The method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbon-containing liquid fuel in the prechamber

 

The invention relates to a method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbon-containing liquid fuel. The method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbon-containing liquid fuel in the prechamber involves feeding, spraying fuel and heat treatment spray nozzle jet fuel in a pre-heated chamber, a heat treatment spray jet fuel and pre-heating of the wall of the pre-chamber is carried out using an open reactor heating ultra high frequency (microwave reactor), while control stabilize the combustion temperature in the combustion zone and the wall of the pre-chamber with each decrease in the power of the microwave reactor. As carbonaceous liquid fuels using coal-water fuel, while pre-heating the walls of the pre-chamber is carried out until the temperature corresponding to the temperature in the zone of the ignition of the fuel in the range of 200-450°C. as carbon liquid fuels may be used aqueous oil fuel, while pre-heating the walls of the pre-chamber is carried out until the temperature corresponding to the temperature in the zone of the ignition of the fuel in the range of 150-250°C. the Invention allow you to plug the fuel. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbonaceous liquid fuels used in boilers, combustion devices and other heat-generating installations.

There is a method of ignition and stabilization of the coal-water fuel (CWF) with a burning layer of solid fuel. (Isaev centuries the Study of the process of burning waste coal above the layer of fuel. In Proc. of "New methods of fuel combustion and burning questions". M.: Nauka, 1969, 212 S.).

The disadvantage of this method is the presence of a continuously supported layer of solid fuel combustion, which complicates the process flow and operation of fuel burning installations CWF, reduces economic efficiency of application of the CWF.

There is a method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of liquid fuel, including the flow and atomization of the fuel, ignition and stabilization of combustion is produced using heat obtained by burning additional highly reactive fuels (fuel oil, boiler and furnace fuel, diesel oil, etc.,) and heated blast air. (Nekrasov Century, the Study of the processes of atomization by jodohost.com known method is the need for two types of fuel primary fuel and rossignolo (natural or other combustible gas, or liquid), the complexity of the technological scheme and its operation, the need for an ignition system highly reactive fuel, increased requirements for explosion and fire safety of the installation.

A known method of burning liquid, mainly CWF, including the flow and atomization of the fuel, ignition and stabilization of combustion with the use of thermal plasma flow generated by the electric arc heater gas, which is formed inside the jet of atomized liquid fuel, coaxially with it, and with the outer side of the jet organize the stream of hot air or mixture of air and hot gases, mostly recycled from the combustion zone (RF Patent No. 2134841, CL F 23 Q 5/00, 1997).

The disadvantages of this method are:

- increased energy consumption on the ignition and stabilization of combustion of such fuel, because thermal plasma flow interacts with the sprayed fuel in the paraxial zone, most poor oxidant (air), which delays the processes of ignition and combustion, and consequently, to compensate for the low concentration of oxidant required to raise the temperature of the mixture by supplying the plasma torch more power;

- low efficiency of the method, because RAS(C) in the nozzles at temperatures above 100With will be the coking process CWF, leading to partial and then complete overlap of the cross-section of the nozzles proconsularis particles of coal and termination of fuel injection;

- negative impact on the natural environment, because the interaction of high-temperature plasma jet (2500-4000C), with particles of carbon, water vapor and nitrogen, contained in the air are harmful substances CN, CHN (Almasov C. E., Dragalin A. F., hooks Century, and other Mathematical modeling of high-temperature processes in power plants. M.: Nauka, 1989, S. 204).

Closest to the claimed method, in its technical essence (prototype), is a method of ignition (ignition) and stabilization of combustion of coal-water fuel in the prechamber, including flow, fuel atomization and heat treatment spray nozzle of the jet fuel at the mouth of the jet fuel thermal plasma flow generated by the electric arc heater gas, preheated by the plasma stream to 500-750With the settling chamber, while the length of the plasma stream is formed from at the>/p>It should be noted that in the patent is not defined, what is the point in the phrase "heated by the plasma stream to 500-750With the settling chamber," as the wall temperature of the premix chamber or the temperature of the medium inside the pre-chamber. From the text of the patent that "warming of the pre-chamber is carried out until the luminosity of the inner surface area of the pre-chamber", which implies that the temperature range 500-750With characteristic temperature of the premix chamber wall.

