Method and device economical general heating of the facility and local heating of farm animals

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in industrial livestock and poultry. The method involves the measurement and assignment animals feel temperature, the comparison of measured and specified values. Depending on the modified signal generated temperature of the air in the room calculate the cost of energy to heat, according to the results of calculations to determine the lowest total value costs costs and corresponding signal values of the temperature at which the correct mode of heating. The device contains sensors for temperature and humidity and referencing parameters, together with the controls for heating and three computational units, the outputs of which are connected with the inputs of the adder connected to the input of the control unit connected to the controller General of heating. The invention allows to optimize the process of joint General and local heating of farm animals. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, technology General heating of livestock and poultry premises and photovolta and poultry.

Known methods and devices of the General and local heating, intended for separate jobs and automatic control of the temperature of the air and temperature in zones of local heating of the young, based on strict implementation of the norms of technological designing livestock and poultry enterprises. An example implementation is ensuring indoors for outdoor growing broilers requirements of the rules ONTP-4-88 and similar to that prescribed in the first three weeks of cultivation to support with the error not more than ±1,0With the temperature under the brooder 35 26...With the temperature of the air 28...22With reducing the indicated value ranges with the age of the flock.

Automatic equipment for General and local heating implements the steps of measuring the air temperature and the temperature in the zone heating set their normative age population values and regulatory regimes, respectively General and local heating. Example of the implementation of devices according to the methods of heating are a variety of sets of heating and heating AVT is Gato cattle, including a set of 40 electroputere type BP-1 with independent temperature controllers RTB-1 for process equipment PPM-20 in Pricedale 20 thousand broilers, which is equipped with an automatic station "Climate-3M for heating and ventilation of industrial premises.

The disadvantages of these methods and devices for their implementation is the inability continuous in time achieve the lowest possible operating costs and the corresponding rational energy costs in these two extremely energy-intensive process. The reason is the lack of consideration of technical and economic characteristics of the processes of General and local heating, including external environmental factors, parameters, thermal protection of the livestock building, the energy characteristics of the system, local heating.

Known methods and devices for heating farm animals, including the measurement values of thermal parameters of the environment, the computation of the values of the complex index of thermal comfort of the animal in terms of the number of degrees feel the animal room temperature or similar measure, the job process is eanie heating of animals.

Example of the implementation of these methods and devices are technical solutions A. C. of the USSR №1690638 //BI, 1991, №42, №1690639 //BI, 1991, №42, №1785619 //BI, 1993, №1, №1800473 //BI, 1993, №9, №1821110 //B, 1993, No. 22, in which the heating of the animal is calculated by the heat flux from external sources of heat, and calculated on the value perceived by the animal temperature in the habitat. Advantages is the provision of animal conditions of thermal comfort and, accordingly, achieve higher productivity, other factors being equal.

The disadvantages of these and similar technical solutions are high costs associated with a high consumption of thermal energy when only one common room heating with the animals and the impossibility of providing continuous in time mode the minimum cost at joint General and local heating of the population.

The reasons are: in the first case - high net power systems General heating, in the second case - the lack of economically viable communication system operation modes local heating at a comfortable process temperature in the heating zones of the young and the supporting regulatory specified and the same for the th background in building systems General heating.

The objective of the invention is to minimize the operational costs of technology General and local heating, achieving cost-optimal and rational energy joint General heating of the facility and local heating of farm animals.

As a result of use of the invention is set such value of the temperature of the air in the room that provides the least amount of energy costs for General and local heating and productivity losses of livestock with additional reduction in temperature of the background in the room from its standard value corresponding to the mode of the greatest productivity of livestock through the regulatory requirements to the magnitude of the technological values of the air temperature.

