The method of spraying textured substrates

 

Usage: microelectronics and plasma technology of microelectronics, in the process of metallization structures with submicron dimensions of the elements. The inventive ignition in a vacuum chamber with an inert gas microwave ECR discharge ions of these gases knock out of the metal of the target metal atoms. To accelerate the movement of ions to the target is supplied with a negative voltage of several hundred volts. The increase in the concentration of electrons is carried out by the installation of the permanent magnets generate a magnetic field of the acute-angled (Chasovoy) configuration. The degree of ionization of the sputtered metal atoms and the flow control is deposited on a substrate of metal ions regulate pulse mode current density on the target. The technical result of the invention is to provide opportunities for metal films of equal thickness on the inner surfaces of submicron relief structures with an aspect ratio of depth to width of 5-10 by increasing the degree of ionization of the metal atoms. 5 Il.

The invention relates to plasma technology microelectronic devices and can be used to process metallizer integralnym chips are embossed substrate with depth (h) of the grooves 5 to 10 times greater than their width (d), sizes less than 0.25 μm. Thus, the aspect ratio for them h/d=5-10. Naturally, to achieve a uniform deposition of such narrow grooves and holes is technological difficulties.

Typically, the coated substrate is carried out in a vacuum chamber by the ignition of the discharge in neutral gas (argon, krypton, xenon), ions are focused by a magnetic field, get on target and knock out of the metal target (aluminum, copper, titanium and other) metal atoms, which are at different angles are deposited on the substrate (see, for example, B. S. Danilin. The use of low-temperature plasma for deposition of thin films. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1989, pp. 63-120) is similar.

To control the flow of neutral metal atoms is impossible. Therefore, spraying deep relief grooves and holes with this method far unevenly. At the top of the groove is formed a canopy made of metal, which closes the access of metal atoms inside, resulting in a further metallization grooves stops. The disadvantage of this technology analog is illustrated in Fig.1.

In order to carry out the metallization narrow openings, the required flux of particles incident on the substrate normal. This problem can be solved using Ionis magnetic and/or electric fields. The effect of spraying in the fall ions normal to the substrate illustrated in Fig. 2.

There are several ways to solve this problem. One of them - the combination of magnetron sputtering and inductively related sources [see, for example, 1. S. M. Rossnagel. Directional called isoniazid and physical vapour deposition for microelectronics application. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1998, V. 16B, No. 5, p. 2600 - analogue; 2. J. M. Schneider, S. Rohde, W. D. Sproul, A. Matthews Recent developments in plasma assisted physical vapour deposition. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2000, V. 33, p.180 - similar].

In ways analogous between the magnetron and the substrate are several winding turns, covering high frequency electromagnetic field volume of the plasma space with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. Sprayed metal atoms are ionised in the path from the target of the magnetron to the substrate. The degree of ionization of the metal reaches 30%, and the contribution of the flux of metal ions in full flow, taking into account the much greater speed of the ions varies from 20% at a pressure of 0.5 PA to 80% at 5 PA. The disadvantage of this method is to use a sufficiently low vacuum (high pressure - 3-5 PA), which is effective ionization of the metal atoms. At such pressures, the length of the free path of the sputtered metal atoms is 1-3 mm, they have tens to hundreds of collisions on the path from the target d is a metallic film. The growth rate of the film cannot be increased by increasing power magnetron sputtering. At high power magnetron, when the concentration of metal atoms exceeds the concentration of argon, as metallization is deteriorating. Since the ionization potential of the metal is smaller than argon, the predominance of metal atoms leads to a decrease in the plasma temperature and, as a consequence, the decrease of ionization of the metal. Moreover, at pressures of 3-5 PA due to heating of the atoms of the argon concentration is reduced, which in turn also reduces the probability of ionization of the metal atoms.

The closest analogue may be the installation of a flat metal target manufactured by the Corporation ASTeX [see, for example, S. M. Rossnagel. Directional called isoniazid and physical vapour deposition for microelectronics application. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1998, V. 16B, No. 5, p.2598]. In a way the closest analogue of the plasma with a high concentration (>1011cm-3) get at pressures of the order of 0.13 PA. This is achieved using microwave discharge plasma is generated in the magnetic field in the effective absorption of microwave waves under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). The disadvantages of such systems are the following:

the degree of ionization of the sputtered metal atoms are not preservationism secondary electrons from the substrate;

radial heterogeneity of the obtained metal films on a substrate.

The problem solved by the claimed method, is to provide opportunities for metal films of equal thickness (conformal metallization) on the inner surfaces of submicron relief structures with an aspect ratio of depth to width of 5-10 by increasing the degree of ionization of the metal atoms at the expense of:

1) installed around the target magnets which generate a magnetic field Chasovoy configuration,

2) more focus on the normals of the incident on the substrate of the stream of metal ions by the magnetic field of these magnets,

3) supply the target current pulses of high amplitude.

The problem is solved in that a sputtering method, a relief of substrates, including ion sputtering of metal targets in the plasma of high density is produced under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance, the direction of the flow of metal ions on a substrate, further along the path of movement of the ions on the substrate and around the target create a magnetic field Chasovoy configuration, and the degree of ionization of the sputtered metal atoms and the flow control is deposited on a substrate of metal ions regulate pulse mode current density on the target.