The disadvantages of this method are:

- ignition temperature and stabilize the combustion of coal-water fuel cannot be characterized by the wall temperature of the premix chamber 500-750With that complies with the conditions of ignition of fuel in a particular chamber. At the same time, the temperature range 500-750With approximately 250higher than the true temperature of ignition of fuel. The ignition temperature and stabilize the combustion CWF characterizes the temperature, which takes place in the zone of the sprayed fuel. The values of the wall temperature of the pre-chamber and in the zone of atomization CWF connected to each other and depend on the design of the pre-chamber and institutions namely the higher the temperature of the wall of the pre-chamber the higher the temperature inside it;

- increased energy costs associated with the inefficiency of the pre-heating of the walls of the pre-chamber before the temperature of the wall 500-750With only at the expense of the plasma torch as a high-temperature plasma jet (2500-4000(C) heating the premix chamber wall, mainly due to the radiant heat flux leaving the volume of the pre-chamber, not giving her the greater portion of its thermal energy;

- increased energy consumption on the ignition and stabilization of the combustion fuel in the prechamber associated with local inflammation CWF along the direction of the jet plasmatron, flammable relatively small part of the total amount of sprayed fuel, resulting in complete combustion of jet fuel occurs after the mixing of the jet plasmatron and inflamed them part of the fuel, causing the torch should work during the whole time of the output of the pre-chamber on the steady-state temperature;

- negative impact on the environment of gaseous reaction products, formed under the influence of high-temperature plasma jet;

- described in the patent length of the plasma flow is invalid because it does not take into account screwless, 1960, S. 581-596).

The aim of the invention is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the processes of ignition (ignition) and stabilization of combustion of liquid, mainly coal-water fuel in the prechamber.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbon-containing liquid fuel in the prechamber, including flow, atomization of fuel and heat treatment spray nozzle jet fuel in a pre-heated chamber, pre-heating the pre-chamber and the heat treatment of the sprayed jet of fuel is carried out using an open reactor heating ultra high frequency (microwave reactor), in this phase of the stabilization of the combustion temperature in the combustion zone and the wall of the pre-chamber with each decrease in the power of the microwave reactor.

The difference is that if as a carbonaceous liquid fuels using coal-water fuel pre-heating of the walls of the pre-chamber is carried out until the temperature corresponding to the temperature in the zone of the ignition of the fuel in the range of 200-450And if the use of aqueous oil fuel pre-heating of the walls �src="https://img.russianpatents.com/chr/176.gif">C.

A significant difference of the proposed method from the prototype is that of heating the premix chamber and sprayed CWF not be performed using a local high-temperature gas jet, and with the help of the open reactor heating ultra high frequency (microwave reactor), which allows heating of the whole environment in the zone of ignition, to a predetermined ignition temperature lower than the temperature of the plasma jet, which prevents the occurrence of harmful emissions in the combustion products.

Unlike the prototype, heat treatment is not part of the sprayed jet fuel, and the entire volume of the sprayed fuel in the ignition zone, which promotes ignition and combustion of fuel in the entire volume of the zone of ignition, does not require, as in the prototype, the mixing of the plasma jet and inflamed them part of the fuel with the rest of the sprayed fuel for subsequent ignition and combustion.

It should also be noted that, unlike the prototype, heat treatment is subjected to not only the powdered fuel, but water vapor present in the air supplied for combustion in the burner. This heating of the air also contributes to a better ignition and stabilization prtunnel plasma jet, expiring in total furnace volume, and due to the heating medium in the volume of the pre-chamber to a high temperature (1000-1500C) and maintain it at a given level, which reduces the energy consumption for the heating. Because in both cases, the heat exchange between the environment, in the amount of the pre-chamber and its wall is mainly by radiant heat, reducing energy consumption for heating of the walls of the pre-chamber is approximately equal to the ratio of the flow rate of the plasma jet (in the prototype) to the quantity of medium in the volume of the pre-chamber (according to the invention).

Unlike the prototype, the specified temperature range of ignition and sustained combustion 200-450For CWF and 150-250For aqueous oil fuel characterizes the temperature, which should take place in the area of ignition and combustion, and not determining the wall temperature of the premix chamber. The presence of water in fuel and aqueous oil fuel, which is absorbed microwave radiation, promotes more rapid heating of the fuel as a whole, which contributes to its ignition and stabilization of the combustion process.

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows shM stage produces a calibration of the pre-chamber. Include an outdoor microwave reactor 1 and after warming up the walls of the pre-chamber to establish thermal state (corresponding to the summed power of the microwave reactor), which control thermocouple 2 through the fuel nozzle of the burner 3 in the prechamber serves the flow of water corresponding to the fuel consumption and the corresponding air flow for atomization. The temperature expected in the area of ignition 4 of the fuel in the chamber is controlled using a thermocouple 5. The ignition zone 4 is located at some distance from the edge of the fuel injector, when moving through which the fuel mixture is heated by injection temperature to the ignition temperature. Close distance to areas of inflammation can be determined by calculation, which is then confirmed experimentally. By regulating the power to develop an open microwave reactor 1 achieve the desired temperature level in the area of inflammation 4, and determine the point in time at which the temperature of the inner wall of the premix chamber practically ceases to change, which corresponds to the steady-state temperature condition of the pre-chamber. As a result of the calibration determines the output mode of the pre-chamber on tervala and power of the microwave reactor, which provide the output of the pre-chamber on the given thermal conditions. This calibration is performed for all specified modes of consumption.

When conducting business runs the procedure. In accordance with these calibration tests, using an open microwave reactor 1, is mounted stationary thermal regime of the pre-chamber corresponding to the specified mass flow of fuel and air, but without the actual supply of water and air, causing the temperature in the area of ignition and walls of the pre-chamber will be higher than in the calibration tests. After warming up the walls of the pre-chamber to the steady-state temperature condition it is injected fuel with air. To prevent the disruption of ignition (ignition) fuel consumption smoothly change from the minimum, in terms of the fuel supply to the specified value. The control parameter indicating the correctness of the specified (selected) growth rate of the fuel is the temperature rise in the ignition zone 4 and the wall of the pre-chamber by heat from burning fuel, controlled by thermocouples 5 and 2. After reaching the steady state in the fuel and the steady-state temperatures of the H-reactor 1. The stabilization control of the combustion process with each decrease in the power of the microwave reactor is carried out at a temperature in the combustion zone and the wall of the pre-chamber. If you decrease the power developed microwave reactor, the temperature in the zone of the ignition of the fuel 4 is reduced below 200-450Since, this is an indication that in order to stabilize the combustion process of fuel required third-party supply of energy, which, in this case, is provided by the open microwave reactor 1. In this case, the microwave reactor provides ignition and stabilization of combustion, performing in the latter case, the function is "on duty" torch, ensuring continuity of the combustion process. In the absence of organizations that support the stability of the combustion process can be broken, and the combustion process may cease. For example, if aqueous oil fuel mixture poorly mixed, due to the presence of interlayer water, which in an advantageous form are placed in a given period of time in the prechamber, the termination of the combustion process of the fuel mixture. If CWF, one of the reasons for termination stable combustion may also be insufficient homogenization of the fuel or fence it from the top of the tanks containing srvnam off, the temperature in the area of fuel ignition 4 enters the steady-state value lying within the range 200-450With or above for CWF, and the wall temperature of the premix chamber is maintained approximately constant, this means that the fuel has entered the mode semistability the combustion process in terms of the pre-chamber. In this case, the microwave reactor provides only the functions of ignition of the fuel mixture, because after ignition, the combustion mode is maintained automatically, i.e. there is no need to maintain stable combustion at the expense of any additional events.

The specific choice of temperature regimes ignition and stable combustion of the fuel depends on the reaction properties of coal, volatile, ash, mass concentration of coal in the fuel, the design features (dimensions) of the pre-chamber. If you choose the basic technological parameters should be guided by the following considerations. Temperature 200With in the zone of atomization CWF recommended for fuels based on highly reactive coals, with a large volatile, a large mass concentration of coal in the CWF, low-ash coal and less dispersion of the solid phase (f the I VUT recommended for low reactivity of coals, low volatile, less mass concentration of coal in the fuel, higher ash content and a greater dispersion of the solid phase in the CWF.

Given the multitude of factors that determine the ignition temperature of the fuel, this value should be determined experimentally in each case separately.

For dispersion "- 300 μm", the solids content of 48% (brown coal) and to 62% (coal) and ash content at the level of 15-25%, the estimated values of the temperatures of ignition are: brown coal - 200With stone brand D - 250With brand SS (Ekibastuz) - 350With, mark G (Donetsk) - 400With, anthracite - 450C.

Similar selection mode microwave reactor is carried out for aqueous oil fuel.

Currently, the state unitary enterprise NPO "Giprotruboprovod" the proposed method of design documentation and manufacturing of a prototype.

Claims

1. The method of ignition and stabilization of combustion of carbon-containing liquid fuel in the prechamber, including flow, atomization of fuel and heat treatment spray nozzle jets toplie and pre-heating of the wall of the pre-chamber is carried out using an open reactor heating ultra high frequency (microwave reactor), when this control stabilize the combustion temperature in the combustion zone and the wall of the pre-chamber with each decrease in the power of the microwave reactor.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a carbonaceous liquid fuels using coal-water fuel, while pre-heating the walls of the pre-chamber is carried out until the temperature corresponding to the temperature in the zone of the ignition of the fuel in the range of 200-450°C.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a carbonaceous liquid fuels use of aqueous oil fuel, while pre-heating the walls of the pre-chamber is carried out until the temperature corresponding to the temperature in the zone of the ignition of the fuel in the range of 150-250°C.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the heating of high-temperature steel-making units: open-hearth, double-bath, glass and other melting furnaces

The invention relates to a ventilation technique for domestic and industrial combustion units and exhaust ventilation of residential and industrial premises, can be used to reduce energy costs and increase the effectiveness of exhaust ventilation flows using energy and dynamic pressure of the exhaust into the atmosphere an exhaust gas flow

The invention relates to energy, namely the processes kindling coal-fired boilers and stabilization of combustion (backlight) torch them

The invention relates to fuel combustion and can find application in the oil industry in the preparation of the coolant for the heat treatment of wells and equipment

The burner // 2204082
The invention relates to energy and can be used for combustion in power plants power plants and boilers, as well as in the metallurgical industry

The invention relates to energy and can be used for burning fuel in the vortex chambers

The invention relates to energy and chemical technology and can be used to increase the utilization of calorific value of hydrocarbon fuels

The invention relates to the combustion of the fuel injection tube furnace burners and improves the efficiency of the production of various chemical products by filing in the burner heated air

The invention relates to a method and burner for entry of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel in the combustion zone of the furnace such as a rotary kiln for manufacturing cement clinker or similar products, and with this method and burner fuel down through essentially concentric channels 1,6 and primary air down through two similar concentric and annular channel 8, 9 located around the channels for fuel and air in one of these air channels 9 represents the air flowing in the axial direction, while the air in the second air channel 8 is the air that is forced to rotate around the Central axis of the burner, and allows independent adjustment of parts of the primary air, a special characteristic of the burner is that the streams of primary air are mixed at a relatively low speed in the collecting channel 15 into the flow of primary air, which is then accelerated to the desired, relatively high speed before introducing it into the furnace through the annular nozzle 14, thus achieving efficient mixing of fuel and air, ensuring operational reliability while minim

The invention relates to fuel combustion in the vibrational mode

The invention relates to power engineering, mainly to heat technology, and can be used to obtain infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range

The invention relates to a power system and can be used for burning fuel in low-emission combustion chambers of different energy systems: gas turbine units (GTU), gas turbine engines (GTE), furnaces, boilers, etc

The invention relates to a power system, namely the technology bassanova combustion of fuel and raw materials

The invention relates to burners for burning liquid fuel

The invention relates to furnace technique and can be used in heating, telecommuniation and steam systems for highly efficient water heating and steam generation at low output in the atmosphere of nitrogen oxides

The invention relates to burners for burning liquid fuel and can be used in utilities for heating water in boilers, as well as in construction, agriculture and food industry

The invention relates to fuel combustion and can find application in the oil industry in the preparation of the coolant for the heat treatment of wells and equipment

FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

Up!