Ship-pipelayer and a method of laying pipes
The invention relates to construction and is used in the construction of underwater pipelines. Ship-pipelayer contains a pull up tower, which determines the route of the pipeline during laying, and the lower guiding device for guiding the pipeline after passing the tower. The lower guiding device is provided with a group of guide rollers spaced apart along the pipeline route and limiting lateral off-track. Guide rollers are located with the possibility of bending of the pipeline as it passes through the lower guiding device, and the vessel is equipped with means of control forces acting on the pipeline side of the rollers of the lower guide device. The pipeline is lowered node elongated up the tower of the ship, passed through a group of spaced rollers of the lower guide device by which limit lateral limits of the pipeline route, realize it bend when it passes through the bottom guide and control the forces acting on the pipeline side of the rollers of the lower guide device. Expands the Arsenal of technical means. 2 C. and 27 C.p. f-crystals, 17 ill.
(this platform is called the space capacity of the pipeline). To create a continuous pipeline on-site capacity at multiple work sites perform operations necessary to complete the connection of the pipe sections. When you add a new section, the barge moves forward and the pipe supported on the stern of the barge inclined trigger ramp (or floating stinger), is bent around the stern down to the seabed. The profile of the pipeline from the vessel's steering to the seabed, has the form of a long letter "S" (where the term "S-laying or laying of pipeline S-shape"). The upper part of the profile nezverejneny along from the ship-side booms to the bottom in the pipeline creates a constant tension with a tensioning device. There is a limit to the depth of the strip, which can be used this way. As the depth increases traction force, developed the tensioning device is required to maintain at an acceptable level of tension of the pipeline increases rapidly and, accordingly, increases the reverse pulling force acting horizontally on the part of the pipeline on the vessel-pipelayer. Mentioned efforts can be reduced by increasing the angle of descent of the pipeline into the water. If the angle is close to vertical (called "J-laying or laying pipe J-shape"), the value of the required tension of the pipeline is very close to the weight of the pipeline, the length of which is equal to the depth, and the horizontal component of the tension is close to zero. This way, on the contrary, inherent limitations, implying the presence of a minimum depth of application, because of the bending of the pipeline 90when it is laid on the seabed requires enough space, and if excessively abrupt bending of the pipeline tension in it exceeds permissible.In the patent DE 2118360 described vessel-pipelayer (pontoon) with elongated up the tower. Derrick installed on the pontoon tiltable relative attachable section of the pipe, mounted on an elevating support, raise and set in line with the laid pipeline is fixed in this position by the gripping elements and welded to the end of the laying of the pipeline, which in this time is fixed relative to the tower by means of a gripping device.In the patent EP 0661488 (the closest analogue of the invention) described the ship-steering, containing the node located elongated up rigs (for J-laying), which determines the route of the pipeline during laying, and the lower guiding device in the direction of the pipeline after passing the tower. The disadvantage of this technical solution is the lack of control of the bending of the pipe when passing through the lower guide.The danger of creating in the pipeline undue stress, especially in those cases where flexibility is relatively low, when J-laying limits the scope of application of this method and, in particular, the conditions under which this method can be considered suitable.The objective of the invention is to provide a vessel-booms and method of laying a pipeline, providing a solution to the problem of occurrence in the pipeline excessive stresses in the J-laying, receiving offers ship-steering, contains the node located elongated up a tower (tower) that defines the route of the pipeline during laying, and the lower guiding device in the direction of the pipeline after the tower, which contains several groups of guide rollers arranged spaced from each other along the pipeline route and limiting the lateral limits of the called line, while guide rollers are located with some bending of the pipeline as it passes through the lower guiding device, and the vessel is equipped with means of control forces acting on the pipeline side of the rollers of the lower guide device.Allowing bending of the pipeline during its descent from the vessel and adjusting the bending guide rollers reduce the risk of overload of the pipeline at the conclusion of his ship. It also gives you the ability to distribute horizontal forces acting on the pipeline side of the ship pulling in different groups of guide rollers, so that the voltage generated by one particular group of guide rollers, are reduced.Usually the preferred form of the guide rollers is cylindrical, however, NEA some or all of the rollers, if it becomes necessary for any reason.In the preferred embodiment, guide rollers at least one group of rollers includes rollers, the axes of rotation which are inclined to each other in the plane perpendicular to the tower. In this case, the guide rollers surround the pipe at least part of a circle and thereby allow for some discrepancy between the position of the host vessel/rig, on the one hand, and a vertical plane passing through laying an underwater pipeline. In the preferred embodiment, guide rollers at least one group of rollers are located at least a quarter of a circle around the track (the trajectory) of the pipeline, which provides the possibility of divergence of approximately 90between the position of the host vessel/rig, on the one hand, and by an underwater