The way blasting minerals and host rocks in open-cast mining and device for its implementation
The invention relates to mining and, in particular, to the open mining methods blasting. The method includes replacing single wells of large diameter equivalent to the total energy beams parallel contiguous wells of small diameter, in which the number of charged wells change per unit in the direction from the bottom of the wells to the working space of the ledge incrementsLidetermined by the formula. Each beam total charge form variable height decreasing from the bottom of the wells to the working space of the ledge. Drilling holes in the beams is performed using the devices containing self-propelled transport and power module and one or more non-self-propelled drilling modules associated flexible hydraulic system. Self-propelled drilling module is equipped with two or more hydromelioration. Its body is made in the form of a rigid parallelepiped and is equipped with a drilling frame. The invention provides for reduction of consumption of EXPLOSIVES and increasing the efficiency of the excavation. 2 s and 5 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.The invention relates to mining and, in particular, to the open mining methods atcom of this method is the mismatch between the nature of changes in linear energy concentration in the charges to the nature of changes in the load on the charge on the height of the ledge.The closest in technical essence of the method and the achieved result is a method of blasting in underground mining beams parallel contiguous wells /2/.The disadvantage of this method is the same length charges in all the wells of the beam that does not allow you to adjust the size of the linear energy density of the beam along its length. A device for blasting minerals and host rocks, such as roller cone drill-rig TRD-200-32 containing the power module and the drilling module installed on self-propelled chassis /1/. The disadvantage of this device is to install the modules in a single chassis, which does not allow to drill multiple wells.Closest to the technical nature of the device and the achieved result is a device containing drilling carriage with several hydromelioration, power and drilling modules associated hydraulic connection installed on the same self-propelled chassis /3/. The disadvantage of this device is the inability to provide maximum likelihood parallel wells and no cargo system used to install the Boers at the point of drilling, and t is the reduced consumption of EXPLOSIVES and increasing the efficiency of the excavation due to the reduction of oversize yield and optimization of the shape of Nabal smitten rock.The invention consists in that in the method of blasting minerals and host rocks in open-cast mining single concentrated charges of large diameter replace the equivalent of the total energy beams parallel contiguous wells of small diameter, in which the number of charged wells change per unit in the direction from the bottom of the wells (bottom) to the working area of the ledge with a step equal toLi. In the linear concentration of energy along the length of the beam parallel contiguous wells of small diameter is changed by the same law that changes the actual load on the battery. Therefore eliminated overruns BB on the breaking of rock mass, the quality of its crushing and increases the compactness of Nabal smitten rock mass, resulting in lower costs to breakage and improves the conditions of the excavation.The method is implemented by a device for drilling beams parallel contiguous wells in open-pit mining, containing self-propelled transport and power module, comprising a source of expense, and non-self-propelled drilling module associated flexible hydraulic system - high pressure hoses, with non-self-propelled drilling rig equipped frame, made with the possibility of movement on opposite sides of the upper and lower bases of parallelepiped via sliders, and the vertical sides of this rig frame is made of sliding, and compounds of these parties with sliders made the hinge. One of the variants of the device for drilling beams parallel contiguous wells is equipped with several non-self-propelled drilling modules. For drilling parallel wells from a single device installation (without moving it) getoperator placed on the feeders, which is rigidly fixed at both short (horizontal) sides of the drill frame, on which they can move parallel to the long sides of this frame. In addition, a variant of the device is performing it with two truck frames at the bottom, in the plane of each of which are discrete cargo items in equal number in each frame, the total weight of which is equal to the total force feed hydromelioration installed in the drilling frame, and the load elements of the upper and lower cargo frames are perpendicular to each other. Also possible the giving of the cargo items in both cargo frames the ability to move in PLO the new frames are made to move along the perpendicular sides of these frames. To increase the area of drilling from one installation device for drilling beams parallel contiguous wells all horizontal elements of the hull of the drilling module and the drilling frame is made of sliding.The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a diagram of the location of the beams parallel closely spaced small diameter wells on a ledge, in Fig.2 - circuit blasting of ledge beam of parallel