Landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks
The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used for stabilization of landslide-prone slopes in the construction of road, industrial and other engineering structures, reconstruction and strengthening of landslide-prone or susceptible to significant splavam slopes soil structures. Landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks includes a retaining structure executed in the form of a prism stone. What's new is that the retaining structure is located in the grounds of landslide array, and the quality of the stone used carbonate-magnesium rocks with water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium Supplement. The technical result of the invention consists in the development of anti-design, hardening which, during the subsequent operation is ensured due to the receipt in her moisture landslide array. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used for stabilization of landslide-prone slopes in the construction of road, industrial and other engineering structures, reconstruction and strengthening of landslide-prone or susceptible to significant splavam accounting elements and the base, on which it is located. The most difficult to ensure the stability of the structures located on unstable slopes subject to erosion processes: landslides and significant splavam soils and unstable slopes soil structures, in particular, on the railroads, the slope of the subgrade: embankments, dredging. Unexpected splavy and opolzaniya arrays soil with slopes lead to bias in terms of the path, and deformation of slopes lead to a decrease in constructive settlement size and violation of relatively stable equilibrium ground structures. In both cases this is due to the instability of the structures and affect the safe and uninterrupted movement of trains, the operational reliability of engineering structures.The most adverse soil bases and subgrade pavement structure soils are predominantly clay composing the landslide slopes: bentonite, montmorillonite and so on, which in dry form have sufficient strength, and as a result of excessive moisture moving in a fluid state and become “myleopathy” mass. The surface of the landslide-prone slopes, usually uneven, consists of valleys and hills, called “CIO which occur progress, - mirror or the sliding surface .Known landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks from the bulk soil . Landslide structure is a retaining structure executed in the form of a prism of soil (contract). The retaining structure is placed in the passive zone of the landslide, perpendicular to creeping array, along the railroad. For a better grip retaining structures with creeping slope in the active area, the entire area of contact with him made the ledges. To ensure sufficient strength retaining structures, at least the lower ledge is made in strong soils. The retaining structure has a considerable size, which are determined by calculation. The upper part of the retaining structures is not less than 3 m, the height is not less than 1/3 of the height of the supporting slope. Retaining the structure of one side face covered to the slope, the other face (the slope) is made at an angle, slope not less than 1:1,5. As the primer used, for example, draining the rocky ground.By virtue of the known landslide designs is that the stability of slopes and slopes dost is the first design due to its large mass.The disadvantage is the loss of strength retaining structures over time. This is due to the following reasons. After filling of the retaining structure, the moisture with minute particles of clay in suspension from the active zone of the landslide vysajivaetsya through draining soil retaining structures. Gradually small soil particles clog the pores between the larger particles draining soil retaining structures, transforming him into a monolith. Accumulated water before construction creates additional shear force. This negatively affects the durability of the retaining structures and leads to its deformation and, accordingly, the deformation of the protected object.Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result is a landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks, which is a retaining structure in the form of a prism (buttress), made of stone . The retaining structure is placed in the passive zone of the landslide perpendicular to creeping array along the railroad. To ensure the sustainability and durability of the retaining structure embedded in a solid dry soils. To save grunderzeit landslide array can be calculated. Supporting structure made of small size: up to 3 m long and 1 m wide. A retaining structure in the form of monolith from masonry rubble stone on cement or concrete.Dignity is the strength of such retaining structures. This is because the monolithic strengthens the design and, therefore, increases the holding capacity of the structures. The increase in strength due to the monolithic allows to reduce the dimensions of the retaining wall.In addition, retaining structures minimally disturb the natural composition of samples due to its small size and compactness.However, the strength of the retaining structure, high for working in dry soils, is not sufficient to work in the wet (liquid and plastic) soils, which is a significant disadvantage of retaining structures and limits the scope of application of known construction. This is because in case of moisture from the soil masonry retaining structures getting wet. Wet cementitious part of the design is the rapid leaching water (erosion). Erosion of masonry leads to the violation of the integrity of the structure, deformation, and then the loss of the project prochnosti. Ultimately, it all leads to the destruction of such landslide structures.The basis of the invention is to develop a landslide design, hardening which, during the subsequent operation is ensured