The correlation device
The invention relates to specialized tools computer engineering and can be used for comparative analysis of random processes, spaced in time. The technical result is the possibility to quantify the degree of similarity of signals operating at different points in time, the difference between them does not affect the hardware volume of the correlation device. The device contains an analog-to-digital Converter, a delay line, a group of multiplier products, a group of adders, multiplexer, the block division unit averaging the control unit. 2 Il.The invention relates to specialized tools computer engineering and can be used for comparative analysis of random processes, spaced in time.Known correlation device containing the delay line, the multiplier and block averaging, the output of which is an output device, an information input which is the input of the delay line, the output of which is connected to the first input of the multiplier, the second input is combined with the input of the delay line, and the output of the multiplier is connected to the input of block averaging [Colid sequential calculation of the correlation function and provides poor performance, firstly, and, secondly, in practice, turns out to be unsuitable for studying processes, the temporal offset between which is significantly higher than the correlation interval. The reason is that despite the apparent functional simplicity, the device becomes rather difficult when trying to Orient him to the processing of non-overlapping in time of the processes. In this case, a delay line, having the ability without distortion to remember (delay) the study process at the time equal to the time shift between this process and the second, which is a serious complication of the device even when the relative shifts in several tens of minutes.The closest to the technical nature of the present device is a correlation device, built according to the classical scheme of parallel correlation analysis and contains two analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), delay (m-1) taps, m multiplier products, m adders and the Registrar, and the first inputs of the m multiplier products combined and connected to the output of the first ADC, the second input of the first of the m multiplier products connected to the output of the second ADC, and the second inputs of the remaining (m-1) multiplier products connected to line inany with inputs corresponding t adders, the outputs are connected to respective inputs of the recorder, the first and second information inputs of the correlation devices are respectively informational inputs of the first and second ADC [Gribanov Y. I. and other Automatic digital correlators. M: Energy, 1971, S. 150, Fig.4-6].The device prototype allows to determine the degree of similarity (degree expected statistical correlation) of the two processes on the values of their intercorrelation functions. However, when calculating the mutual correlation function on the inputs of the device must simultaneously serve both the analyzed signal. In case, if they act at different points in time, at different intervals of observation, that the described device to compare them will result in evaluation, consistent with the absence of any correlation at all. This is in full accord with the method of intercorrelation analysis. Of course, thespecifying artificially introduce a relative time shift between the test processes can theoretically be arbitrarily large and, therefore, when some large values ofmutual correlation function RXYThe lack of correlation device prototype is the lack of functionality of joint processing of signals operating at different points in time.Technical result achieved when using this from the s points in time, the difference between them does not affect the hardware volume correlation device.The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known correlation device containing an analog-to-digital Converter, a delay line with (m-1) taps, m multiplier products, m adders whose inputs are connected to outputs of the respective m multiplier products, the first inputs are combined, the second input of the first of the m multiplier products connected to the output of the analog-to-digital Converter, the second inputs of the remaining (m-1) multiplier products connected to the corresponding (m-1) taps of the delay line, the information input of which is connected to the output of analog-to-digital Converter, the input information which is input correlation device according to the invention introduced the multiplexer, the block dividing unit averaging and the control unit, and the first inputs of the m multiplier products combined with the information input of the delay line, the m outputs of the adders are connected to the corresponding m channel inputs of the multiplexer, the output of which through the unit connected to the input of block averaging, the output of which is the output of the correlation device clock inputs of analog-to-digital Converter, the delay line is the Assembly output control unit, Abdoulaye input is combined with alnoaimi all m inputs of adders and block averaging and is boleushim input device, the first and second control inputs of which are the corresponding inputs of the control unit, modal inputs m adders combined and connected to the corresponding output of the control unit, the address output of which is connected to the address input of the multiplexer.The invention is illustrated by the functional circuits.In Fig.1 shows a functional diagram of the correlation device of Fig.2 is a block diagram of the control unit.The correlation device according to Fig.1 contains ADC 1, line 2 delay, the group of multiplier products 3-1 to 3-m, the group of adders 4-1 to 4-m, the multiplexer 5, part 6, division, unit 7 averaging and the control unit 8. The output of the ADC 1 is connected with the information input DI of the delay line 2 and combined with the first inputs of the multiplier products 3-1 to 3-m, the second input of the multiplier 3-1 also connected to the output of the ADC 1 and the second input of multiplier products 3-2 to 3-m are connected to the corresponding (m-1) taps of the delay line 2, the outputs of the multiplier products 3-1 to 3-m are connected to information inputs of the respective 4-1 to 4-m adders whose outputs are connected to the corresponding m kanakadurga is a correlation output device, clock inputs of the ADC 1, line 2 delays, adders 4-1 to 4-m and block averaging 7 connected respectively to the clock outputs CLK 1, CLK 2, CLK 3 and CLK 4 unit 8 management Abdoulaye input RST of which is combined with alnoaimi inputs of adders 4-1 to 4-m and block averaging 7 and are boleushim the RST input device, the first DC1 and the second CO2 control inputs of which are the corresponding inputs of the control unit 8, the information input X, Y correlation device serves as an informational input ADC 1, modal inputs of adders 4-1 to 4-m combined and connected to the operating output of the U/D control unit 8, the address output A which is connected to the address input of the multiplexer 5.The control unit 8 (Fig.2) contains the counters 9 and 10, the trigger 11, 12 and 13, the elements 2 And 14, 15, and 16, the elements 2 OR 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, the elements 23, 24, 25 delay and generator 26 clock pulses. The first and second inputs of the element 2 OR 17 are respectively first DC1 and the second CO2 control inputs of the block 8, boleushim input RST of which are United the input elements 2 OR 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, the outputs of which are connected to boleushim inputs of the trigger 11, the counter 9, the trigger 13, the trigger 12 and the counter 10, respectively, the second inputs of the elements 2 OR 18 and 19 of the consolidated out of the overflow of the counter 10, bit outputs which are the address output And the control unit 8, the regime's output U/D which is the output of the trigger 13, the clock output CLK 1, CLK 2, CLK 3 and CLK 4 block 8 are respectively output element 2 And 14, the output element 23 delays the output of delay element 24, the output element 2 And 16, the elements 23, 24 delay are connected in series, the input element 23 delay coupled to the output element 2 And 14, the first inputs of the elements 2 And 14 and 15 are combined and connected to the output of the generator 26 clock pulses, the second inputs of the elements 2 And 14 and 15 connected respectively to the outputs of the triggers 11 and 12, and the outputs of the elements 2 And 14 and 15 respectively connected to a summing inputs of the counters 9 and 10, the input set to the trigger unit 13 is combined with the second input element 2 OR 17, the output of which is connected to the input set to the trigger unit 11, a similar input of the trigger 12 is connected to the output of the overflow of the counter 9, the second input element 2 And 16 through the element 25 delay coupled to the output element 2 And 15.The principle of correlation devices based on the calculation of the autocorrelation functions (ACF) of each of the studied stationary and ergodic signals X(t) and Y(t) acting at different points in time and then compared what zenkai degree of similarity between the signals X (t) and Y (t) is the average deviation M [RHu]:wherem=(m-1);- increments of delay introduced by the line 2 delay (time shift between adjacent taps).m is the number of ordinates ACF equal to the number of processing channels. The result of M [Rxy] is generated as follows. At the first stage to the input X, Y of the device (Fig.1) enters the first of the analyzed signal X (t). To start the device serves a first control pulse DC1, in response to which the control unit 8 starts clocking the ADC 1, line 2 delay, made for example in the form of a shift register, and adders 4-1 to 4-m. The digitized signal X(ti), (ti=it;t is the sampling period; i=l,2,...,K) from the output ACP is supplied simultaneously to the input DI of the delay line 2 and the integrated first inputs of multiplier products from group 3, the second inputs of which are served delayed copies of X (ti). As a result, by the end of the observation interval on the outputs of the adders group 4 will be recorded amountswhere m is the number of the adder (kanaiaupuni counting unit 8 management and after it stops the supply of clock pulses CLK 1, CLK 2 and CLK 3 ADC 1, line 2 delays and adders group 4.During the first stage, the stage of the formation of sums of the form (2), adders group 4 worked in the mode of accumulating the sum of the operands received information on their entry, with the specified mode was set logic level zero on the sensitive inputs U/D adders.With the advent of the second of the investigated signal Y(t) and applying to the input of CO2 to the second control pulse begins the second phase of operation of the device. Thus, by analogy with the first stage at a time interval of observation serves clock pulses to corresponding inputs of the ADC 1, line 2 delay and adder 3. However, unlike the first phase, with the arrival of a pulse of CO2 on the sensitive input U/D of the control unit 8 is set to a high logic level, which moves the adders group 4 in the subtraction mode. In potatoo subtracting from the contents of a memory adders group 4 results of the works generated from the outputs of the multiplier products from group 3 in the m-th channel, at the output of the m-th adder group 4 have the differenceThe result (3) is formed by the end of the observation interval, after which stop flow takm the input of the multiplexer 5 and the supply of clock pulses in block 7 of averaging. The third stage is the stage of calculation of the mean deviation M[RHu] (1).The multiplexer 5 in series, according to the current address code switches on its output, that is, the input unit 6 contentsSmaccumulative adders group 4, defined by the formula (3). From the above formula it is easy to see that for obtaining the difference of the times, the ACF corresponding to the signals X(t) and Y(t), the value ofSm need to divide by the number of counts in a time interval equal to the interval of observation, that is, to form an average value. To perform this function in the device and put a block of 6 dividing by a constant factor K. In the end, the output of block 6 have the difference of two ordinates ACF:After averaging unit 7 countsRHu(m) in an amount equal to the number of channels m (in case (1) m=M), we obtain the estimate of the mean deviation (1) M [RHu].The degree of similarity of the processes X(t) and Y(t) are judged by how little the average value M [RHu] difference ACF RHu(xx(and Ryy(will match equal to zero and their standard deviation. It should also be added that the degree of equality ACF people judge the degree of similarity of the energy spectra of the processes X(t) and Y(t). In addition, considering that them=0 ACF numerically equal variance2=Rxx(0) and variance2equal to the average power of the process, in this case X(t), the claimed structure is capable of calculating the difference of average power, comparable processes. It is enough to fix the output of block 6 dividing the difference between|Rxx(m)-Rxy(m)|,m=0 (m=1).Dwelling on the issues of implementing the claimed correlation device, as a particular mention should be made of the adders from group 4. The principle of operation of the device clearly used the adders must be both accumulating and reversible (i.e. to perform the subtraction function). Such adders are known, described in the literature and methods of their construction can bitty reversible combinational adder, combined with the register. This multi-bit output of the adder is connected to a multi-bit input parallel load data register, multibit output parallel data output which is connected to the data input of the first summand of the adder, the second multi-bit input which serves as an informational input is accumulating reversible adder, a clock input which serves as the clock input of the register. Mode control the addition/subtraction is done according to the appropriate input of the adder. As reversible adders can be used, for example, integrated circuits 531 IC or 533-, 555-, 1533 SPW. These chips have a special control inputs opcodes and depending on the status of logic levels on them fold or subtract the input operands received without conversion, in the direct code [Avanesyan, R., Levshin VP of Integrated circuits TTL, TTLS: a Handbook. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1993, S. 135-136, 140-141].Unit 7 averaging in the claimed correlation device can be made in the form of serial included accumulating adder and devices division by a constant factor m=MThe control unit 8 (Fig.2) works of sleduyuscheey, input DC1 served first triggering pulse is indicative of the first signal X(t). On the front of the specified pulse trigger 11 enters a state of high logical level at the output, allowing the flow of clock pulses through the element 2I 14 at the counting input of the counter 9 and the output unit 8 CLK 1, CLK 2 and CLK 3. On these last three outputs pulse sequence shifted in time relative to each other to ensure the stable operation of the correlation device. The counter 9 counts the time spent on monitoring and data acquisition: far by the time the boundary of the observation interval is determined by the moment of occurrence of the pulse overflow at the output P of the specified counter. Therefore the trigger 11 is transferred to the initial state, the account stops, and the trigger 12 is translated into a state of high logical level and at the counting input of the counter 10 is permitted the passage of clock pulses: begins the formation of the current address code, which at this stage is not used. After iterating through all the defined parameters of the device address and the appearance of the pulse overflow at the output P of this counter account stops, as the trigger 12 is returned to its original SOSTOYaNIE with channel outputs of adders group 4 can not be used. This is predetermined by the algorithm of calculations, and to the output of block 7 of averaging (the output of the correlation device) does not appear does not correspond to the codes, block 7 at this stage it is not (output CLK 4 block 8 low logic level).The next phase begins with the receipt of the input of CO2 to the second trigger pulse. In this case the algorithm unit 8 remains the same, except that the trigger 13 is transferred in one state and, consequently, is set to a high logic level at the output U/D unit 8 - adders group 4 moving in the subtraction mode.In the third stage, completing the cycle calculations, the counter 10 generates an address code, which is called the sumSmof the form (3) for averaging in block 7, and the output CLK 4 block 8 serves heartbeats.Item 23 of the delay necessary for the shift in time of the clock sequence CLK 2 relative to the pulses of the clocking of the ADC 1. This time delay should be sufficient to convert the reference voltage to the ADC input 1 digital code at the output to exceed the conversion time specifically selected ADC (25-30)%. Clocking adders group 4 also takes time delay element 24 is chosen so that to exceed (25-30)% of total recording time information in the delay line 2 and the operation of multiplication in the multiplier products group 3. The delay element 25 is chosen from the condition of exceeding (25-30)% of the total transmission time of the input from the information input of the adder group 4 on the information input unit 7, and the total time of the delay elements 23 and 24. Of course, the total time delay elements 23, 24 and 25 must be less than the repetition period of the clock pulses produced by the generator 26.
ClaimsThe correlation device containing an analog-to-digital Converter, a delay line with m-1 taps, m multiplier products, m adders whose inputs are connected to outputs of the respective m multiplier products, the first inputs are combined, the second input of the first of the m multiplier products connected to the output of the analog-to-digital Converter, the second inputs of the remaining m-1 multiplier products connected to the corresponding m-1 taps of the delay line, the information input of which is connected to the output of analog-to-digital Converter, the input information which is input correlation device, characterized in that in his introduction the moves m multiplier products combined with the information input of the delay line, the m outputs of the adders are connected to the corresponding m channel inputs of the multiplexer, the output of which through the block dividing by a constant factor connected to the input of block averaging, the output of which is the output of the correlation device clock inputs of analog-to-digital Converter, delay lines, all m adders and block averaging is connected respectively to the first, second, third and fourth clock output control unit, Abdoulaye input is combined with alnoaimi all m inputs of adders and block averaging and is boleushim input device, the first and second control inputs of which are the corresponding inputs of the control unit, modal inputs m adders combined and connected to the corresponding output of the control unit, the address output of which is connected to the address input of the multiplexer.
FIELD: specialized information extracting means.
SUBSTANCE: device has displacement registers, comparator block, XOR element, multiplexer, triggers, counter, AND elements.
EFFECT: simplified construction.
FIELD: computer science.
SUBSTANCE: device has first and second regenerators of random evenly spaced signals, second and first comparators, generator of short pulses, second and first binary counters, decoder, D-trigger, first and second RS-triggers, AND element, XOR element, reverse counter, clock pulse generator, divider with rebuilt division coefficient , pulse distributor, group of M synchronization blocks, group of M pulse distributors, N (M-10) - input elements R and N blocks for calculating ordinates of correlation function.
EFFECT: simplified construction and higher reliability .
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: the invention refers to the technique of detection of a target and determination of the direction at a target.
SUBSTANCE: the mode is realized by way of receiving of ultra wideband impulses reflected from the target, of delaying them on various time multitude in various channels of surveillance and multi channel processing. In the first variant of the current mode variation of the form of receiving impulses on a great number of discrete time positions are carried out by way of averaging-out by channels of surveillance at known direction of incoming reflected impulses in a beforehand designed control sector and then found valuation of the form of receiving impulse is used as a base signal in multi channel correlation processing. In the second variant valuation of magnitude of receiving impulse is formed in concrete moment of time for each base direction in beforehand given angular sector of control, valuation of the form of the receiving impulse is found according to formed valuations of magnitude 0f the receiving signal for various discrete moments of time; found valuation of receiving impulse is used as a base signal in multi channel correlation processing; out of multitude of results of correlation processing correlation maximum is chosen. This maximum is used as preliminary threshold decision statistics in the procedure of detection of the target; the direction of incoming reflected impulses with the help of interpolating valuation of the position of the correlation maximum in the environs of that base direction for which the largest result of multi channel correlation processing.
EFFECT: the use of this invention at location of a target with the help of ultra wideband impulses allows to receive signals incoming not only from in advance chosen base directions.
6 cl,9 dwg
FIELD: data processing in broadband radio communications and radio navigation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method intended for use where reception of extended-spectrum data signals keyed by simulation-resistant pseudorandom nonlinear derivative sequences is always preceded by synchronization includes concurrent accumulation of periodic mutually correlated function values of signal segments arriving from output of dynamically matched adjustable filters with two standard sampling lines affording generation of random derivative, as well as determination of time step numbers of their mutual shift corresponding to delay synchronism. Then current delay of entire signal being received is found from combination of these time step numbers. Used as dynamically matched adjustable filters in search channels are acousto-electronic convolvers.
EFFECT: reduced time and hardware requirement for searching broadband delay signals characterized in high simulation resistance.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: engineering of specialized devices, meant for determining correlation functions of random processes.
SUBSTANCE: correlator consists of circular distributor (1), containing generator of clock impulses and serially coupled triggers (2), two limiter amplifiers (3), key circuits (4), logical elements "AND" (5,9), "OR" (6) and "NOT" (7), memorizing element (8) and impulse counters (10). In circular distributor (1) between "n" and "1" triggers (2), a "n+1" trigger (2) is additionally coupled, which makes it possible to introduce additional preparation operation for memorizing element (8), in other words, its nullification. Second input of "n+1" trigger (2) by preparation signal is connected to output of "n"-trigger (2), and its first output is connected to controlling input of additional "n+1" key circuit (4), input of which is connected to output of memorizing element (8), and output - to ground connection. Input clamp by second input signal through second limiter amplifier (3) is connected to second input contact of mode switch (12), its first input contact is connected to input of first key circuit (4) and to output of first limiter amplifier (3), input of which is connected to input clamp of first input signal; output contact of mode switch (12) is connected to second input of "AND" element (9).
EFFECT: increased precision of multi-channel polar correlator, expanded functional capabilities of correlator due to introduction of mode for determining mutual correlation function of two signals.
FIELD: navigation techniques.
SUBSTANCE: when forming an image of a surface, on which a sensor is moving, components of the image with spatial wavelength less than twice the size of the optical cell are destroyed, before calculation of shift between the reference and the current frames on the discrete set of numbers Arefij and Acurij, stored in the first and second memory buffers. Initial continuous functions Aref(x,y), Acur(x,y) are restored, and then the shift between the frames is calculated by comparing the restored continuous functions.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and resolution capacity of calculating shift.
2 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: physics; radio-technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to radio-technology, and particularly to optimum receiving of pseudonoise signals. The technical outcome is the increased resistance to interference of the output signal. According to the method, the radio frequency oscillation is converted to the video frequency range. The signal envelope is separated, sampled on time and amplitude on two levels, "1" and "0". The obtained code is recorded in an n-bit shift register of a discrete matched filter, matched by a direct code, and a discrete matched filter, matched by an inverse code. The automatic correlation function of the received signal is generated by removing the constant component from the result of adding output signals of the indicated discrete matched filters. The device which implements the method consists of a multiplier (1), low-pass filter (2), bidirectional limiter (3), cascade for coinciding with "1" (4), cascade for coinciding with "0" (8), inverter (7), n-bit shift registers (5,9), n-input adders (6,10), dual input adder (11), device for removing constant component (12), polling clock pulse source (T). At the first n-bit shift register and the first n-input adder there is discrete filter, matched by a direct signal code, and at the second n-bit shift register and the second n-input adder there is a discrete filter, matched by an inverse signal code.
EFFECT: increased resistance to interference of the output signal.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for detection of complex signals in those radio-technical systems which are not capable to change signal phase quickly. Method for detection of Barker signal in matched filter which signal is modified by substitution "-1" elements for "0" elements consists in following. Received signal is filtered in auxiliary filter matched relatively to one signal position, delayed in time-delay circuit where delay between it's branches is equal to duration of one signal position. Corresponding elements of received signal code and elements of reference code are added one-by-one by modulo 2. Results of additions are inverted, summed, and in accordance with summing results the decision about detection is made.
EFFECT: possibility to process complex signals with constant phase.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in the following: placing on the monitor of a control question and versions of the answer to the given question, a choice of one, preferable trained, a version of the answer by means of moving of the manipulator cursor to the location of its indicator and the subsequent definition of correctness of the answer on a final cursor position; after placing of indicators of versions of answers in the range from the moment of the cursor movement beginning till the moment of fixing of its final position form a file trajectory parametres of its movement on the monitor, determine autocorrelation function of the obtained array of trajectory parametres and determine level of confidence of the trained person in the obtained knowledge by position of a maximum of function at which arrangement within the set error of decision-making in the beginning of co-ordinates gives the conclusion about the confident or uncertain motivation of the answer.
EFFECT: increase of reliability and accuracy of the control of obtained knowledge level.
FIELD: physics; computer facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns computer facilities and can be used for algorithmic diagnosing and compensation of failure of process of automatic support of the object by the television tracer of correlative type. For this purpose the known television tracer of correlative type is equipped with the analyser of failure of process of support and the additional commutator.
EFFECT: provision of fault-free object following at occurrence of sudden failures in the correlator at the expense of identification of failure of tracing by the correlator and automatic transmission to the given situation of priority of a number system of coordinates.