closely spaced small diameter wells with variable length of the charge, in Fig.3 - scheme of installation of the device on the ledge of Fig.4 - transport-power module of Fig.5 is a device for drilling beams parallel closely spaced wells.The method is implemented as follows.Calculates parameters of drilling and blasting operations for the adopted techniques for real mining conditions and determines the height of the ledge N, m; a berm security, m; angle of slope of the side of the ledge, grad.; the diameter of the charge in the well of large diameter D0, m; the value of the line resistance on the soles W, m; the value of perebor ln, m; the depth of blast holes, L, m; the length of the tamping lZab, m; the length of the charge LC=L-lZab., mBased on the type of rocks used CENTURIES and technical potential is about energy charge in the borehole diameter D0:the distance between the holes in the beam anditake is equal to the sum of the radii of the zones, blasting action Raboverelated charges, calculated by known methodsWe also calculate a step change per unit number of charged wellsLilength fully charged part of the beam of wells equal to the length of perebor lnLz0=ln=Wctg.Drilling diameter di1 in bunches of 2 carried out by any known method (Fig.1). At the modern level of development of the most appropriate drilling equipment drilling rigs with hydromelioration. After drilling the thump of hands array required by the conditions of the crushing number of beams wells produce charging can be performed using known means charging and types of EXPLOSIVES. Each beam the total amount of charge (energy) is variable in height with a decrease from the borehole bottom to the working space of the ledge. This is achieved by the fact that at each level, times the value ofLithe number of charged holes in the beam reduces to (Li) load a (n-1) wells in the beam; from level 5 to level 6 load (n-2) wells, from level 6 to level 7 charge (n-3) wells, etc. to the level of the working surface of the ledge 8, where the remains of one charged well. This method of loading wells in the beams is performed using a known charging units or manually, and the length of the charge in each well established by calculation, is controlled by either direct measurement or by current flow CENTURIES.After loading produce blasting beams using known schemes blasting, but each beam all wells necessarily explode at the same time. The effect of reach due to changes in the concentration of energy at the height of the ledge, in accordance with the actual load on each elementary section of charge, allowing you to avoid wasting energy and CENTURIES, always occur when using the traditional methods of blasting ledges with inclined jambs vertical wells.For the most common types of EXPLOSIVES and the diameters of the wells guaranteed savings CENTURIES, through the implementation of the law of energy distribution along the height of the shelf in accordance with the law to reduce the load on the charge, is 15-20%. In addition, when ispol the beam energy wells varies proportionally to the real FOXES across the scarp. This allows to apply the necessary amount of energy in the above-mentioned zone and thereby significantly reduce the output characteristics due to the elimination of the reasons of its occurrence with conventional technology.When traditional methods of blasting formed on the scarp excess energy leads to an increase of the scatter of chipped rock mass, decrease in the compactness of its bulk and, consequently, to reduction of excavation. Elimination of excess energy on the height of the ledges using the proposed method eliminates the causes of these adverse effects and will increase the compactness of Nabal smitten rock mass and therefore increase the efficiency of the excavation.The device consists of a self-propelled transport and power module 9 and non-self-propelled drilling module 10 connected flexible hydraulic system - hydromotive 11 high pressure (Fig.3).Self-propelled transport and power module 9 (Fig.4) consists of a source flow 12 (standard oil station), mounted with motor (electric or diesel) required power 13 on self-propelled wheeled chassis 14, driven by the same motor 13. In front of the power module is mounted two: wienie bars are inserted in the transport loop 16, attached to the lateral racks non-self-propelled drilling module (Fig.5).Self-propelled drilling module 10 presents the casing 17 made in the form of a rigid parallelepiped. Inside the housing 17 along the guide rails 18 that are located on opposite sides of the upper 19 and lower base 20 is moved rectangular mobile drilling the frame 21, on the upper and lower sides of which are rigidly secured feeders 22, parallel to the lateral vertical sides of the rectangular movable drill frame 21, parallel to which they can move in the plane of the frame. The vertical sides of the rectangular movable drill frame 21 can be moved apart along the length and pivotally connected to the slide 23 is moved along the guide rails 18. This allows you to set the frame inclined relative to the vertical axis of the box for drilling of inclined beams wells. The number of wells depends on the properties of destructible array and geometric parameters of the ledges, then the size oburevaemogo site work site, within which are placed in all wells of the beam may vary in a fairly wide range. In this case, the minimum number of permutations of the