Iomem metal;

Fig.2 - coated grooves of the substrate during movement of metal ions normal to the substrate;

Fig.3 - volt-ampere characteristic of the target with permanent magnets and without them;

Fig.4 - dependence of the degree of ionization of the sputtered atoms of aluminum and degree of ionization flow from pulse mode voltage on the target;

Fig.5 - installation scheme that implements the method.

The technical essence of the invention consists in the following. When the ignition is in the vacuum chamber with an inert gas (argon, krypton, xenon) microwave ECR discharge ions of these gases knock out of the metal target (aluminum, copper, titanium and other) metal atoms. To accelerate the movement of ions to the target is supplied with a negative voltage of several hundred volts. The flow of neutral metal atoms on the path length of 10-20 cm from the target to the substrate Insulza in plasma as a result of collisions with electrons.

The ionization probability is directly proportional to the concentration of electrons. The increase in the concentration of electrons is carried out by the installation of the permanent magnets generate a magnetic field of the acute-angled (Chasovoy) configuration. This geometry of the magnetic field effectively keeps the electrons from leaving them on the walls of the chamber and increases the concentration of plasma based field captures secondary electrons, knock out the target, and increases the ion current density on the target, which in turn leads to an increase in the number knocked out of the target metal atoms and ultimately increase the rate of formation of the metal film on the substrate. As follows from the volt-ampere characteristics (dependence of the current density J, mA/cm2from the voltage U, target) Fig.3, the installation of permanent magnets changes the view of the discharge near the target. Without magnets, the current of inert gas ions reaches saturation when the voltage on the target 300 C. With permanent magnets the current target increases rapidly with increasing voltage on the target and 600 In 5 times the shock without permanent magnets. At this tension, the degree of ionization of atoms of aluminum increases, and the flow of ions of aluminum to the total flux (ions and atoms of aluminum) reaches 80%. Microwave ECR discharge is performed in argon at low pressure of 0.26 PA. The degree of ionization (, %) aluminium atoms

and the degree of ionization of the stream (, %) aluminum

the substrate voltage of the target when the length of the route mileage of 15 cm is illustrated in the graphs of Fig. 4. Here n is the end and sputtered metal atoms increases the probability of ionization due to the effect of penning, when an excited atom of neutral gas with excitation energy greater than the ionization potential of the metal atom, the collision transfers energy and causes ionization of the latter [see, for example, Y. P. Raizer. Physics of gas discharge, M.: Nauka, page 128]. When the current density in the tens and hundreds of mA/cm2and the voltage on the target in hundreds of volts power density reaches tens of watts per square centimeter, which causes problems with the cooling target. To reduce the average power used by the pulse-periodic mode. In the investigated region of the pulse modes in a laboratory setup for the circuit of Fig. 4 conformal deposition was provided in the interval following characteristics pulse mode:

the amplitude of the pulses 300 -500 V;

the pulse duration of 50-500 µs;

the repetition frequency of 50 Hz to 500 Hz.

An example implementation of the method.

The method is implemented in a laboratory setup for the circuit of Fig. 5. The scheme includes a vacuum chamber 1, a pump 2, a magnetic system 3, the gas supply system 4, the power generator 5, a metal target 6, a substrate 7, a pulse voltage generator 8, the system of permanent magnets 9, and the section a-a of the camera 1 located in this section following elements: internal of the Chasovoy geometry 14.

The device operates as follows. In the efficient absorption of microwave waves from the generator 5 in the presence of a magnetic field of a specific size and configuration in the chamber 1 is ignited discharge in inert gas (argon, krypton, xenon) - microwave ECR discharge. Ions of these gases knock out of the metal target 6 (aluminum, copper, titanium and other) metal atoms. The magnetic field 14 Chasovoy geometry created by a system of permanent magnets 9, holding the electrons along the axis of movement of the metal atoms on the substrate, increases their density and frequency of collisions with the atoms of the metal.

By installing a system of permanent magnets and the application of pulses of high current density increases the degree of ionization and the rate of formation of metal films at low 1-5 of mtorr pressure.

The effectiveness of the method is characterized by the degree of homogeneity of the deposition relief profile is largely determined by the right choice of the mode of operation installation: the relationship between the current density J, mA/cm2; pulse voltage U, V; duration, s; tension campovolo magnetic field and so on

New elements in relation to the prototype are high-voltage impulse generator and C is Aulnay pulses can be used G5-63 with the corresponding power amplifier [see, for example, the pulse Generator G5-63, Technical description and operating instructions of the device 3.264.037 IT. The system of permanent magnets are composed of samarium-cobalt magnets having a high residual magnetization and Curie temperature [see, for example, B. S. Danilin. The use of low-temperature plasma for deposition of thin films. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1989, page 81].

Claims

The method of spraying the relief of substrates, including ion sputtering of metal targets in the plasma of high density is produced under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance, the direction of the flow of metal ions on a substrate, characterized in that along the movement path of the ions on the substrate and around the target create a magnetic field Chasovoy configuration, and the degree of ionization of the sputtered metal atoms and the flow control is deposited on a substrate of metal ions regulate pulse mode current density on the target.

 

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