pipeline. Even more preferably, when the guide rollers at least one group of rollers are located mainly around the entire circumference around the pipeline route - guiding device is operable in any orientation of the vessel relative to the subsea pipeline.In a preferred embodiment, the bottom on in the strip, with the camber angle, increasing in the direction of travel of the pipeline during laying. In this case, what would the plot of the sending device is used for the direction of the pipeline during laying, the pipe is given a controlled bending, as applied to the pipeline forces are distributed between the rollers of different groups.Although the scope of patent claims this invention allows for the use of guide rollers and to create some tension pipeline, in the preferred embodiment, guide rollers are installed with the possibility of free rotation, resulting in the only force acting on the pipeline side of the guide rollers is shear force.In a preferred embodiment, at least some of the guide rollers mounted for rotation on supports fixed to the holders of the elastic suspension installed with the possibility of the elastic displacement directly or through other elements. An advantage of the invention is that the malleability of the guide device is provided by mounting the rollers on an elastic structure with the ability to change the position of the axis the effective direction of the rollers. Each roller can be installed separately on its own elastic suspension, however, it is preferable to install the whole group of rollers on one elastic structure, providing elastic displacement.The invention in particular relates to a strip of relatively rigid pipe, as opposed to, for example, pipelines are so soft that they can be coiled during storage. It is desirable that the resistance of the holders of the elastic displacement (stiffness elastic suspension with elastic deformation) exceeded 100 kN/m, and even better 500 kN/m In the following embodiment, a resistance shift is of the order of 5000 kN/m for some top groups of the rollers and of the order of 1000 kN/m for some of the lower groups of rollers.In a preferred embodiment, the amount of elastic displacement of the holders of more than 50 mm, and at least some of the holders have the amount of elastic displacement of more than 100 mm In the following embodiment, a displacement of the upper group of rollers with resistance to offset of 5000 kN/m may be 100 mm, and the offset of the lower group of rollers with resistance 1000 kN/m may be 300 mmIt is clear that the magnitude of bending, piddac impart bending is the uniform distribution between the groups of rollers horizontal forces, acting between the guide rollers and the pipeline. In an embodiment of the invention described below, the amount of bending of the pipeline is about 0.34 m 10 m of pipe length; in this embodiment, the full force operating under normal conditions with the lower guide device is about 1000 kN.In a preferred embodiment of the tilt of the tower is adjusted so that the angle of the pipes can be adjusted, for example, in accordance with the depth of installation. In a preferred embodiment, the lower guiding device is attached to the tower; its position is automatically adjusted along with the rig. The angle of the tower can be fixed, for example, the appropriate vertical position.The inclination of the tower during operation in the preferred embodiment ranges from 45 ° to 90 ° to the horizontal.In the preferred embodiment, along the route of the pipeline under water there are three or more groups of rollers, and even better - five or more groups of rollers. In a preferred embodiment, some groups of rollers installed along the pipeline route and over the water; the bending of the pipeline may begin above the water and is spaced relative to each other along the pipeline route mostly evenly. The interval between adjacent groups of rollers along the pipeline route can be from 2 to 15 m, and even better from 3 to 10 meters In an embodiment of the invention described below, the interval is 5 mIn a preferred embodiment, the vessel also has controls a force applied to the pipe to the rollers of the lower guide device. It is preferable to install multiple means of control forces together with the relevant groups of guide rollers for controlling the forces applied to the pipeline by the relevant groups of the guide rollers. Controls can contain one or more torque elements.The vessel may be equipped with lifting section of the pipeline from the deck one with the rig line and docking of the specified segment of the pipeline to the laid pipeline.In accordance with the invention also offers a method of laying pipeline from a vessel, in which the pipeline is lowered node elongated up rig of the vessel and then passed through the lower guiding device containing several groups of guide rollers arranged spaced from each other along the pipeline route and limiting Ocoee device and control forces, acting on the pipeline side of the rollers of the lower guide device.The vessel used in the method of the present invention may be of any type described above.In a preferred embodiment, the vessel control is carried out depending on the results of the control forces acting on the pipeline side of the rollers.Vessel used in any of the methods of the present invention may be performed in any of the above defined forms.Some forms of execution of the proposed ship-booms are described in the following examples with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:Fig.1 is a side view cross-section of the vessel-side booms;Fig.2 is a front view of the ship;Fig.3 is a top view of the vessel, the part of the form is a section;Fig.4 is a cross-section area of preparation of pipes on the ship, in larger scale than in Fig.1;Fig.5 is a side view of the tower, on a scale larger than in Fig.1;Fig.6 is a cross section of the tower through line a-a in Fig.5;Fig.7 is a cross section of the tower through line b-b In Fig.5;Fig.8 is a longitudinal section of part of the tower - bottom shutter ramps;Fig.9 is a side view of the lower part of the tower, similar to the one shown in Fig.5-10, but having changed the lower guiding device for piping;Fig.12 is rear view of the lower part of the tower shown in Fig.11;Fig.13 is a schematic representation of the lower part of the tower shown in Fig.11, showing the spatial arrangement of the guide rollers in a modified bottom guide device;Fig.14 is a top view cross section of the bottom portion of the modified lower of the sending device;Fig.15 is enlarged in comparison with Fig.14 scale top view cross-section of the lower part of the same plot of the modified lower of the sending device;Fig.16A is a sectional view along the line D-D in Fig.15 the guide part of the modified lower guide device where the guide portion is in an unstressed state;Fig.16B is a sectional view along the line D-D in Fig.15 the guide part of the modified lower guide device where the guide portion is in a loaded condition;Fig.17A is a top view cross-section of the upper section of the modified lower of the sending device;Fig.17B is a top view of a section of the upper section iza roller of the type what is shown in Fig.17A and 17B.In the drawings shows an example of a ship-booms, generally indicated by the numeral 1, represents a semi-submersible vessel, the movement and maneuvering of which is carried out by using the promotion of the vessel, such as screws 2. The vessel is equipped with two large rotary valves 3 mounted on the edges in the area of the bow, with the usual construction, which are hereinafter for purposes of simplicity will not be described in detail and shown.Cranes 3 lift on Board the vessel containers 4 pipes (pipe sections), which are delivered by freight barges or other similar means (not shown), and placed them on the deck on both sides of the ship add-ons.Next pipe 5 serves crawler cranes 6 and the conveyor (not shown) to the platform Assembly of two - and four-section of the pipe (segments of the pipeline), which comes in the form of module 7 is installed on the deck of the vessel 1 (see Fig.3 and 4). Module 7 four lashes placed on the starboard side of the site building the pipeline.Crawler cranes 6 first move the pipe 5 from warehouses, representing the racks on the ship or the containers in which the pipes were loaded on a ship, module 8 Uch is after facetiously pipe 5 transverse conveyors carry the pipe to the platform 9 two lashes module 7 four lashes, where is the welding of single sections. The transverse conveyor may consist of trays, moving on rails perpendicular to the vessel. Pipe 5 may be held in the trays by means of rollers, which allow longitudinal movement of the tubes and can be adjusted to pipes of different diameters.Module 7 four-section of the pipe has two different levels. On the lower level at site 9 two lashes, while four pipes 5, obtained from the plot of facetiously, are transferred to the corresponding position in the module, where are welded in pairs in double-whip 10. Welding is performed on the four welding positions, and x-ray quality control of welded joints shall be made on the fifth working post. If welding is performed correctly, two of the scourge of 10 raised to the second level, on a platform 11 four-section of the pipe. Otherwise, the string is removed from the Assembly zone of the module 7 for repair, and in case of his inability to cutting. At site 11 four lashes two two-section whip 10 are welded to each other (on the four welding positions), and then tested on the fifth post (post non-destructive testing), resulting in chetyrehfunktsionalnost conveyor for transporting it to the bow. If the NDA is found to be defective weld, whip shifted to the port side of the vessel 1 for repair or cutting. If necessary cutting, four-section whip 12 is cut into four single partition 5 and is then piped back to the site 8 facetiously, where again is the chamfering before returning to welding.On the bow of the vessel 1, on its axial line between the two valves 3 with the mounting tower, in General, marked 14. The design of the tower 14 provides ease of installation and removal. The tower 14 is connected to the hull by two hinges 15, which provides a working angle in the strip defined by the longitudinal axis of the tower, in the range from 90 to 120(i.e., from the vertical position to the tilted 30from the vertical). This tilt is required for piping of different sizes at different depths (from shallow waters to great depths). The angle of the tower 14 is defined by a hinged lifting system, described below.Derrick 14 consists of three main sections, as shown in Fig.5.The lower section or basket 16, is designed to withstand a maximum tension force of the pipeline, there is a lower launching ramp 17 to one or more output rollers 41, the guide pipe 40 during its descent from the vessel. In a preferred embodiment, the tower is made with the possibility of its installation and dismantling by means of the valves 3, or auxiliary vessel with a crane, and storage on the deck or the barge.Friction clamps 18 includes at least a fixed clamp for a secure grip (hold) pipe 40 during breaks in the gasket. In the preferred embodiment, also provided by the clamps, movable hydraulic lifts that can be used when laying pipe with attached objects that are too large or have an irregular shape, in order to properly hold the tensioning devices.In the middle section 19 posted by three tensioning device 20, which in the process of working down the pipeline into the water, maintaining the tension of the pipeline, and support rollers for pipe, guides him when derrick 14 is not vertically. Tensioner represent tensioner crawler type, similar to the well known for a number of years in the S-laying, and support rollers to support the pipeline also belong to a known type. They are not described in detail. In the middle of the section 1 is s can be removed, when not in use. Also on the tower is provided by means of snapping the segment of pipeline that is exposed with the rig in one line (aligned with respect to the tower), to the laid pipeline. In particular, at the lower end of the middle section are post non-destructive testing and post 21 installation joint with floating floors (lower ground). And at the upper end of the middle section is a welding station 23 with "floating" floors (upper Playground). The distance between the welding positions 21 and 23 (the upper and lower sites) approximately corresponds to the length of the pipeline, in particular four-section whip 12, while the upper part of the scourge can be in post 23, and is situated at the bottom of the post 21.System temporary lowering and lifting contains double-drum winch (electric drive) attached to it winding drum and wire rope from steel wire. The steel cable goes to a retractable pulley (located in the middle part of the tower), and then connects to the pulling mechanism. The time of descent and ascent is located on the main deck in the middle on the centerline of the vessel 1 adjacent to module four-section of the pipe.The upper section 22 of the tower 14 p is aprovada. There are docking device and the centering post 24 (Fig.2). The upper section 22 has an open design for easy movement of the scourge 12 with tubeporncity described below centering on the post 24. The top section 22 may be mounted to the middle section 19 and removed from it in the framework of the installation work aboard the ship.Lifting system that controls the change in the slope of the tower 14, uses arrows 25 attached to the top of the middle section 19 at its rear or inner surfaces, and to lifting devices 26 jacking type on the frame 28 of the support base placed on the deck directly over the valves 3 at the stern side. The lifting system includes hydraulic cylinders, each of the pistons are attached by set of four hydraulically controlled locking pins, which come in a number of holes in the shafts 25. When the tower is not podemcrane, she held similar locking pins mounted stationary in the frame 28 of the base. If the tower you need to move more than the value of the stroke of the hydraulic cylinders, it kept locking pins, while the cylinders are returned to the original position for the next stroke.Whip 12 pipes, alnami conveyor 29A by means of the lifting section of the pipeline from the deck one with the tower line, for example, tubeporncity 29, set at the foot of the tower 14. Longitudinal conveyors can be composed of rollers 29A, the axis of which is inclined to the horizontal so that the rollers form a V-shaped structure within which moves the pipe. They can be installed with the possibility of moving closer to or further from the centerline, so that tubes of different diameters could move at the desired height above the deck.Tropopause 29 consists mainly of beams 30, the transmitting pipe 12 from the platform 11 four lashes to the middle section 19 of the tower 14 by turning the hinge 31. The hinge mount that can rotate tropopause without problems sets the pipe in any position which it should occupy at different working angles of the strip (from 90 to 120). The design of the beam 30 provides its minimal weight to obtain the minimum inertia of the system. As can be seen in Fig.3, the beam loader located on the starboard side of the site building the pipeline, and it has attached to the nodes 32 (Fig.5), which firmly grasp the whip 12 of the pipe and hold it near the beam during rotation. Whip 12 pipes horizontally roller conversa lifts tubes (detail not shown) in position, where it can be captured clamping nodes 32 on tubeporncity 29. In the middle to the bottom end of the loader 29 is installed mechanical stopper 33, which prevents loss of pipe failure hydraulic clamps 32. In normal conditions, the pipe rests on the stopper 33 to avoid damage beveled pipe end.The rotation of tropopause 29 is carried out by means of two winches (not shown) installed on an a-shaped frame 28. Lifting winch, the rope which passes through the pulley on the tower, raises and lowers tropopause 29, meanwhile, hoist protivostaianie attached a constant tension in the opposite direction to prevent uncontrolled movement of tubeporncity when he is in the process of turning the vertical position, or under the influence of ship motion. The rotation speed of the winch is chosen such that the loading was completed within the cycle of the laying process.The purpose of the loader 29 is only to grab the pipe 12 (by means of clamps 32) and rotate it into position with the same angle of inclination as that of the tower 14. As soon as the pipe 12 mounted along the tower 14, the truck stops and waits (while continuing to hold the pipe) Teroldego post 24. The lift consists of a mobile unit moving along two rails 35, located in the middle part 19 and the upper part 22 of the tower to the left of the centerline of the loader 29. On a mobile unit installed in a drop-down clamps 37. As shown in Fig.6, when the clamps 37 are in the fully open position, they are shifted to the left side on the site of the building of the pipeline so that the loader 29 may install pipe string 12 along the hoist 34. If you are working with a small pipe may also be provided by guide rollers. At the lower end of the hoist 34 is installed a safety fence for support of pipe whip in case of failure of hydraulic clamps 37. When the loader 29 is coming to the tower 14, and a hoist 34 is in its lower position, the clamps 37 grip the pipe 12, and terminals 32 to release it. Then lift 34 raises the pipe to the top position. Then, the pipe 12 is moved to carry the clamps 38.Three spaced vertically-carrying clamp 38 is used to transfer the pipe-laying 12 from the lift to the centering device 24 (Fig.6 shows one carrying clamps in three different positions); the clamps are made as independent the torus has fully opening the clamp. When the clamps are in the outer position (aside), lift delivers to him the pipe. If they are in the inner position, the centering device 24 are shifted in the transverse direction and take them to the pipe. If the pipe string 12 is delivered by the lift 34 in place before the centering device 24 cleared for its reception, transferring the clips 38 can hold the pipe string to a replacement position, as shown in Fig.6. In addition, while the pipe string 12 is held at a standby position, it can be entered detachable cable or hose supply and/or the lower end may be preheated for welding.The use of the centering device 24 is necessary for accurate installation of pipe whip 12 in line with the pipe 40. These devices can move the pipe in all three directions. They consist of a combination of roller clamps that secure the horizontal position of the pipe-laying 12, allowing it to rotate, and at least one rotatable friction clamp through which you can adjust the orientation of the pipe around its axis. Each device is structurally independent of the others, but management must prod. is between the centering device 24 mounted guide rollers to provide reliable support pipe 12 during construction, when the centering clamps are open, even when an angle of the tower 14.In Fig.8, 9 and 10 show the lower launching ramp 17, on which the output rollers 41 groups of three rollers on the trolley 42. In the process of laying a pipeline, each trolley 42 is pressed against the pipe 40 by a hydraulic cylinder 44, in which pressure is generated by a battery (not shown), and the load on the trolley 42 is controlled by a torque element 46. The movement of each truck manages a lever mechanism 48, while the fully retracted position of the set screw jacks 50. Thus, the output rollers 41 can simultaneously control the position of the pipe 40 and to control the movement of the pipeline during its descent from the vessel. If you want more precise control, you may have multiple groups of trolleys 42, one above the other, as shown in Fig.10 that allows you to control the bending of the pipeline, resulting in you to lead it to the strip at a slight angle Kosi tower 14, which increases the flexibility of the vessel.Lower output rollers 41 have utim and retracted positions of the hydraulic cylinders 56. In the process of laying the pipeline they are in fully retracted condition in and out to help guide the cable in a temporary lowering and lifting of the pipeline.The vessel 1 is based remotely managed device 58 underwater maintenance of the pipeline to monitor the tap pipeline 40 bottom. Because the touch point is right under the stern of the ship, almost under it, such device can be remotely controlled from the aft deck of the vessel 1 without applying long uncomfortable safety ropes. Instead, or in addition to using this DUA, hitting bottom can be controlled active or passive sensors 60, mounted on the aft of the ship.In the process, the segment of the pipeline (whip) 12 set the centering device 24 in one line with the pipe and held them until the lower end of the segment of the pipeline is welded to the upper end of the pipe 40 by welding the post 23. Then the centering device release docked segment of the pipeline, the vessel moves forward, the pipeline is released and pivots 20 on the length of docked cut (four-section whip 12). After that, just done is left the loader 29 and lift 34, passed transferring the clips to the centering device 24.Derrick 14 consists of three sections and is attached to the vessel, and module 7 four lashes made in the form of one or more stand-alone modules that are attached to the deck so that all pipe-laying equipment can be installed and dismantled easily and quickly. It allows you to convert the ship in the whole of the booms in a conventional semi-submersible floating crane.For example, the vessel shown in the drawings, may have the following dimensions:The length of the vessel 200 mTower height of 135 mThe range of pipe diameters (outer diameter) from 4 to 32’ (from 101 to 813 mm)The maximum diameter of stackedobjects (with open tension devices) 2.5 mThe range of depths for pipes 4’ (101 mm) 50-3000 mThe range of depths for pipes 32’ (813 mm) 200-2000The maximum holding force of the gasket(tensioner) 525 tThe maximum holding force of the gasket(mobile terminals) 2000 tThe angle of the mounting tower 90-120Traction intermediate winch temporarydescent and ascent (double drum) up to 550 t (max)Traction based the on Board 12.2 mThe length of the pipe pipe (410-15 m) 48,8 mThe duration of the phase of laying 2 minThe maximum wave height during laying (important) 4 mIn Fig.11-17C presents a modified version of the lower guide device 61, which can be used on the vessel in accordance with the present invention instead of the lower trigger the ramp 17. In Fig.11-17C parts corresponding to parts shown in the other drawings have the same item numbers. As shown in Fig.11 and 12, the device 61 in General is a tubular frame comprising four longitudinal load-bearing element 62 and cross bridge 63, joined together with formation of a rigid structure attached to the lower end of the tower 14 four feet (eyes), one at the top of each of the elements 62. A support attached to the tower corresponding pin connections.Forth in Fig.13-17C shows how the design formed by the elements 62 and 63, is used to accommodate different nodes at different levels, including stationary and movable clamps 18A and 18B, respectively (Fig.13), three groups of adjustable rollers 64A, B and C and six groups of guide rollers 65A-65F, and each group contains a ring of the roller is key 52, described with reference to Fig.8, 9 and 10. The rollers 64A, B and C installed in such a way that ensures their movement in the radial direction, and their movement is performed by the respective hydraulic devices with cylinders and pistons. In this particular example implementation of the invention, each of the groups of rollers 64A and B is, as shown in the top view in Fig.17A, and contains 4 roller 66, evenly (with the same angular interval) located around the route of the pipeline, and all of the rollers of the group of rollers IS installed, as shown in the top view in Fig.17B, and consist of eight rollers 67, spaced from each other at equal angular distances. One of the purposes of rollers 64A, B and C is to keep the pipeline (pipeline) 40 within the Central circular region of the adjustable radius so that the clamps 18A and 18B, which are used only in special cases, for example in an emergency, could be guaranteed to capture the pipeline. However, another purpose of the videos, especially videos V and S is providing some initial controlled bending of a pipeline, even with their relatively high raspolozheniu, allow you to control the passage of the pipeline through the rollers; you can also control and adjust the output piston rods of hydraulic cylinders and fluid pressure in these cylinders.In Fig.17C as an example, depicts one of the hydraulic piston devices. It is seen that the rollers 66 and 67 mounted for rotation on the bracket (support) 70, and a torque rod 71 provides a measurement of the forces acting from the side of the pipe 40 on the rollers 66, 67. The bracket is attached to the piston of one of the hydraulic devices 68, which contains the sensor 72 pressure to control the pressure in the cylinder and a position sensor for controlling the position of the piston relative to the cylinder.All signals from the television cameras 69 and sensors 72, 73, and torque rods 71 are received by the multi-conductor cable 79 through the junction box 80 in block 81 of the control that can be installed in the control tower. The signals control the operation of the hydraulic piston device 68 receives from the block 81 of the control unit 82 of the control fluid into the hydraulic system and controls the control valves.Next, a more detailed description of the installation of six groups ypravlaushiy rollers 65D, group, is shown in Fig.14. Steel ring 75 is the main load-carrying element, providing a rigid support for a group of rollers, and has a diameter that allows you to place inside of him all the rollers 65D circumference. The ring 75 is rigidly attached to the four longitudinal elements 62 of the lower guide device through the uprights 76. Directly inside the ring 75 is another annular element 77, which is mounted for rotation rollers 78. The annular element 77 is connected to the ring 75 at the four points located at equal angular distances from each other around a group of rollers, by means of elastic holders 83, shown in Fig.16A and 16B.In Fig.15, 16A and 16B, in particular, it is shown that the rollers 78 is secured at both ends for rotation on the bracket 85, which is attached to the ring-shaped element 77 and act from it radially inward. At four points to the ring 75 is welded to the brackets 86 holders 83, providing elastic suspension rollers, and each bracket 86 has an upper shoulder 87 and the lower shoulder 88 which protrude radially inward, covering the ring-shaped element 77. Each of arms 87, 88 are connected with the element 77 suitable support 89 of elianna condition as a result of the displacement of the rollers 78 radially outward (due to what has been a corresponding movement of the element 77) under the action of forces, the acting on the part of the pipeline 40. In Fig.16B shows that to achieve this offset bearings 89 are shear deformation.With each group of guide rollers 65A-65F torque associated elements (not shown), the signals from which are sent to the block 81 management through the junction box 80 and the cable 79. The signals from the torque elements can be used by the control device for the correction process of the pipeline or for changing the direction or speed of the vessel, etc.Next will be described the operation of the guide rollers in the process of pipeline construction. For simplicity of presentation will consider the case of the vertical position of the tower, but it should be borne in mind that the work of the sending device, essentially will not change when you tilt the tower. Also for simplicity of presentation will first be assumed that the ship is heading directly over the route of the pipeline, and its centerline aligned with the course.To the curvature of the pipeline in the base area was not excessive, it is necessary to when laying pipeline from a vessel on the pipeline was affected by the horizontal force in the direction of the strip and x stresses in the pipe.Accordingly, it is desirable that each group of rollers 65A-65F worked on a pipeline with a horizontal force, and it is desirable that the strength of influence of each group of rollers were about the same. In an embodiment of the invention it is achieved that groups of rollers when they are positioned along a curved line, providing a controlled degree of bending of the pipeline during its passage through the group of rollers. Thanks to the elastic suspension of the roller load distribution across different groups of rollers becomes more uniform.A particularly useful feature of the design guide is that each group of rollers completely surrounds the pipe. This allows the gasket, when the vessel is at any angle to the direction of the pipeline, which may be desirable or essential for laying a pipeline in a strong current.In the specific example of the invention, which can be used in the specific example described above vessel, of the group of rollers 65A-65F spaced along the pipeline route with an interval of 5.2 m, and the upper group of rollers 65A is located above the water level, and the other group of rollers n is x rollers in each group is:The group of rollers Distance, m65A 2,44V 3,5465S 5,065D 6,79A 8,9665F 11,48Holders of groups of rollers 65A-65S have a sufficiently high rigidity. The radial stiffness of the rings 77 these groups of rollers in the General case, more than 100 kN/m, preferably 500 kN/m and this version is about 5000 kN/m (when the elastic displacement, which in the General case exceed 50 mm and this version is a maximum of 100 mm), while the holders of the groups of rollers 65D-65F have less stiffness and provide radial stiffness of the rings 77 for these groups of 1000 kN/m (when the elastic displacement, which is in General greater than 100 mm, and this version is a maximum of 300 mm). During normal operation, the total load normally applied to the pipeline all six groups of rollers, is about 1000 kN, resulting in a force acting between each roller and the pipeline is about 170 kN.
Claims1. Ship-pipelayer containing the node located elongated up rigs, which determines the route of the pipeline during laying, and the lower guiding device in the direction of the pipeline after prohaematologica spaced from each other along the pipeline route and limiting the lateral limits of the named trails, this guide rollers are located with the possibility of bending of the pipeline as it passes through the lower guiding device, and the vessel is equipped with means of control forces acting on the pipeline side of the rollers of the lower guide device.2. Vessel under item 1, characterized in that it contains a group of controls of the forces acting on the pipeline side of the guide rollers, and the means of control set associated with the respective groups of the guide rollers with the ability to control the forces acting on the pipeline side of the respective guide rollers.3. Vessel under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the control means forces contain a torque elements.4. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that it further comprises a control unit, associated with the means of control forces.5. Vessel under item 4, characterized in that the control unit is connected with the cylinder-piston devices of the drive roller guides.6. Vessel under item 5, characterized in that the control unit is connected with the control unit of the fluid into the hydraulic system and controls the control valves.7. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, otlichayas is the group of their axes of rotation inclined to each other in the plane perpendicular to the tower.8. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-7, characterized in that the guide rollers of at least one group of rollers are located at least a quarter of a circle around the pipeline.9. Vessel under item 8, characterized in that the guide rollers of at least one group of rollers are located mainly around the entire circumference around the pipeline.10. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-9, characterized in that the lower guiding device is made in the form of a funnel, the collapse aimed in the direction of travel of the pipeline during laying, camber angle, increasing in the direction of travel of the pipeline during laying.11. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-10, characterized in that the guide rollers are installed with the possibility of free rotation.12. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-11, characterized in that at least some of the rollers are mounted for rotation on supports fixed to the holders of the elastic suspension installed with the possibility of the elastic displacement directly or through other elements.13. Vessel under item 12, characterized in that the holders have the resistance of the elastic displacement exceeding 100 kN/m14. The vessel according to claim which but for any of paragraphs.12-14, characterized in that the holders have the amount of elastic displacement of more than 50 mm16. Vessel under item 15, wherein at least some of the holders have the amount of elastic displacement of more than 100 mm17. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-16, characterized in that the site of the tower is installed with the possibility of an adjustable inclination, and the lower guiding device is attached to the site of the tower.18. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-16, characterized in that the site of the tower is installed with a fixed angle.19. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-18, characterized in that the site of the tower is installed with a tilt angle of between 45 ° to 90 ° to the horizontal.20. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-19, characterized in that at least three groups of guide rollers mounted for locations along the route of the pipeline below the water level.21. Vessel under item 20, wherein the at least five groups of guide rollers mounted for locations along the route of the pipeline below the water level.22. Vessel under item 20 or 21, characterized in that the groups of rollers are spaced from each other, mostly evenly along the pipeline route.23. Vessel according to any of em from 2 to 15 m24. Vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-23, characterized in that it includes means for lifting a segment of the pipeline from the deck one with the rig line and docking of the specified segment of the pipeline to the laid pipeline.25. Method of laying pipeline from a vessel, according to which the pipeline down node elongated up rig of the vessel and then passed through the lower guiding device, characterized in that the pipe is passed through the band guide rollers, which have spaced from each other along the pipeline route and through which limit lateral limits of this route, as well as carry out the bending of the pipeline as it passes through the lower guiding device, while controlling the forces acting on the pipeline side of the rollers of the lower guide device.26. The method according to p. 25, characterized in that it uses a vessel according to any one of paragraphs.1-24.27. The method according to p. 25 or 26, characterized in that the control vessel, depending on the inspection results.28. The method according to any of paragraphs.25 to 27, characterized in that the direction and speed of the vessel will change depending on the inspection results.29. The method according to l is Olya.
FIELD: construction, applicable for trenchless laying and replacement of underground pipe-lines.
SUBSTANCE: a reciprocating striker is positioned in the casing of the pneumatic percussion mechanism. The air-distributing system of the mechanism includes the front and rear working chambers, inlet and exhaust valves and a fixture for closing and opening of the exhaust channels made in the form of a spring-loaded end face stopper coupled to a tractive member. At actuation of the pneumatic percussion mechanism, before the supply of compressed air, the exhaust channels are closed, they are opened after the inner cavities of the pneumatic percussion mechanism are filled with compressed air.
EFFECT: provided automatic cyclic action of the pneumatic percussion mechanism.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction engineering; erection of pipe lines in thawing permafrost soils and in flooded areas.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes ditching at trench with widened areas located at definite distances and pipe line is laid on bottom of trench. Pipe line is covered with flexible rugs and bottom of trench at widened areas is also covered with rugs; edges of rugs are fastened in widened areas and trench is filled. Used as anchor member are cylindrical textile containers placed in lugs of flexible rugs in parallel with pipe line and filled with soil. Prior to fastening the edge sections of flexible rugs, each of them is tightened at fixation of tension; preliminary tension of edge sections is effected during filling the widened areas and trench soil ensuring contact of flexible rugs with bottom of widened areas and trench. Filling the widened areas and trench is performed in direction towards pipe line, symmetrically relative to it.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of attachment of pipe line at 0required marks.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction engineering; erection of pipe lines in permafrost soils at alternating terrain.
SUBSTANCE: trench in smooth terrain and in sections cut by hydrographic net is dug in active layer at depth sufficient for location of upper generatrix of pipe line above level of daily level. Prior to laying the pipe line, bottom walls and berms of trench are lined with cloth of non-woven synthetic material. backfill soil is placed in ballasting polymer panel-type devices or in ballasting polymer container-type units suspended from pipe line. Anti-erosion partitions made from non-woven synthetic material are formed in sloping sections together with funnel whose neck is located downward of water flow embracing the pipe line at specified clearance between neck and pipe line. Funnel is formed by covering the natural slope of backfill soil by free lower edge of non-woven synthetic material with ballasting polymer panel-type or ballasting polymer container-type devices placed on lower portion of funnel followed by subsequent removal of embankment protecting the pipe line. As far as sections of route cut by hydrographic network are concerned, anti-erosion partitions are formed in trench at transients with opposite slopes of microterrain; anti-erosion partitions are made from anti-erosion cloths and backfill soil is placed n soil-filled weighting materials attached to pipe line. At low points where opposite sections cross, water pass or water bypass structure is formed in trench.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability; reduced scope of earth-moving work; enhanced stability of pipe line in horizontal plane.
9 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: pipe line transport; major repair of pipe lines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introducing the front end of pipe into damage pipe and forming hermetic cavity in inter-pipe space; then, pressure air (gas) is charged into hermetic cavity for motion of new pipe inside damaged pipe, after which piston is fitted at end of new pipe and detachable flange is connected to rear end of damaged pipe; motion of new pipe is effected by periodic charging of air into hermetic cavities; each hermetic cavity is bounded by piston and seal.
EFFECT: reduction of tractive force.
FIELD: construction engineering; erection of underground pipe lines in permafrost soils, in bogs and in flooded and marshy areas.
SUBSTANCE: proposed polymer container ballasting unit has two distance rigidity frames located on both sides from pipe line, reservoirs made from polymer commercial cloth and filled soil which are secured to said frames, anti-erosion partitions and upper and lower weighting belts. Distance rigidity frames are curvilinear in form and their height exceeds diameter of pipe line being ballasted. Bend of each frame is made at obtuse angle and lower part of each frame is inclined towards pipe line relative to trench bottom. Polymer commercial cloth laid along pipe line makes distance frame rest against ground of trench bottom both in filling the reservoirs with soil and at action of pushing-out load.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: laying or reclaiming pipes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes removing upper layer of spoil, developing side trench with disposal the spoil by damping. The development of side trenches is performed step-by-step. The stripped trench is provided with stripping machine, the side trench are deepened by the working members of the stripping machine below the bottom of the pipeline and pipeline is continuously stripped by trenching machine and stripping machine when it moves forward. The stripping machine has frame with running carriages, clamps, supporting members and mechanism for forward motion.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pipeline is laid on the concave part of the longitudinal section of the trench bottom on the layer of soft soil and is locked by filling one or two layers of soil with compacting. Screw vertical anchors and load-carrying belts are then mounted. Before filling the trench, the space between the belt and pipeline is provided with a cloth of unwoven synthetic material.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of pipeline locking.
FIELD: pipeline transport.
SUBSTANCE: flexible pipeline comprises several pulp lines provided with chambers with ball check valves and interconnected through piping diaphragms. The outer surface of the pulp line is provided with a displacement device for movement along the pipeline. The sections of pulp lines receive shell made of layers of syntactic and polyurethane, the ratio of thicknesses of which is (10-4):1. The displacement device affects the piping diaphragm, pumps hydraulic mixture from the bottom section to the next one which is arranged above the check valve, and moves along the outer side of the pulp line to the next piping diaphragm mounted above.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline has triply connected supports mounted on the stable sections above and under the slope subject to creep, one connected supports arranged over the subject to creep slope, and deformation compensator. The distance between the upper support and site of the deformation compensator arranged below the slope subject to creep is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the pipeline.
SUBSTANCE: working member comprises rotors provided with teeth arranged symmetrically with respect to the axis of pipeline and provided with drive and mechanism for bringing the rotors together and moving them apart. Each rotor is provided with cleaning device which is arranged behind the rotor and secured to the unmovable segment of the working member for keeping it unmovable or permitting rotation. The cleaning members permanently co-operate with the outer side of the rotor.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.