drilling module is Cove. Therefore, to minimize the number of permutations and increasing due to this the efficiency of drilling horizontal elements of the housing 17 non-self-propelled drilling module 10 and the rectangular rig frame 21 make sliding.The feeders are standard getoperator 24, equipped with a detachable drill rods 25, allowing you to drill wells required under the terms of the development of depth.Productive drilling (weight compensation force feed hydromelioration on the bottom) in the lower part of the housing 17, is made in the form of a rigid parallelepiped, creates a counterweight consisting of two truck frames - the top 26 and bottom 27 of the two groups - the upper 28 and lower 29 - weighted items, total weight of which is equal to the total force feed all mounted on a rectangular drilling the frame 21 of the feeder 22 with hydromelioration 24. At the top of the cargo elements are movable relative to the two opposite horizontal rails 30 of the upper truck frame 26, and the bottom group of the weight elements are movable relative to the opposite horizontal rails 31 of the lower cargo frame 27.Moving these cargo items in the plane of their passport drilling positions, it is possible to fix the position of the drilling tool 32 in the period of drilling, forming guides cell in the gaps between cargo items. On the housing are attached to the transport loop 16. The corners of the lower housing 17 non-self-propelled drilling module 10 is installed screw jacks 33 and levels 34, which provide the module installation on the point of the drill in a vertical position.The device operates as follows.- Mark the location of the wells on the billing sheet.- Self-propelled transport and power module are delivered to the place of drilling non-self-propelled drilling modules in the necessary technical conditions the number and set each of them to the point of drilling a bunch of holes.- Self-propelled transport and power modules connect hydromotive high pressure non-self-propelled drilling units.- Produce drilling in the thump of hands block, rearranging non-self-propelled drilling modules using a self-propelled transport and power modules.- Remove non-self-propelled drilling modules from the point of drilling, make loading and blasting wells.Sources of information1. The directory of Open pit mining. - M.: Mining Bureau, 1994, 583 S. (pages 152-153, 196-203).2. Budko, A. C., C 35, 36) (prototype).3. Kaplunov D. R., Levin, C. I., Bolotov B. C. and other Development of underground mining at the integrated development of deposits. - M.: Nauka, 1992, 253 S. (pages 158-160) (prototype).
Claims1. The way blasting minerals and host rocks in surface mining, including drilling of beams parallel contiguous wells, which replace equivalent to a single charge of large diameter, loading and simultaneous blasting, characterized in that each beam of parallel contiguous wells total charge form variable height decreasing from the bottom of the wells to the working space of the ledge, while the section from the bottom of the wells to the line of least resistance along the sole of the ledge charge all wells beam, and further, the number of charged wells change per unit in the direction from the bottom of the wells to the working platform bench with a step defined by the formulawhereLi- step changes per unit number of charged holes in the beam, m;L - total length of the blast hole, m;- the angle of repose of the working bench, grad.;with the berm security unit charge, m2. Device for drilling beams parallel contiguous wells in open-pit mining, containing self-propelled transport and power module, comprising a source of expense, and non-self-propelled drilling module associated flexible hydraulic system - high pressure hoses, characterized in that the non-self-propelled drilling module is equipped with two or more hydromelioration, in this case non-self-propelled drilling module is made in the form of a rigid parallelepiped and is equipped with a drilling frame, is arranged to move in opposite sides of the upper and lower bases of the box by means of sliders, and the vertical sides of this rig frame is made of sliding, and compounds of these parties with sliders made the hinge.3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that it has several non-self-propelled drilling units.4. The device under item 2 or 3, characterized in that getoperator placed on the feeders, which are rigidly attached to both short, horizontal sides of the drill frame, on which they can move parallel to the long sides of this frame.5. Device according to any one of paragraphs.2-4, characterized in that the drilling module has a at bottom is Alceste in each frame, the total weight of which is equal to the total force feed hydromelioration installed in the drilling frame, and the load elements of the upper and lower cargo frames are perpendicular to each other.6. Device according to any one of paragraphs.2-5, characterized in that the cargo items in both cargo frames give the ability to move in the plane of the truck frame along two opposite sides, with cargo elements in the upper and lower cargo frames is arranged to move along the perpendicular sides of these frames.7. Device according to any one of paragraphs.2-6, characterized in that all the horizontal elements of the body of the drilling module and the drilling frame is made of sliding.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg