containing from about 2 to about 40 carbon atoms.

Ketonovye dimers are characterized by the structure according to formula 1, where n denotes 0.

Preferred ketonovye dimers, acceptable for use in the present invention include those in which the groups R and R’, which may be identical or different, represent hydrocarbon radicals. Preferred groups R and R’ are alkyl or alkeneamine group containing 6-24 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl group containing at least 6 carbon atoms, Uralkaliy, containing at least 7 carbon atoms, and mixtures thereof. More preferred ketonovy dimer is selected from a range that includes (a) oktilovom, decroly, dodecyloxy, tetradecanoyl, hexadecanoyl, octadecanoyl, ansilove, jocosely, tetracosanoic, phenyl, benzyl, -nattily and cyclohexylmethanol dimers and (b) ketonovye dimers derived from organic acids, selected from a range that includes montanabuy acid, naphthenic acid, 9,10-dellanave acid, 9,10-dodecylamino acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid, eleostearic acid, naturally occurring mixtures of fatty acids contained in coconut oil, the oil of the Brazilian babassu nut, palm kernel oil, palm oil, olive oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, solid beef fat, pork fat, top fat of the whale, as well as mixtures of any of the above fatty acids with any of them. The most preferred ketonovy dimer is selected from a range that includes oktilovom, decroly, dodecyloxy, nibbles etilogy, hexadecylamine, octadecylamine, ansilove, jocosely, tetracosanoic, phenyl, benzyl, -nattily and cycloheximide and 1533434, in published application EP NO. a-3 0666368, which corresponds to the patent application US purchased according to the usual practice in the US transfer of rights of ownership, serial number 08/192570, filed February 7, 1994 (accepted) with all these documents in full included in this description as a reference.

Ketonovye multimer used in the method according to the present invention, described in the acquired according to the usual practice in the US transfer of rights of ownership of the patent application US serial number 08/601113, filed February 16, 1996, which fully included in the present description by reference. They correspond to the formula 1, where n denotes an integer equal to at least 1, R and R’, which may be identical or different, denote a saturated or unsaturated remotemachine or branched alkyl group containing 6-24 carbon atoms, preferably 10-20 carbon atoms, and more preferably 14-16 carbon atoms, and R’ denotes a saturated or unsaturated remotemachine or branched alkyl group containing 2-40 carbon atoms, preferably 4-8 or 28-40 carbon atoms.

Ketonovye multimer also described in EP No. 0629741 A1, which died 08/192570, filed February 7, 1994

Used according to the invention ketonovye dimers and multinary especially preferred range are liquid ketonovye dimers and multimer, which in the preferred embodiment, at 25S are not solids (essentially no crystalline or semi-crystalline or waxy solids, i.e., when heated they plastically deform without releasing heat of fusion). More preferred are solids at 20 ° C. Even more preferred at 25S are in the liquid state, and the most preferred are liquids at 20C. These liquid dimers and multinary typically are mixtures of compounds of formula 1, in which the preferred n denotes the number 0-6, more preferably 0-3, and most preferably O, R and R’, which may be identical or different, denote a saturated or unsaturated remotemachine or branched alkyl group containing 6-24 carbon atoms, and R’ denotes a saturated or unsaturated remotemachine or branched alkyl chain containing 2-40 carbon atoms, preferably 4-32 carbon atom, and in which (in a mixture of Conn the market can be a mixture ketonovyh dimeric or multimeric compounds which are the reaction product formed in the reaction mixture comprising unsaturated monocarboxylic fatty acids. Next, the reaction mixture may include saturated monocarboxylic fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid. Preferred to obtain a mixture of dimeric or multimeric compounds the reaction mixture comprises at least 25 wt.% unsaturated monocarboxylic fatty acids, and more preferably at least 70 wt.% unsaturated monocarboxylic fatty acids.

Preferred unsaturated monocarboxylic fatty acid introduced into the reaction mixture, contain 10-26 carbon atoms, more preferably 14 to 22 carbon atoms, and most preferably 16-18 carbon atoms. For example, such acids include oleic, linoleic, dolezelova, tetradecanoate (Mirandolina), hexadecanoate (palmitoleic), octadecadienoate (linolelaidic), octadecatrienoic (linolenic), Aksenova (gadolinia), eicosatetraenoic (arachidonic acid), CIS-13-docosanoate (erucic), TRANS-13-docosanoate (brassicicola) and docosapentaenoic (kopandanova) acid and galodamadruga of these acids, preferably the acid chlorides. You can use od which are oleic, linoleic, linolenic and palmitoleic acid and galodamadruga of these acids. The most preferred unsaturated monocarboxylic fatty acids are oleic and linoleic acids and galodamadruga of these acids.

Preferred saturated monocarboxylic fatty acids used to obtain ketonovyh dimeric and multimeric compounds used in the implementation of the present invention contain 10-26 carbon atoms, more preferably 14 to 22 carbon atoms, and most preferably 16-18 carbon atoms. These acids include, for example, stearic, isostearoyl, myristic, palmitic, margaric, pentadecanol, dekanovu, undecanoyl, dodecanoyl, tridecanol, nonadecanone, arachnid and beenbuy acids and their galodamadruga, preferably the acid chlorides. You can use one or more saturated monocarboxylic fatty acids. Preferred acids are palmitic and stearic.

Preferred alkalicarbonate acid used in the preparation ketonovyh multimeric compounds intended for use in the implementation of the present invention contain 6-44 carbon atoms,for example, sabotinova, azelaic acid, 1,10-dodecanoate, subarova, prasilova acid, docosanoate and dimeric36acid, for example the product EMPOL 1008, available on the company Henkel-Emery, Cincinnati, PCs Ohio, USA, as well as their galodamadruga, preferably the acid chlorides. Can be used one or more of these dicarboxylic acids. Preferred dicarboxylic acids with 9-10 carbon atoms. The most preferred dicarboxylic acids are sabotinova and azelaic acid.

When receiving ketonovyh of multimeric used when performing the present invention, use of dicarboxylic acid, the preferred maximum value of the molar ratio of dicarboxylic acid and monocarboxylic acid (total of both saturated and unsaturated) is about 5. A more preferred maximum value is approximately 4, and the preferred maximum is about 2. A mixture of dimeric and multimeric compounds can be prepared according to methods known to obtain standard ketonovyh dimers. In the first phase of a mixture of fatty acids or mixtures of fatty acids with dicarboxylic collateidentity acids, preferably the acid chlorides of the acids. Next, in the presence of tertiary amines (including trialkylamine and cyclic bonds alkylamines, preferably triethylamine, galodamadruga acids into ketene. Then ketonovye remains timeresult to obtain the target compounds.

Liquid ketonovye dimers and multinary acceptable for use in the present invention described in the patent application US serial number 08/428288 filed April 25, 1995, which fully included in the present description by reference, patent application US serial number 08/192570, filed February 7, 1994, and the patent application US serial number 08/601113, filed February 16, 1996

Alkylbetaine dimers technically available in the form of a sizing substances Aquapel and in the form of dispersions, such as emulsion adhesives NEHAP, the company Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware. Ketonovye dimers, which under 25S are not solids, available as a sizing substances Precis, also manufactured by the company Hercules Incorporated.

The group of interacting with cellulose adhesives also includes alkenylamine anhydrides (AA). AA consist of unsaturated hydrocarbon chains containing side groups remains Antara alpha-olefin. First olefin will someresult disordered movement of the double bond of the alpha-position. In the second stage isomerized olefin is injected into the interaction with maleic anhydride to obtain the final AA formula 2. Typical olefins used when interacting with maleic anhydride include alkeneamine, cycloalkenyl and kalkaylkia compounds containing from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms each. Specific examples isooctylphenyl anhydride, n-octadecylamine anhydride, n-hexadecanesulfonyl anhydride, n-dodecylammonium anhydride, isodecanoate anhydride, n-detailentry anhydride and n-oktaviantrie anhydride.

Alkenylamine anhydrides described in US patent No. 4040900, which fully included in the present description by reference, and in the work of C. E. Parley and R. B. Wasser, published in The Sizing of Paper, second edition, edited by W. F. Reynolds, Tappi Press, 1989, SS. 51-62. A variety alkenylamine anhydrides technically available on the company Albemarle Corporation, Baton Rouge, PCs Louisiana.

The preferred number of interacting with cellulose glue is so, which is enough to make the sizing composition of pic is wt.% in recalculation on weight of the aqueous composition, more preferably greater than about 5 wt.%, and even more preferably greater than about 7 wt.%. Preferred maximum content interacting with cellulose glue is less than about 50 wt.% in recalculation on weight of the aqueous composition, more preferably is less than about 30 wt.%, and even more preferably less than about 15 wt.%. The preferred number of interacting with cellulose glue in the composition is from about 1 to about 50 wt.% in recalculation on weight of the aqueous composition, more preferably is from about 5 to about 30 wt.%, and even more preferably ranges from about 7 to about 15 wt.%.

It was found that when performing the present invention in advance it is difficult to predict what combinations of anionic polymers and cationic components of effective, because their definition requires empirical methods. However, following the principles outlined in the present description, without the need for an ordinary person skilled in the technical field of an excessive amount of experimentation will allow him to determine the specific combination of anionic water-soluble polymers and rheological effect.

The essence of the present invention is more clearly illustrated in the following, non-limiting, examples.

Examples

As a way of demonstrating the features and utility of the present invention in the examples carried out several tests, including tests to determine gravimetric moisture retention, degree of sizing method company Hercules (IPG) and porosity on gerli. Methods of performing these tests is described below.

Gravimetric moisture retention (SI)

Moisture retention determined using gravimetric moisture analyzer (firm Kaltec Inc., Novi, pieces of Michigan). In all cases, unless otherwise specified, the test is carried out under atmospheric pressure (setting the status to "On") during the 30-second period. In this method, test 10 g of the solution are placed in a circular cylinder, the cross-sectional area which is equal to 1 square inch, and enter into contact with a porous polycarbonate membrane (item # GWR420, firm Kaltec Inc.). The membrane serves absorbent pad (absorbent paper to test the BS, the firm Kaltec Inc.). Absorbent pad is weighed before being placed in the receiver solution and then again after a 30-second p is the mass of absorbent pads, serves as an indicator of water retention solution from passing through the membrane. Reduced weight gain absorbent pads due to water indicates the ability of a solution to retain moisture. The values of gravimetric moisture retention obtained by this method are given in grams per square meter (g/m2), preferably smaller values of the BS as pointing to improved moisture retention.

It should be noted that unlike voltage plastic flow moisture retention is not a characteristic property of the composition, and reflects the interaction of the composition with other materials. Thus, retention of moisture depends on the nature, for example, chemical composition, thickness and porosity of the membrane used for definitions.

Test sizing method company Hercules (IPG)

During the test the sizing method of the company Hercules (IPG) sheet of paper is placed under the solution paints containing 1% formic acid and 1.2% naftovogo green Century First determine the reflectivity of the paper opposite the one that is in contact with the solution, and then watch her decline as a result penetrado values. Increased value of IPG indicate a higher degree of sizing.