due to the receipt in her moisture landslide array.To solve the problem in the known landslide structures for stabilization of slopes and earthworks, retaining containing construction made in the form of a prism stone retaining structure is located in the grounds of landslide array, and the quality of the stone used carbonate-magnesium rocks with water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium Supplement. As carbonate-magnesium rocks used macro-grained rock waste crushing Brusilov, and as a water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium supplements used screening and waste a half-baked magnesia rocks. In addition, the supporting structure is located anywhere landslide array.Hardening of the structure occurs due to the receipt in her moisture.Due to the presence of large fractions of brucite and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium Domaine water, coming from a landslide, adsorbed carbonate-magnesium rocks and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium Supplement, which leads to drying of the slip surface of the landslide. This adsorbed water, gradually reacting with the water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium Supplement causes hydration and carbonation. Formed during the hydration and carbonation of silicates of CA and Mg and has a strengthening effect that reinforce the retaining structure.In addition, the cations Mg, reacting with the surface on which slide the hard clay soils, form solid crystals of silicates and hydroalumination CA and Mg. The formation of hydroalumination and silicates of CA and Mg leads to additional grip landslide array with reinforced bottoms.Thanks adsorption properties of carbonate-magnesium rocks and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium supplements is constantly draining slip surface of the landslide and strengthening of supporting structures.The constant draining of the landslide can accommodate a retaining structure in the active and passive zone of landslide array at any angle to the direction of opolzaniya from 0 to 90The drying and hardening of soil slip surface of the landslide causes additional retention efforts. Constant water absorption of carbonate-magnesium rocks and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium additive leads to hardening of the retaining structures and sealing, and hardening the clay particles of the landslide.In Fig.1 and 2 presents the scheme of anti-design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks.Landslide design 1 in the body of landslide array 2 includes a retaining structure 3. The retaining structure 3 is made in the form of a prism made of stone and located below the surface of the slide 4. The quality of the stone used macro-grained rock waste crushing carbonate-magnesium rocks and their heat-treated fine fraction. To macro-grained rock waste crushing carbonate-magnesium rocks include waste crushing Brusilov, dolomite, calciferol, talcomagnesite, i.e. rocks containing more than 30% Mg and which is the sorbents. Heat-treated small fraction plays the role of a water-absorbing magnesium supplements and is located on top of the macro-grained rock fractions of brucite. The retaining structure 3 is made on the cut estudiantina distance from earth structures, but the pressure of the landslide mass affects the deformability of structures indirectly in the form of plastic deformation of the base and surface disturbance and soil runoff or, another case, when the slopes of the earthen structures are exposed to soltanian.The retaining structure 3 is made of macro-grained rock waste crushing Brusilov water-absorbing and heat-treated magnesium supplements from dropping out and waste a half-baked magnesia rocks and is located at the foot of the mound 6, perpendicular to the sliding on the ledges 5.Example 2. The body of the landslide is the basis of earth structures, pressure landslide mass directly affects the deformability of structures due to the lack of drainage and drainage systems 7. This case is most suitable for hardening massive landslides by drying.Retaining structures 3 made of macro-grained rock waste crushing Brusilov water-absorbing and heat-treated magnesium supplements from dropping out and waste a half-baked magnesia rocks and are located along the slope 8 to protect drainage facilities from the strain.Example 3. The body of the landslide is the basis of earth structures, pressure landslide masses directly is Chodov crushing Brusilov water-absorbing and heat-treated magnesium supplements from dropping out and waste a half-baked magnesia rocks and are located on the landslide array 2 along the array 8 and across the array 9 and performed in conjunction with drainage and drainage systems. Such a case is most applicable for drying and hardening of massive landslides.Design works as follows.After the device retaining structures 3 in the body of the landslide 2 on the ledges 5 below the surface of the slide 4 hygroscopic moisture of the landslide begins to absorb macro-grained rock fractions of brucite. Macro-grained rock fraction of brucite are sorbents, transmitting moisture from the surface of opolzaniya in the upper layers. Contact macro-grained rock fractions of brucite with underlying clays formed a solid crystals hydroalumination and hydrosilicates Mg and CA. The formation of hydroalumination and silicates of CA and Mg leads to additional grip landslide array with reinforced soils. Adsorbed in the upper layers of the water absorbed the heat-treated water-absorbing magnesium Supplement 5, which causes her hydration and carbonation. The combination of large fractions of brucite and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium supplements from dropping out and waste a half-baked magnesia rocks cycles water absorption, which allows you to drain the slip surface of the landslide. Formed during the hydration and carbonation of silicates of Mg and CA have a firming effect the m direction and the location of the retaining structure 3 is selected depending on the maximum retention efforts.Thus, constant water absorption of carbonate of magnesia rocks and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium additive leads to hardening of the retaining structures and sealing, and hardening the clay particles of the landslide. Adsorption properties of carbonate-magnesium rocks and water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium supplements allow you to constantly drain the slip surface of the landslide and contribute to the strengthening of the retaining structures.The retaining structure can withstand the pressure of landslide masses 1.2-1.5 times greater than conventional contract or buttress, by increasing retention efforts entrenched in the monolith, which contributes to longer service life, reliability and stability strengthened engineering structures.Sources of information1. M. C. Aeroskin, S. C. Babicka, S. M. Bolshakov and other Reference subgrade operated Railways. /Ed. by A. F. Tan, M. A. Chernyshev, V. P. Titov. - M.: Transport, 1978, S. 452-464.2. C. D. Braslavsky, J. M. L., L. C. gritsyuk and other Landslide designs on the roads. - M.: Transport, 1985, S. 218-222.
Claims1. Protivopoltavlenie in the form of a prism stone, wherein the retaining structure is located in the grounds of landslide array, and the quality of the stone used carbonate-magnesium rocks with water-absorbing heat-treated magnesium Supplement.2. Landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks under item 1, characterized in that the carbonate-magnesium rocks used macro-grained rock waste crushing Brusilov.3. Landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks under item 1, characterized in that the heat-treated water-absorbing magnesium supplements used component of dropout and burnt waste Stripping magnesian rocks, such as dolomite.4. Landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the retaining structure is located in the body of landslide array at an angle to the direction of opolzaniya from 0 to 90°.5. Landslide design for stabilization of slopes and earthworks according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the retaining structure is located in an active landslide area.6. Landslide design the RNA structure is located in the passive zone of the landslide.
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for slope consolidation and for stabilizing deep front landslide areas.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes foundation mat and piles formed in wells grouped in rows. Upper pile parts are embedded in foundation mat, lower one is restrained by not-sliding ground layers. Piles are composite along their lengths. Central pile parts are not filled with concrete. Heights of upper and lower pile parts decrease towards landslide head. Structure to prevent deep front land-slides comprises separate local pile groups connected by foundation mats and located within landslide body boundaries. Each foundation mat has tension bars anchored in stable slope layers and arranged under and above foundation mat along slope to retain thereof against displacement and rotation.
EFFECT: improved slope stability, increased operational reliability of structure built on wide landslides, reduced building time and material consumption.
FIELD: building, particularly bridge building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves compacting ground of embankment body and cones; forming drainage layers and water-draining chutes on coating; creating pad with variable rigidity decreasing in direction from bridge along embankment for length equal to approach slab length; arranging approach slab having upward gradient in bridge direction. Pad of embankment body is formed by creating cast-in-place piles along with surface compaction of upper cast-in-place pile parts and upper embankment layer, wherein transversal cast-in-place piles form strips having medium rigidity jointly with ground forming embankments. The medium rigidity is reduced from maximal value at bridge pier to minimal one at approach slab end opposite to bridge pier.
EFFECT: reduced embankment subsidence under approach slab due to decreased pad and draining material displacement in horizontal direction.
8 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of plant covers used for beautification of streets, squares, construction of sportive grounds, as well as for landscape designing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves spraying organic adhesive onto fine-mesh basalt net by means of specially designed equipment for filling meshes to thereby create strong carrier base. Net is perfectly ecologically safe and allows seeds to be uniformly sown over the entire area of lawn. Adhesive used for providing lawn is functioning as nutritive compound for seeds and is used simultaneously for protecting seeds from external influence of moisture and air during prolonged periods. After drying in first drying chamber, mixture of lawn grass seeds is sown onto carrier base through dosing hopper, followed by applying onto given mixture of organic adhesive and drying in second drying chamber. After discharge from drying chamber, ready dry lawn is cut into parts of various lengths, wound into roll and hermetically packed in polyethylene film for further storage and transportation. Lawn is placed on site by unwinding roll onto preliminarily prepared ground and spilling nutrient mixture thereon, followed by heavy irrigation to provide for sprouts emergence. Nutrient mixture and lawn grass seed mixture compositions are worked out depending on climatic zone and composition of parent ground on which lawn is to be provided.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing uniform sowing of seeds over the entire lawn area, and damage-free transportation and handling of grown lawn.