The above technical result is achieved in that in a method that includes measuring and setting the value of the animals feel the temperature in the zones of local heating, the comparison of measured and specified values, the regulation of local heating on the result of the comparison, the measurement of the temperature of the air in the room and setting its regulatory smallest and largest values, regulation rsta external air and internal air in the room, form the signal value of the temperature of the air in the room, periodically changing signal generated temperature of the air in the range between the lowest and highest index values of the temperature of the air in the room, depending on the modified signal generated temperature of the air in the room calculate the cost of energy on both the local and General heating and costs from loss of livestock products, the results of calculations determine the smallest total value of the values of these costs and the corresponding signal generated temperature of the air in the room, compare corresponding to the smallest total value of signal values formulated by the temperature of the air in the room with the measured value of the temperature of the air in the room and on the result of the comparison, adjusting the common mode of heating the facility.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the device is economical interrelated General heating of the facility and local heating of farm animals, containing the sensors sense the temperature in the local area obogashenie and the highest temperature of the air in the room, a given value of the sensed temperature, target temperature, temperature controllers local and General heating, local heaters and radiators, and the output of the sensor sensed temperature in the zone of the heater connected to the first input of the temperature controller local heating, the output of the temperature sensor of indoor air connected to the first input of the temperature controller General of heating, and the output unit values sensed temperature is connected to the second input of the temperature controller local heating, the output of which is connected to the local heating, the output of the temperature controller General of connected heating coils, where the device further comprises a sensor outside air temperature, the relative humidity of indoor and outdoor air, unit time of the survey, the signal generated temperature of the air in the room, constants, first, second and third computing units, an adder, a control unit, and the output of the sensor sensed temperature in the zone of heating is additionally connected to the first input of the second computing unit, the output of the temperature sensor, outdoor air is connected to the first input of the first visitsavannah with the second and third inputs of the first computing unit, the fourth input is connected to the second input of the second computer unit to the first input of the third computing unit, to the first input of the control unit, the output unit signal generated temperature of the air in the room, the first, second and third inputs of which are connected respectively to the outputs of the combination of technologically permissible lowest and highest temperatures of the air and the unit time of the survey, the output of which is additionally connected to the fifth input of the first computer unit to the third input of the second computer unit to the second input of the third computing unit, a third input connected to the output of the generator normative air temperature and the sixth input of the first computing unit, the fourth input of the third computing unit is connected with the output of the generator to the age of the population and with the inputs of the control devices regulatory air temperature and a given value of the sensed temperature, the outputs of the generator constants connected to additional inputs of the first, second and third processing units, the first outputs of which are connected to respective inputs of the adder, the output associated with the WTO the computing unit, the output control unit connected with the second input of the temperature controller General of heating.

The device also includes a differential amplifier, the input of which is the second input of the control unit, and the output of the differentiating amplifier connected to the first input of the comparison circuit, the second input of which is common bus, device, and its output through a differentiating circuit, a rectifier and waiting multivibrator connected to the second input of the control key, the first input is the first input of the control unit, and the output of the controlled key through the memory element is connected to the output of the control unit.

The essence of the invention is illustrated by example.

The problem of optimizing (minimizing) the operating costs General and local heating of livestock - the search for an extremum of the objective function in the form dependent on artificially generated temperature of the internal air t3in,With estimated total costs of production for local and General heating conditions further reduce the internal temperature tin,With, in relation to the normative internal air temperature tstandards

whereandcost of thermal energy on the total space heating and electricity local heating of the young, RUB;- the cost of additional production losses as a result of minimizing dependentproduction costs, rubles Therefore, the value ofincluded in the calculation of the optimal values ofoptas a regular component of the cost.

Components (1) are calculated by a fairly well-known formulas. For example, the cost of energy in the system total heating

where Ce- the unit price of thermal energy for a given region, RUB/kW-h; Qo(tCin) - power systems General heating, kW; TODA- a survey of object management (facilities with local and General heating) developed by the automation system, h;

QPM() - power heat loss from the heated air in the heating and ventilation system ptica, the local heating system, heat stock, kW and

where TC- age population, days.; Nbrthe number of broilers in Pricedale goal.;inis the density of dry air, g/kg,in1,17 g/kg; L - air for 1 kg of live weight of broilers, m3/h, L=70...100 m3/h; tn- ambient temperature,C; dNR(), dn(tn- the moisture content of internal and external air, g/kg; Fogrthe surface area of the ith fencing, m2; Roogr- heat resistance of the i-th building fences, m2·C/W; K is the total number of fence building, Rel. units; Ginfo- the amount of infiltrated into the room through its arches of air, kg/h; Nl- the number of local space heaters indoors, items, equipment plicatula 20 thousand heads. broilersl=40 pieces Here note that

,the moisture content of saturated air at the design of the internal and the measured outside air temperature, g/kg

Energy consumption in the system of local heating with an infrared heater in the form of chandeliers from four irradiators type FACES

where CEE- the unit cost of electricity in a particular region of the country, RUR/kW-h;- the power of one heater, kW.

The cost of loss of production when additional reductionof the normduring the time of the survey system automation

where Cbr- the purchase price of broiler meat in particular poultry, RUB/kg, Cbr35...40 RUB/kg;m1br(tCin) - loss of body weight one broiler rejectingdownward fromkg; Tlo- the duration of perilya objective evaluation of the effectiveness of local heater efficiency brooder heater type on the behavior of livestock, Rel. units,lo=(Tbr/(Tbr+Tfood+TMOC), Tbr- the time spent by the birds under the brooder, h; Tfood- the duration of feeding and watering chickens (in case of placement of feeders and drinkers out zone heating), h; TMOC- the duration of the exercise livestock out of the brooder, including Withlo=1 the population is under the brooder, and production losses are absent. Unattractive design brooder for livestock, seemingly dangerous livestock construction of brooder even at low temperatures of air tinleads to occasionlo=0 and large losses of products, since the population is outside of the brooder. This behavior of animals (birds) also corresponds to the case of system failure local heating when they are exposed to the full influence of the temperature of the air in the room tinand loss of livestock (poultry) excessive.

This indicatorloeasily determined by the clocking and can serve as additional technical and economic characteristics of the design brooder, allowing a failure of the heater and cost-effective management processes and local heating.

In accordance with the claimed method in the process temperature range of the air from the specified smallest tminto set the largest tmaxform the signal magnitudechange its value within the specified range (tmin...tmax), mathematical dependences (1)...(11) calculate the values of f2() determine the smallest f2()minand the corresponding value ofopt; which is used as economically feasible setpoint temperature of the air under the General regulation of heating on the result of comparing it with the measured value of the temperature of the air in the room tin(see Fig.1).

Calculation of the total cost f2(when using the proposed method shows that located in the Moscow region the model of the house on 20 thousand heads of broilers reduced temperature tincompared to its normative valuefor every 1With saves ukazannye was carried out by the integral over the year, the characteristics of these technologies, taking into account the integral time dependencies standing outside temperature tnduring the year, for a given climatic zone (see: SNIP P-L. 6-72. Building climatology and Geophysics. The main provisions of the design. M.: stroiizdat, 1973), i.e. when calculating the response time TODAcorresponds to the time of the joint during the year, work systems and local heating, i.e., approximately 1500 hours per calendar year.

Reducing the time of the survey, for example, units of hours and minutes and automation of measurement, computational, logical, and regulatory operations of the method increases its accuracy and its technical and economic efficiency. Therefore, the application of the method is cost effective and at the same time promotes efficient energy saving.

Thus, the results of measurements of top, tn,NR,nand, given the values of,, Ginfo, Ce, CEE, CbrTODATlo,loit is easy to calculate the resulting value of f2(), to find any known method of finding the optimal solution of the minimum of the function f2((see Fig.1), then the file is equivalent to the value ofelectrical signal for setting the input of the regulator General space heating. These function just performs the developed system for automated control and management of local and General heating.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in Fig.1, figs.2, figs.3 and Fig.4.

In Fig.1 is an illustration of the way. In Fig.2 shows a General diagram of the device according to the method. In Fig.3 shows a General diagram of the control unit of the device. In Fig.4 shows time diagrams of devices according to the method.

In Fig.1 shows that with the existing technology total heating (=and when used local space heaters with a low coefficient of useful effect on the behavior of the population (lo=0,57) there is a minimum production costswhich is easily detected in accordance with the claimed method.

The application of the brooder heaters (semi -) type with an increasedlo=0,96 in accordance with the method to reduce thermal background in pvusa with the current technology-dependent values of tinoperating costs by the difference-

Use case perfectly attracting livestock brooders with(similar to practical example: part plicatula with Chicks with feeders and drinkers figuratively and closed with plastic wrap. This version is known in the practice of industrial poultry, but is extremely inconvenient for technological maintenance and timely production of the weak and fallen stock and therefore associated with high labor costs and the risk of infections and, consequently, with a high probability of deviation of the entire population) enables full compliance with way to lower the temperature of the air in the room to the value ofcorresponding, for example, higher productivity of staff. While costs are reduced to a value ofi.e. significantly reduced compared with the accepted technology total heating by the difference-.

A device for implementing the method comprises sensors odorata population 3, technologically permissible least 4 and most of 5 temperature of the air in the room, a given value of the sensed temperature 6, normative air temperature 7 temperature controllers 8 local and General 9 heating, local heaters 10 and the coils 11, and the output of the sensor sensed temperature in the zone of the heater 1 is connected to the first input of the temperature controller local heating 8, the output of the temperature sensor of indoor air 2 is connected to the first input of the temperature controller General heat 9, and the output unit values sensed temperature 6 is connected to the second input of the temperature controller local heating 8, the output of which is connected with the local heaters 10, to the output of the temperature controller General heating 9 is connected to the coils 11, characterized in that it further comprises temperature sensors outdoor air 12, the relative humidity of the inner 13 and outer 14 air, referencing the time of the survey 15, the signal generated temperature of the air in the room 16, constants, 17, first, second and third calculation units 18, 19 and 20, an adder 21, the control unit 22, and the output of the sensor sensed temperature in the zone of the heater 1 is additionally connected srvaw input of the first computing unit 18, the outputs of the sensors relative humidity of the inner 13 and outer 14 air connected respectively with the second and third inputs of the first computing unit 18, a fourth input which is connected to the second input of the second computing unit 19, to the first input of the third computing unit 20, to the first input control unit 22, output unit signal generated temperature of the air in the space 16, the first, second and third inputs of which are connected respectively to the outputs of the combination of technologically permissible least 4 and most of 5 temperature of the air in the room and the unit time of the survey 15, the output of which is additionally connected to the fifth input of the first computing unit 18, to the third input of the second computing unit 19, to the second input of the third computing unit 20, a third input connected to the output of the generator normative air temperature 7 and the sixth input of the first computing unit 18, the fourth input of the third computing unit 20 is connected with the output of the generator age of 3 and livestock inputs knobs regulatory air temperature 7 and a given value of the sensed temperature 6, the outputs of the generator constants 17 is connected to soooory connected to respective inputs of the adder, the output associated with the second input control unit 22, and the second output of the second computing unit 19 is connected to the seventh input of the first computing unit 18, the output control unit 22 is connected with the second input of the temperature controller General heating 9.

The device for implementing the method also includes the differential amplifier 23, the inlet of which is the second input control unit 22, and the output of the differential amplifier 23 is connected to the first input of the comparison circuit 24, the second input of which is common bus, device, and its output through a differentiating circuit 25, the rectifier 26 and waiting multivibrator 27 is connected to the second input of the control key 28, the first input is the first input of the control unit 22, and the output of the controlled key through the memory element 29 is connected to the output of the control unit 22.

The device operates as follows. In accordance with the age of the flock TCin unit 3 outputs control devices 6, 7 are formed signalsand, the first of which served to define the second input of the temperature controller local heating 8, and the second to the sixth input of the first computing unit 18 for the and (7) the manner and to the third input of the third computing unit 20 to participate in the computation of the value ofP(). The signal generatedis formed at the output of the generator 16 during the time of the survey TODAset by the setting device 15, and within the range of values oflimited to values of tminand tmaxinstalled in the control devices 4 and 5. The value ofparticipates in all computational procedures, so the signalfed to corresponding inputs of all three computational blocks 18, 19 and 20, other relevant inputs with outputs of unit constants 17 serves regular and predefined values of the signals for implementing mathematical dependencies of formulas (1)...(11) method. The polling time TODAaffect each of the calculated values of the signals el(), Eabout(andP(), so the output of generator 15 is fed to corresponding inputs of all computational blocks 18, 19 and 20.

The measured value of topcomes from the output of the sensor 1 for managing the first input of the temperature controller tp://img.russianpatents.com/img_data/77/777561.gif">). Measured by the sensor 2, the temperature of the air in the room tinserved on managing the first input of the temperature controller General heating 9 and the measured signals tn,NR,nfrom the outputs of the sensors 12, 13 and 14 are received at the respective inputs of the first computing unit 18 to participate in the calculation of eabout(). Alternatively, the seventh input unit 18 receives the value of the Ql() from the second output of the second computing unit 19. In the adder 21 adds the components of estimated operating costs, and outputs the resulting signal f2() mathematical dependences (1) a description of the method.

The control unit 22 determines during the polling cycle TODAthe lowest value of f2(and sets to specify the second input of the temperature controller General heating 9 corresponding to the minimum sum of f2()optthe signal values generated temperature. General heating is carried out by kriter>The control unit 22 operates as follows (see Fig.3, Fig.4). At its first input from the output unit 16 formedsignal, for changing the polling time TODAfrom the values of tminto a value of tmax. The dependence of this change can be linear, such as, for example, the output signal of the sawtooth generator unit 16 is linearly dependent on time. To the second input of the control unit 22 is supplied with the output of the adder 21, the size-dependentthe variable portion of total operating costs (estimated production costs) f2(). The differential amplifier 23 generates at its output the value derived from f2(). When the corresponding signal of positive polarity to the first input of the comparison circuit 24 this scheme works, and the positive edge of its output signal after differentiation differentiating circuit 25 and rectification in the rectifier 26 starts waiting multivibrator 27, an output pulse which permit the passage (Electrovaya) through managed key 28 with a signal about the value ofClaims

1. How economical General heating of the facility and local heating of farm animals, including the measurement and assignment of the value perceived by the animals temperature in zones of local heating, the comparison of measured and specified values, the regulation of local heating on the result of the comparison, the measurement of the temperature of the air in the room and set its normative, the smallest and largest values, the regulation mode General heating, characterized in that it further measured value of the outdoor temperature, relative humidity is the situation, periodically change the generated signal value of the temperature of the air in the range between the lowest and highest index values of the temperature of the air in the room, depending on the modified signal generated temperature of the air in the room calculate the cost of energy on both the local and General heating and costs from loss of livestock products, the results of calculations determine the smallest total value of the values of these costs and the corresponding signal generated temperature of the air in the room, compare corresponding to the smallest total value signal generated temperature of the air in the room with the measured value of the temperature of the air in the room and on the result of the comparison, adjusting the common mode of heating the facility.

2. The device is economical General heating of the facility and local heating of farm animals, containing the sensors sense the temperature in the zone of local heating, the temperature of the internal air in the room, referencing-age population, technologically valid smallest and the largest is a, temperature controllers local and General heating, local heaters and radiators, and the output of the sensor sensed temperature in the zone of the heater connected to the first input of the temperature controller local heating, the output of the temperature sensor of indoor air connected to the first input of the temperature controller General of heating, and the output of the generator is sensed temperature is connected to the second input of the temperature controller local heating, the output of which is connected to the local heating, the output of the temperature controller General of connected heating coils, characterized in that it further comprises sensors outdoor air temperature, the relative humidity of indoor and outdoor air, referencing the time of the survey, signal generated temperature of the air in the room, constants, first, second and third computing units, an adder, a control unit, and the output of the sensor sensed temperature in the zone of heating is additionally connected to the first input of the second computing unit, the output of the temperature sensor, outdoor air is connected to the first input of the first computing unit, the outputs of the sensors relative humidity internal and naruga whose input is connected to the second input of the second computing unit, to the first input of the third computing unit, to the first input of the control unit, the output unit signal generated temperature of the air in the room, the first, second and third inputs of which are connected respectively to the outputs of the combination of technologically permissible lowest and highest temperatures of the air and the unit time of the survey, the output of which is additionally connected to the fifth input of the first computer unit to the third input of the second computer unit to the second input of the third computing unit, a third output of which is connected with the output of the generator normative air temperature and the sixth input of the first computing unit, the fourth input of the third computing unit is connected with the output of the generator to the age of the population and with the inputs of the control devices regulatory air temperature and a given value of the sensed temperature, the outputs of the generator constants connected to additional inputs of the first, second and third processing units, the first outputs of which are connected to respective inputs of the adder, the output associated with the second input of the control unit and the second output of the second computing unit connect the RA temperature total heat.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that it comprises a differential amplifier, the input of which is the second input of the control unit, and the output of the differentiating amplifier connected to the first input of the comparison circuit, the second input of which is common bus, device, and its output through a differentiating circuit, a rectifier and waiting multivibrator connected to the second input of the control key, the first input is the first input of the control unit, and the output of the controlled key through the memory element is connected to the output of the control unit.

 

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