Porosity gerli

When determining porosity on gerli determine the time it takes the passage of a known volume of air through the sample. It is measured in seconds, with increased values of porosity on gerli indicate the reduced porosity of the sample. Porosity gerli is determined using an instrument model 1 to test the permeability (firm Hagerty Technologies, Inc., Queensbury, pc. new York), which is controlled in accordance with the description made by the manufacturer. In this device are set to high set pressure, and the results are given in mean values for the five experiments.

Example 1

Prepare solutions of various anionic water-soluble polymers in water at concentrations sufficient to prepare the stock solution, the viscosity according to Brookfield which exceeds 500 SP. Further, the addition of additional quantities of water to regulate the concentration of these basic solutions and stirred for receiving the fluids, whose viscosity by Brookfield is approximately 100, 200 and 300 SP. Prepared solutions have gravimetric odergivaniya water-soluble polymers modified by adding into each of them as promoting viscosity additives different cation of charged substances. In most of these cases, after it has been mixed with a cationic material noted a significant increase in solution viscosity according to Brookfield. Then every solution of water-soluble polymer that modifies the cationic additive is diluted by adding an additional quantity of water, obtaining solutions with a viscosity of approximately 100, 200 and 300 SP. After this, the thus prepared solutions likewise experience gravimetric moisture retention as control solutions. The results of the tests of the standard solutions on the moisture retention are presented in the following tables next to the results for the cation-modified mortars.

In table.1A, the first ionic polymer is sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-M; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware), and promoting the viscosity additive is basic aluminum acetate (product NIAPROOF received by the company Union Carbide, new York, PCs, new York.

In table.1B, the first ionic polymer is natrocarbonatite (SMPS-N; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware), and promoting the viscosity additive is a cationic polydadmac (product RETEN 203; F. the Xia anionic pectin (unnormalized) (product LM104 AS-Z; the company Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware), and promoting the viscosity additive is calcium chloride.

In table.1G the first ionic polymer is an anionic carrageenan (CARRAGEENAN product J; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware), and promoting the viscosity additive is basic aluminum acetate (product NIAPROOF received by the company Union Carbide, new York, pc. new York) or diluted cationic polydadmac (product RETEN 203; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware).

In table.1D, the first ionic polymer is anionic carboxymethyl husarova gum with a degree of substitution (Sz) 0.5, and promoting viscosity additive is basic aluminum acetate (product NIAPROOF received by the company Union Carbide, new York, pc. new York) or diluted cationic polydadmac (product RETEN 203; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware).

In table.1E, the first ionic polymer is dilacerations latex (product ALCOGUM L-29; firm Aico Products, Chattanooga, PCs Tennessee), and promoting the viscosity additive is basic aluminum acetate (product NIAPROOF received by the company Union Carbide, new York, PCs, new York.

In table.1G per the th additive is calcium chloride.

In table.1Z the first ionic polymer is anionic polyacrylamide (RETEN 215; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware), and promoting the viscosity additive is basic aluminum acetate (product NIAPROOF; the company Union Carbide, new York, PCs, new York.

Comparative example 1

In this experiment attempts to prepare coordinated complexes of water-soluble polymers, such as anionic polyacrylamide copolymers and xanthan gum, cationic additives similar to the experiments presented in the above table.1A-1H. Also attempt to prepare a coordinated mixture of cationic and anionic jurovich gums, as shown in the table.1I. However, in all these cases, no rheological advantages of mixtures of these specific water-soluble polymers and cationic additives do not celebrate.

The fact that anionic polyacrylamide does not achieve the rheological benefits of improved retention of moisture in the mixture with cationic additives, may be due to the tendency of this polymer, when mixed with cationic materials to obrazovanakarakterna and cationic polyacrylamide copolymers, which can be used in the manufacture of paper, must act in a mechanism different from the mechanism of the present invention. If based on established facts, it is obvious that consideration of the application of previously known mixtures of anionic and cationic materials does not create the present invention. Moreover, the failure in the attempt mixing either cationic or anionic polyacrylamide copolymers blended with the opposite charge, which can be used to achieve improved ability to retain moisture (table.1K, 1L and 1H) or preparation of mixtures of cationic Haraway gums with anionic Haraway gum, which can be used to achieve improved ability to retain moisture (table.1M), leads to the conclusion that proposed by the present invention an effective combination of components with opposite charges, ensuring the achievement of improved ability to retain moisture, given previous experience in the art of these specific polymers that are not readily apparent.

Example 2

Vibr by using a rheometer Bolin (Bohlin). These solutions include the control solution of nonionic xanthan gum and solutions product SMPS-420 in the presence and absence of cationic additives. All test solutions prepared with bringing to constant values of viscosity according to Brookfield by diluting the stock solution to achieve the values of viscosity of about 300 centipoise. During these tests established that the voltage values of the plastic flow solution anionic water-soluble polymer in the presence of cationic additives at a given viscosity by Brookfield significantly higher than the only solution of the anionic polymer or a control solution of xanthan gum. These results are presented in table.2.

These findings are important to demonstrate the potential practical properties as xanthan gum, nonionic polymer currently used in many industrial applications due to provide its high voltage plastic flow, which is well known from the technical literature. Thus, it is obvious that the existence of aqueous solutions of any newly discovered water-soluble polymer mixtures, which if this is amedi, a surprising finding. Therefore, the scope of the present invention includes a low-viscosity solutions of water-soluble polymers in combination with cationic additives, which show the voltage values of plastic flow, greater than about 30 Dyne/cm2.

Example 2B

This example shows that the complexes of the anionic water-soluble polymers with cationic consistent additives at a given viscosity by Brookfield allow to achieve voltages of plastic flow, which significantly exceeds the voltage values of plastic flow for cases of natural gums. The detection means of achieving these outstanding values of voltage plastic flow at low viscosity solutions in itself is a surprising finding, and the fact that the usefulness of this property is set, despite the fact that earlier in this technical field, it was not known, is also unexpected discovery.

Shown in each table.2B and 2C components are added sequentially in the form of rows in descending order.

Solutions of xanthan gum in water is prepared by adding 15 wt.h. gum in 985 wt.h. water and peremeshivanie regulate the addition of additional quantities of water, as shown in the table.2B, achieving values of viscosity by Brookfield or about 1000 CPs (RVT No. 2/12 Rev/min), or about 500 CPS.

Solutions of sodium alginate in water is prepared by introduction of a 20 wt.h. of sodium alginate Scogin MV 980 wt.h. distilled water and stirring for dissolution within two hours, getting a basic solution. The concentration of the aliquot of this basic solution is regulated by adding an additional quantity of water, as shown in the table.2B, achieving values of viscosity by Brookfield or about 1000 CPs (No. 2/12 Rev/min), or about 500 CPS.

Basic solutions product CMC-7H3SC in combination with aluminum sulfate in water is prepared by introduction of a 10 wt.h. product CMC-7H3SC 990 wt.h. distilled water, stirring to dissolve within two hours and the addition of 30 wt.h. magnesium sulfate, and then 20 wt.h. 18-hydrate 2% aluminum sulfate. Note the formation of unstable gel. The concentration of the aliquot of the basic solution is regulated by adding an additional quantity of water, as shown in the table.2B, achieving values of viscosity by Brookfield or about 1000 CPs (LVT No. 2/12 Rev/min), or about 500 CPS.

The three solutions of rheology modifiers in aqueous starch rstmode, then by dissolving the various gums and components are presented in table.2B. After that, the viscosity of such solutions handle with achievement of target values of approximately 500 and 1000 SP additional aliquot of a 10% aqueous solution of starch, Penford 280 that allows you to bring the concentration of the gums to the level that would provide a target viscosity.

The definition of voltage plastic flow of the above polymer solutions is performed using a rheometer AR 1000 (firm TA Instruments) using the standard method.

Established, as is evident from the data table.2B that in aqueous solutions without starch for the same values of viscosity by Brookfield voltages plastic flow in the case of solution complexes SMS/alum higher than in the case of solutions of xanthan gum and sodium alginate.

Installed just as it can be seen from the data table.2B that in solutions of starch, containing different gums and complexes with the gums, the voltage values of plastic flow in cases of complex CMC/Kymene 557H significantly higher than in control materials with sodium alginate and xanthan gum.

Example 3

Prepare a water R. the additional additives in these solutions add different sizing agent. Additional additives are stiralnaya anhydrides (Scripset 740 and 742; Hercules Incorporated), Kamenovo multimeric sizing substance, obtained from 2 moles sabatinovka acid and 1 mole of unsaturated fatty acids (PTD D-898; Hercules Incorporated), emulsion alkylating dimer derived from linoleic and oleic acids (PRECIS; Hercules Incorporated), and latex colloidal sizing agent (Chromaset 600; Hercules Incorporated).

It is established that a mixture of anionic water-soluble polymer and cationic modifier form compatible solutions with each of these additives, except alkenylamine anhydride. It was also established that the method according to the present invention would be feasible with respect to surface sizing in combination with a sizing substances and colloids. These results are presented in table.3A and 3B.

Example 4

By boiling the resin in water for one hour at 95C from 0.20 wt.% karboksimetiltselljulozy CMASN (Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware) preparing an aqueous solution of 10% gidroksietilirovannogo starch, Penford gum 280 (firm Penford Products, pieces Iowa). Then thickened with a starch solution, a cooling gap which in the form of an aliquot in a starch solution add dilute cationic polymer Reten 203. When various concentrations of cationic additives determine the viscosity by Brookfield of this solution and gravimetric moisture retention. In the course of conducting such tests it is established that with increasing amount of added cationic additives ability to hold moisture increases. These results are presented in table.4. The data of this example show the possibility of achieving superior degree of sizing when performing the present invention using starch and sizing chemicals for surface treatment of paper.

Example 5

The composition of the ionic polymer (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), promoting the viscosity of the additive (KYMENE 557H) and inhibiting additives (gidroksietilirovannogo starch) is prepared as follows.

An aqueous solution of 8% gidroksietilirovannogo starch (PENFORD GUM 280) is prepared by boiling the resin in water for one hour at C with 0.25 wt.% of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose CMC-7H3SX; Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, pieces of Delaware. Further thickened starch solution is cooled to 70C and share. In aliquots of this starch solution add different amounts of product Kymene 557H (Hercules Incorporated, Wilmington, that adding product Kymene 557H increases as the viscosity of the solution and its ability to hold moisture in comparison with the data control tests without the use of the product Kymene 557H. These results are presented in table.5A.

During the parallel test prepare compositions without inhibiting additives. Prepare 1% solution of the product CMC-7H3SX, and then determine the viscosity of the solution according to Brookfield. In the solution of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with stirring, add a small amount of cationic polymer Kymene 557H. However, in the course of conducting this comparative experiment see the availability of sediment and the more add Kymene 557H, the lower is the viscosity of the solution. This indicates that the depletion of the aqueous phase CMC polymer. This is evidenced by the data table.5B.

This example shows that the presence of soluble starch as a retarding additives allows you to use a combination of CMC and cationic modifier to achieve the useful properties of the solution, as the ability to retain moisture, while the absence of dissolved starch as retarding additives leads to precipitation and leads to ineffective use the tx2">

Example 6

An aqueous solution of 8% gidroksietilirovannogo starch, Penford Gum 280 is prepared by boiling the resin in water at C within one hour. Starch solution is boiled with 0.25% product CMC-7H3S (Hercules). Further thickened starch solution is cooled to 70C and share. In aliquots of this starch solution add different amounts of product Kymene 557H and compare the values of their viscosity by Brookfield and gravimetric moisture retention.

Then thus prepared starch solution process sheets uncoated paper using the method of "wire rod draw-down". The thus treated sheets of paper are dried at a constant temperature, after which the humidity is determined to establish the amount of absorbed starch in terms of dry weight and porosity on gerli using digital porosimetry Hagerty (firm Hagerty Technologies Inc., Queensbury, PCs, new York. During these tests establish that the modifier system CMC/Kymene 557H leads to achievement of a much higher porosity values for gerli sheets of paper than those obtained in the control tests. These results are summarized in table.6. A higher value of porosity on gerli is Celebi is stijene valuable characteristics yield solutions of starch, used for the surface treatment of paper.

Example 7

Composition for coating paper coating gravure prepare disbelievable 200 g stratified clay Hydraprint (firm JM Huber, Macon, PCs Georgia) and 200 g of kaolin Hydraperse #1 (firm JM Huber, Macon, pc. GA) in 400 g of water, followed by mixing the mass with 48 g of latex gravure RAP 3 B3NABK (50% of the basic substance, Dow Inc., Midland, pieces of Michigan). Further addition of ammonium hydroxide pH of the mixture adjusted to about 8.5-9.0 in obtaining the basic mixture.

To thicken the mixture to the principal amount of this mixture add the rheological properties of the base composition. In the control experiment, with the thickening of the material for coating use associative thickener Polyphobe 205 (company Union Carbide, Danbury, pcs. CT), which is known as the thickener used in the industry, when applied to the paper coating gravure. In the comparative experiment testing the product SMPS-N dissolved in the composition basic composition for coating, after which the system add cationic polymer modifier RETEN 203.

Next, define material properties for the best product SMPS-N with cationic additive achieves a significantly improved ability to retain moisture, than in the control trial, and at the same time reduced wysokosciowe values (determined by the method of the company Hercules), similar to those obtained in the control experiment. These findings, presented in table.7, indicate the usefulness of the present invention to make the materials when applied to the paper coating target new properties.

Example 8

A mixed solution of 10 wt.% gidroksietilirovannogo starch, Penford 280 and 0.2 wt.% product SMPS-N in water is prepared by introducing these components with stirring in water and then boiling the solution at elevated temperature (S) within one hour. 1000 wt.h. this solution is injected various additives and determine the influence of these additives on the viscosity and gravimetric moisture retention.

In the control experiments in the starch solution is added a solution of aluminum sulfate mixed with citric acid corresponding to the previously published US patent 4035195. They are presented in columns 2 and 4 of table.S. In a comparative experiment in the starch solution/product SMPS-N add cationic polymer according to the present invention. They are presented in columns 1 and 3 of table.S. Adding sufficient is alongi 3 and 4).

It is established that, as shown in table D, increasing the viscosity of the solution using the product SMPS/cationic additive of the present invention is much greater than when using previously known mixture of the product SMPS/alum/citrate. It was also established that at pH 8.5 ability to retain moisture when performing the present invention is significantly higher than in the control experiment using known means. It could be argued therefore that when the present invention adding a mixed solution of aluminum sulfate/sodium citrate based on previously published US patent 4035195 to improve moisture retention solution at high pH values is inefficient, which would be typical for many processes in the sizing press.

* regulate the pH ammonium hydroxide

Comparative example 8B

Prepare 1% solution of the product CMC-7H3S in the water and determine the viscosity. 1000 wt.h. this solution with stirring 16 wt.h. ammoniacarbonate Bacote 20 (firm Magnesium Elektron). Found that adding product Bacote 20 viscosity of the solution decreases. During the individual expernet. As CMC, and CMC/zirconium solutions are mixed with an additional quantity of dilution water, obtaining solutions with a viscosity of about 300 centipoise, and determine gravimetric moisture retention. Establish that both CMC solution, i.e., as added or without added zirconium salts, show very similar values for moisture retention. These results are reflected in table.8 B. Thus it is shown that the implementation of the present invention adding a zirconium salt previously published US patent 5362573 to improve moisture retention solution is ineffective.

Example 9

Industrial paper machine with a combination of fibrous pulp from softwood and hardwood wood make a paper having a density of 99 g/m2. The ash content of this paper is 12 wt.%, and the used filler is precipitated silica HO type. Use other typical paper manufacturing supplements, but the paper does not include any added substance to the sizing in the mass; it is not treated in the sizing press. The paper is dried and stored in the form of a roll.

Next, the paper is treated in the press, imago solution. This rake dispenses the solution supplied to the platen for applying a coating layer, which then translates processing means on paper. The treated paper is passed through the drying part of paper machine and again wound into a roll.

The paper is treated with a starch and additives with only one hand. During the coating process, the paper moves at a speed of 3500 linear feet/min. Connection of modifying the rheology of the system and a sizing substance injected into the starch solution separately. First enter the cationic resin, and a sizing substance added last. Paper cover solution for size press within six minutes of added sizing agent. Modifying the rheology of the system increases the viscosity of the starch solution to about 80 centipoise. After aging for more than two weeks to assess from a roll of paper draw samples.

In each case, the amount of added starch, calculated on the dry matter is 1.8 g/m2the number of dry paper. Starch solution is used at pH 8 and S, and viscosity by Brookfield is about 20 centipoise (shaft No. 1 and 100 rpm). Modifying the rheology of the system is srabatyvayut 8% solution of ethyl starch, to which is added a) modifying the rheology of the system, b) a sizing substance, or a combination of both means. Sizing substance M, variance alkenylamine dimer is a product of the company Hercules Incorporated. At room temperature this dimer is liquid. Product Kymene 557H, cationic polyamide with azetidinone functional groups, produces and markets firms Hercules Incorporated as additives to give the paper strength in the wet state. Product CMC-7H3SC represents a carboxymethyl cellulose produced by the company Hercules Incorporated. The product sample CMC7H3SC used in this example has a degree of substitution of 0.7 (i.e. 70% methylhydroxylamine groups of cellulose reacted with the formation of carboxyl groups). Samples to assess the degree of sizing (absorption of water), which is determined by the standard test sizing method company Hercules (IPG). The results are presented in table.9.

The addition of the rheology modifier with a sizing substance increases the degree of sizing of the paper according to the IPG, which is provided at each concentration of the sizing agent. Individually test the rheology modifier extent of the PRA (CMC) in water is mixed with the polymer solution with high cationic activity, such as product Kymene 557H, usually observe the formation of sludge with a simultaneous decrease of the viscosity. When added to a composition for coating paper coating such mixtures noticeable thickening action is not apparent. This example shows that a mixture of anionic polymer, cationic polymer, and retarding additive is an effective thickener composition for application to paper coating.

10 hours product CMC-9L1EL dissolved in 100 hours of water, then this water dissolve 5 g sodium citrate, and then 48 hours cationic resin Kymene 557H. Note the transparency of the solution. During the two-day retention period, the solution significantly sagaseta, but not gelatinized. In the course of conducting a parallel experiment, comprising adding to the quality of the end component 80 hours product Kymene 557H, after a two-day retention period is formed of a viscous transparent solution.

Prepared according to the above solution of CMC/product Kymene added to the material for the coating of paper containing kaolin and callicarpenal pigments and latex SCS with 64% of dry matter. A comprehensive solution CMC/product Kymene add to 100 wt.h. material for paper coating in an amount of 5 very good thickening action, and thickened thus the material for the coating appearance is very smooth, without any formed lumps or visible clots.

In the control experiment in the same composition for coating paper coating titrated small amount of the product Kymene 557H. In this case, the material for coating see intensive clots pigment, which consist of lumps of different sizes.

Although the invention is described with reference to particular means, materials and embodiments of the, you must understand that the invention is not limited, as it includes all equivalents covered by the scope of the claims.

1. Aqueous composition comprising at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting viscosity additive, and this at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive includes at least one second ionic polymer having a net ionic charge, which is opposite ionic charge at least one first ionic polymer, and the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 5 Dyne/cm2.

2. Water comp .

3. Water composition on p. 2, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 20 Dyne/cm2.

4. Water composition on p. 3, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 30 Dyne/cm2.

5. Water composition on p. 4, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 50 Dyne/cm2.

6. The water composition under item 5, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 70 Dyne/cm2.

7. The water composition under item 1, where the viscosity by Brookfield this aqueous composition is less than about 10,000 CP.

8. The water composition under item 7, where the viscosity by Brookfield this aqueous composition is less than about 5000 CP.

9. The water composition under item 8, wherein the viscosity by Brookfield this aqueous composition is less than about 1000 CP.

10. Water composition on p. 9, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 10 Dyne/cm2.

11. Water composition on p. 10, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 20 Dyne/cm2.

12. Water composition"ptx2">

13. Water composition on p. 9, where the viscosity by Brookfield this aqueous composition is less than about 500 CPS.

14. Water composition on p. 13, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 10 Dyne/cm2.

15. Water composition on p. 14, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 20 Dyne/cm2.

16. The water composition under item 15, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 30 Dyne/cm2.

17. Water composition on p. 13, where the viscosity by Brookfield this aqueous composition is less than about 300 CP.

18. Water composition on p. 17, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 10 Dyne/cm2.

19. Water composition on p. 18, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 20 Dyne/cm2.

20. Water composition on p. 19, where the voltage plastic flow of this water composition exceeds about 30 Dyne/cm2.

21. Water composition on p. 17, where the viscosity by Brookfield this aqueous composition is less than about 50 CP.

22. Water compoundin anionic charge, and at least one second ionic polymer is a polymer that has the overall cationic charge.

23. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer has an overall anionic charge at least about 0.04 mEq/g

24. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer comprises at least one anionic polysaccharide, derived anionic polysaccharide or anionic synthetic polymer.

25. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer comprises at least one anionic polysaccharide, which is carrageenan, pectin or sodium alginate.

26. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer comprises at least one anionic derivative of a polysaccharide, which is a carboxymethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl harowuiu gum, carboxyphenoxypropane harowuiu gum, karboksimetiltselljuloza, methylcarboxymethylcellulose or carboxymethyl starch.

27. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least on the e is a carboxymethylcellulose.

28. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer comprises at least one anionic derivative of a polysaccharide, which is karboksimetiltselljuloza.

29. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer comprises at least one anionic synthetic polymer, which is an anionic acrylamide copolymer, amphoteric acrylamide copolymer, polyacrylic acid or a copolymer of acrylic acid.

30. Water composition on p. 22, in which the viscosity by Brookfield solution comprising 10 wt.% or less of at least one first ionic polymer in water at room temperature greater than about 1000 CP.

31. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer comprises at least one of such products as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, nitrocarburization, pectin, carrageenan, carboxymethyl husarova gum, sodium alginate, anionic acrylamide copolymers, dilaceration latexes, carboxylmethylcellulose and carboxymethylaminomethyl polymer is karboksimetiltselljuloza, and at least one promoting viscosity additive is a polymer of diallyldimethylammoniumchloride.

33. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one first ionic polymer is a carboxymethyl cellulose, and at least one promoting viscosity additive is epichlorhydrine the reaction product polyaminoamide, obtained by the reaction of adipic acid with Diethylenetriamine.

34. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one second ionic polymer comprises at least one cationic polyacrylamide, epichlohydrin the reaction product polyaminoamide obtained by reaction of a polyamine with a dicarboxylic acid, or a polymer diallyldimethylammoniumchloride.

35. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one second ionic polymer comprises at least one cationic polyacrylamide; epichlohydrin the reaction product polyaminoamide obtained by reaction of a polyamine with a dicarboxylic acid; a polymer of diallyldimethylammoniumchloride, polyamideimide resin, the polymerization products of the Quaternary monomers, copolymers of Quaternary monomers and other reaction is S="ptx2">

36. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive further includes at least one inorganic salt containing a polyvalent functional group, which, depending on the nature of the first ionic polymer can be anionic or cationic.

37. Water composition on p. 22, in which at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive further includes at least one polyvalent metal cation.

38. The water composition in p. 37, in which at least one polyvalent metal cation comprises at least one of such elements as aluminum, magnesium, iron (III), calcium and zinc.

39. Water composition on p. 22, in which the viscosity by Brookfield solution containing 5 wt.% at least one second ionic polymer in water at room temperature is less than about 2000 CP.

40. Water composition on p. 39, in which the charge density of at least one second ionic polymer is at least about 0.05 mEq/g

41. The water composition under item 1, in which the charge density of at least one second ionic polymer pillar is the first ionic polymer has an overall anionic charge, at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive has an overall cationic charge, and the ratio of the charges at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive exceeds 1:1.

43. Water composition on p. 42, in which the ratio between the charges exceed about 1:0,6.

44. The water composition in p. 43, in which the ratio between the charges exceed about 1:0,4.

45. The aqueous composition according to p. 44, in which the ratio between the charges exceed about 1:0,3.

46. Water composition on p. 45, in which the ratio between the charges exceed about 1:0,2.

47. Water composition on p. 46, in which the ratio between the charges exceed about 1:0,1.

48. The water composition under item 1, additionally comprising at least one sizing agent.

49. Water composition on p. 48, in which at least one sizing substance includes at least one interacting with cellulose glue.

50. Water composition on p. 48, in which at least one sizing substance includes at least one alkylcatechols dimer, alkylcatechols of multimer, anhydride Jan is taxny polymer, organic epoxide, allalone, the anhydride of the fatty acid or an organic isocyanate.

51. The water composition under item 1, the value of the gravimetric moisture retention in which at least about 10% less than that of the composition comprising the same components and in the same concentration, but does not contain either at least one first ionic polymer or at least one second ionic polymer.

52. The water composition under item 1, additionally comprising at least one retarding additive is contained in an amount which is effective for preventing the formation of sludge or gel, and the precipitate or gel includes a coherent set of at least one first ionic polymer and at least one promoting the viscosity of the additive and this precipitate or gel would be formed in the absence of retarding additives.

53. The water composition in p. 52, in which at least one retarding additive comprises at least one inorganic salt containing a divalent cationic functional group, a salt of carboxylic acid and the starch solution.

54. The water composition in p. 52, further having a voltage plastic is th at least one additive, which represents at least one of these products, as a sizing substance, natural, semisynthetic or synthetic polymer, pigment, clay, filler, a biocide, a surfactant, an antistatic agent, a defoamer, a binder, an additive that promotes retention, and strengthening additive.

56. The water composition under item 1, additionally comprising clay.

57. The water composition under item 1, additionally comprising at least one pigment.

58. The water composition in p. 57, further comprising at least one latex colloid.

59. The water composition under item 1, which is a composition for surface sizing, further comprising starch.

60. The water composition under item 1, representing drilling mud for oil fields.

61. The water composition under item 1, representing the working fluid for the oil fields.

62. The water composition under item 1, which is a composition for water clarification.

63. The water composition in p. 62, additionally comprising at least one surfactant.

64. The water composition in p. 62, in addition to on the, promote the retention of moisture.

66. Method of coating paper coating, comprising (a) preparation of the paper; b) applying the aqueous composition according to PP.1-59 at least one surface of the paper, C) drying the paper to obtain coated paper.

67. The method according to p. 66, designed for surface sizing paper, which use aqueous composition for p. 59.

68. Coated paper manufactured by the method according to p. 66.

69. Coated paper by p. 68, which is a coated paper produced by the method according to p. 67.

70. The paper by p. 69, which has a higher degree of sizing, as determined by the test sizing method the company Hercules, than paper which is coated with a composition for surface sizing, which is similar but does not contain at least one promoting viscosity additives.

71. The paper by p. 69, which has a higher porosity gerli than paper which is coated with a composition for surface sizing, which is similar, except that does not contain at least one promoting viscosity additives.

72. The water composition under item 1, which is a composition for grease what about p. 72, which has a lower value gravimetric moisture retention than the composition for application to a paper coating containing the promoting viscosity additives.

74. The water composition under item 1, which is a solution.

75. The water composition under item 1, which is an emulsion.

 

Same patents:

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FIELD: usage of the dielectric polymeric foam as different dielectric materials in production of lenses for radio waves.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a dielectric polymeric foam and its utilization in production of lenses for radio waves. The dielectric polymeric foam is intended for utilization in the capacity of different dielectric materials, including as the material for production of spherical lenses for radio waves and Luneberg lens. The polymeric foam has a dielectric permeability of no less than 1.5 at 12 GHz and 25 °C and is produced by a foaming of the polymeric composition, which contains a synthetic polymetric compound and one or more dielectric inorganic filler. The filler is selected from a fibrous titanate of the alkaline-earth metal and a lamellar titanate of the alkaline-earth metal. The produced dielectric polymeric foam has good and uniform dielectric features.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the dielectric polymeric foam with good and uniform dielectric features.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: special-destination substances.

SUBSTANCE: invention provides emission-sensitive composition containing polymerizable compound A, non-polymerizable compound B having lower refractory index than polymer of polymerizable compound A, and emission-sensitive polymerization initiator C. Invention also provides method for varying refractory index, structure formation method, and optical material preparation method.

EFFECT: stabilized structure and optical material independent of application conditions.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: polymer materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to conducting polymer blend, which is prepared by selecting at least two mutually immiscible polymers and mixing them until into blend so that at least one of polymers forms continuous three-dimensional phase throughout the volume of blend. Thereafter, conducting metal-containing filler is added to blend. Difference in surface tensions between polymer(s) forming continuous three-dimensional phase and other polymers constituting polymer blend is equal at least 2 mN/m. Above-mentioned at least two polymers are selected from following polymer pairs: pair polyamide PA6 and polymer selected from group consisting of PA12 and polyolefin; pair PA66 and polymer selected from group consisting of PA6, polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate, styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer, polystyrene, PA12, polyolefin, liquid-crystalline polymer, and polyoxymethylene; pair polybutylene terephthalate and polymer selected from group consisting of PA6, polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate, styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, PA12, polyolefin, liquid-crystalline polymer, and polyoxymethylene; pair polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate; pair polyethylene terephthalate and polymer selected from group consisting of polycarbonate, polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, PA6, PA12, and polyolefin; pair polymethylmethacrylate and polymer selected from group consisting of PA6, PA12, and polyolefin; pair polyoxymethylene and polymer selected from group consisting of polycarbonate, polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, PA6, PA12, and polyolefin; pair styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer and polymer selected from group consisting of polystyrene, PA6, PA12, and polyolefin.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of polymer blend with low content of conducting filler showing sufficient conductivity and good mechanical properties.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing electroconductive gas-sensitive material for a nitrogen dioxide sensor. The method of producing gas-sensitive material involves preparation of a film-forming solution from polyacrylonitrile and copper (II) chloride CuCl in dimethylformamide, which is deposited through centrifuging onto a substrate made from quartz glass and undergoes drying and infrared annealing successively in two steps: on air at temperature 150°C for 15 minutes and at 200°C for 15 minutes; and in an argon atmosphere at T=150°C, 200°C for 15 minutes; and then at T=500-800°C for 5 minutes.

EFFECT: obtaining gas-sensitive material which is sensitive to nitrogen dioxide with semiconductor properties from material which has dielectric properties using infrared annealing.

3 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the method of producing nanocomposite material and it can be used in packaging, wire (non-flammable insulation of electrical wires) and other industries. The method includes melt mixing of low density polyethylene and layered silicate. As layered silicate, natural montmorillonite is used being modified with quaternary ammonium salt. Before melt mixing, low density polyethylene is preliminarily shearly degraded at high temperature in a single screw dispergator with three temperature zones.

EFFECT: pre-treatment of the polymer helps to overcome incompatibility of the filler and material polymer base and, consequently, to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of the nanomaterial being produced.

1 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing a conducting polymer product in form of fine particles with average size of 0.02-0.05 mcm, with improved conductivity, involving: putting a conducting polymer product, which is a product obtained via polymerisation of 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene in aqueous solution of polystyrene sulphonic acid and/or polyaniline, water, an organic solvent which is compatible with the conducting polymer product, and carbon dioxide gas into a container operating under pressure; and exposing the medium inside the container operating under pressure to heat and pressure in order to convert carbon dioxide to a supercritical state.

EFFECT: improved conductivity of the conducting polymer product.

4 cl, 3 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to compounds of formulae:

or ,

which are suitable for obtaining foamed polymers, where X denotes O; T denotes S; X' denotes O or S, n - valence A ≤ 2, R2 denotes H or alkyl, R3 denotes a hydrocarbon, and A denotes: alkylene, optionally substituted with an ester, ether or amide; an unsaturated hydrocarbon; an alicyclic group; diphenylmethyl; an aromatic group; , where R7 denotes H, a hydrocarbon and p=6-n; , where R5 denotes an alkyl group, as in compounds and , or a polymer residue, where the phosphorus-sulphur compound contains 5-50 wt % sulphur.

EFFECT: novel compounds which are effective fire-retardant additives for foamed polymers.

6 cl, 38 ex

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