FIELD: securing of slopes or inclines, particularly for ground slopes and water pool banks stabilization, for artificial water pool building and reconstruction, for minor river recovery and erosive slope consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing masonry works of building members by laying building member layers in alternation with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric impregnated with binding material to provide elastic connection areas between stone layers. Ground stabilization device comprises masonry formed of building members alternated with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric to form elastic connection areas between stone layers.
EFFECT: increased environmental safety, improved appearance and technological effectiveness, increased elasticity of stone connection.
16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to erect ground structures, namely to consolidate slopes, to reinforce banks of motor roads and railroads, dams, irrigation channels and river banks.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope reinforcing with members arranged in slope body involves preparing ground surface by terracing disturbed layers thereof in accordance with geological structure thereof along with substituting ground in unstable areas for draining material; compacting the draining material and reinforcing thereof with grids of polymeric material having openings of not more than 1 m; arranging zinc-coated steel mesh formed by two-for-one twisting method and having hexahedral openings; connecting the steel mesh with above grids; dividing prepared slope surface into sections with pitch not exceeding 3 m by installing the partitions of zinc-coated steel mesh formed by two-for-one twisting method having height of not more than 0.3 m; scattering loamy ground to form loamy layer having 0.1 m thickness; compacting the loamy ground; scattering vegetable soil; laying bio-textile on vegetable soil and planting greenery.
EFFECT: increased flexibility of protective coating and improved environment protection.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly steep slope terracing to adapt the slope for fruit trees and other crops growth.
SUBSTANCE: method for terracing slopes having steepness equal to or exceeding natural soil slip angle involves forming step-shaped ledges having depressions; scattering soil excavated from the slope over the ledges; stabilizing the soil with reusable rectangular netted retaining walls. The retaining wall has frame-like wall base created of welded angular or channel bars or bars of another cross-section. The wall bases are installed on the slope along lower ledge bounds and inclined at 60° angle with respect to horizon line. The wall bases are fixed by support and bearing wedges for a time equal to soil conglomeration time, wherein liquid or granular fertilizer is preliminarily introduced in soil and soil is laid down with perennial grass before ledge hardening.
EFFECT: increased slope use factor.
FIELD: building, particularly to stabilize slope landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises vertical walls built in base formed under the landslide and located along the landslide so that distance between adjacent walls decreases towards lower landslide end. Vertical walls are made of pile rows defining pleat-like system having pitch preventing ground punching between the piles. The pleats are directed so that corner apexes thereof face sliding ground and grillages of adjacent pleat flanges are connected by transversal beams.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and increased technological efficiency of structure erection.
FIELD: building, particularly to reinforce landslide slopes, particularly extensive landslides.
SUBSTANCE: landslide control structure comprises bored piles fixed in stable slope ground layers and retained by anchoring means. To provide stability of lower landslide part inclined bars of anchor means are connected to bored pile heads. The anchor means are drilled down the slope and have fan-like structure. The anchor means are located at different levels in landslide body.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption for landslide control structure erection and increased stability of landslide massif.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to consolidate or to protect pit sides against landslide during pit operation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying transversal members connected to ropes along slope, wherein the ropes are fixedly secured to anchors located in upper bench berm; drilling inclined wells extending to bench slope; installing next anchor along lower edge of upper berm and drilling next inclined well cluster. Suspending net to bench slope and pulling down ropes from upper berm through drilled inclined wells so that the first rope ends extend from bench slope; lowering the rope ends to lower berm and securing thereof to transversal members arranged above the net, wherein the transversal members are installed beginning from lower berm; tightening the ropes and fastening the second rope ends to anchors.
EFFECT: increased operational safety and decreased labor inputs for bench slope consolidation.
1 ex, 2 dwg