The correction method of choice in terms of cognitive dissonance in children with developmental disabilities

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to medicine, namely to health psychology. Perform exercises on the development of sensory processes, perception, associative, non-verbal and verbal memory, comparison and classification on the background audio photostimulation in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 Hz. Carry out stimulation of biologically active points, enhancing mental performance with the help of vibro-acoustic apparatus. The method allows to increase the efficiency of correction, which is achieved due to the formation of functional connections, which is the neurophysiological basis of mental functions.

The invention relates to the field of special psychology, in particular to methods of correction patterns of actions in terms of cognitive dissonance, by working on this component as a decision (choice).

There is a method of influence on the higher mental functions (VPF) from the perspective of the hierarchical structure of the cerebral organization of higher mental functions (1).

But this method does not involve training such VPF as creativity, reflexivity and anticipation, which is held by us on the background of the closest solution is the method of recovery of disturbed patterns of action in adult patients with neuropsychiatric disorders (2).

But this method was applied to adult patients with current painful process in nervous and mental spheres of patients who have a fundamentally different structure violations than in children, deviant development which is due to residual organic disorders of the brain. In addition, this method did not assume the work on the action taking place in the complicated for the individual conditions.

The technical result of the invention is the correction of choice in terms of cognitive dissonance.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the correction method of choice in terms of cognitive dissonance in children with deviations in development, including the formation of a full-fledged cognitive functional linkages and working on the broken structure of action, what is new is that the creation of new full stable functional relationships neurophysiological basis for sensorimotor and creative mental functions carried out by psychological training exercises on the background audio photostimulation in the range of their own brain biorhythms (1-1,5 Hz), and for stimulation of biologically active points, improves mental performance and the power of cognitive dissonance by using the technique of “operational security selection in the internal plan and the various types of interpersonal interaction.

The essence of this method consists in the following.

I step. Elimination of the deficit and creating new stable functional relationships (ASPS) - development of higher mental functions.

II stage. Learning to design rational selection method.

III stage. The design of rational selection method in terms of cognitive dissonance.

Practical work using this method consists in the following

I step

Special correctional-developing work on the formation of new functional connections is carried out taking into account level of the organization functions. Thus, the formation of creative thinking, anticipation and dialectical thinking is through the formation of predposylki levels of these functions: perception, associative, non-verbal and verbal memory, comparison, classification, and sensorimotor processes.

1. Job development sensomotoric. This type of exercise, in addition to the basic goals, coached the opportunity to experience different States, more adequate to Express them; to understand the bodily expression of others and their own. Expressive movements of the child are environments is mate, not touching each other, with different speeds (slow, then fast);

to differentiate muscle tension (maximum tensing and relaxing different muscle groups);

- to recall and reproduce the various sensations (cold - warm, sweet - bitter, and so on).

All these and similar exercises are aimed at increasing range of motion by the following parameters: fast - slow; soft - hard; strong - weak; heavy - light; continuous - jerky; available - with resistance. You can play in the following situations: “Fish and algae” (smooth and easy movement of algae - rapid movement of fish); “Cloud and stone” (the motion of a heavy stone and light, smooth - cloud).

Draws children's attention to the polarity of the States. Asked about a possible point of intersection of one state with another.

2. The task for the development of creativity (fluency, flexibility, originality).

Children are encouraged to consider the image of three items (e.g., brick, paper, pencil).

(a) for training fluency should be possible number of ways to use items;

b) flexibility training variability of the spine.

3. The development of anticipation is

a) on the communicative level - solving situations;

b) on the spatial level;

C) on a temporary level.

The General principle that specifies how the work of the child is the transitivity or polarity. Correctional training action of the child in accordance with the mentioned principle, as the distinction between two kinds of psychological work and the transition from training (training) to the implementation (execution).

Work on the development of fundamental cognitive operations includes the following: a) the formulation of training objectives; b) the separation of the General mode of action; C) the development of the operations included in entered in class mode of action; d) the introduction and understanding children of the principles of modeling.

Accordingly chosen forms of work, organized interaction of the child and specialist. The effect of each is carried out for all is a form of collective public action. In the classroom possible action must be turned into action each. The lesson ends with the execution of actions by each participant of the communication process.

Deficienct Kostanaiskaya due to the underdevelopment of certain parts of the brain, therefore, the remedial work is carried out on the background of a combined use of sensory stimuli rhythmic type: audio and photostimulation in the range of their own brain biorhythms (1-1,5 Hz), and for stimulation of biologically active points, improve mental performance and energeticaly organism (function subcortical structures of the brain) is used vibroacoustic device.

Us this method was tested in relation to children with a deficit of higher mental functions. Remember:

a) for the formation of adaptive techniques of choice in a situation of cognitive dissonance necessary to train full-fledged sustainable perceptual, sensorimotor, and then cognitive functional relationships;

b) artifactual stable functional relationships (AOPS) are produced at a frequency photostimulation 1-1,5 Hz, high frequency photostimulation induces suppression of previously obtained effects;

C) the greatest effect of ASFS you can achieve if you work on the development of interhemispheric interaction of the brain.

Work on hemispheric interaction (sensory level).

A. Through movement toloveru over your head - the torso has depicted the letter “X”). Left arm and leg on signal move towards each other. Right arm and leg - on the contrary.

B. Through movement of the head, eyes, tongue, lower jaw. For example, combined, unidirectional and multidirectional movement of the head and eye (and tongue and so on) - tracking the object moved along the imaginary circle, oval, triangle, square, figure eight, an alphabetical character. And so on

Stage II

Within the method of logical-psychological analysis of the activities we have developed the technique of “operational security selection in the internal plan, which includes steps

1. Full operational processing of cognitive information, reflection (analysis) the initial conditions for the action.

2. The anticipation of the action.

This and the following operation steps carried out based on the processes of anticipation and divergent thinking (creativity) and are carried out with simultaneous speech aloud.

3. The decision (choice) - allocation of productive for the reduction of dissonance model resolution (mode of action).

4. Actions in the mind based on shemr>All the work using this method is executed only when the absolute providing psychological comfort of the action in terms of cognitive dissonance.

This crafted scheme - receive “operational security selection in the internal plan provides for the formation of new knowledge and skills with the specified parameters. This scheme selection criteria is universal and can be used both for educational situation of choice, and social situation of choice.

III stage

Work in the space of cognitive dissonance.

The ability to regulate relations - to be able to adequately make a choice, make the right decision in a situation of cognitive dissonance is possible with two things:

1. The adoption by individual socio-cultural norms and ways of relationships.

2. Mastering and using constructive relationship models.

Learning how to structure space of cognitive dissonance and cultural issue the way his permission, the child develops the mechanism of relationship enters a new phase of its social and psychocutaneous grounds:

1. Active involuntary consent.

2. Passive involuntary consent.

3. The lack of agreement.

4. Ignoring opposition opinion.

Adaptive (rational) models (methods) are 1 and 3, the model is least represented in children with developmental disabilities. Therefore, in the continuation of all work group members are trained to use

a) the model of the “active forced consent”, i.e. safe to take alternative own point of view, interiorizes it contains useful information.

b) model of “lack of consent”, i.e. to persevere in the style of behavior, however, be able to justify their own point of view.

The basis for working with dissonant (competing) cogniciti was taken private methods (3). In accordance with the provisions of this Technique organizes three types of competing interpersonal interaction, this work situations includes:

A) Search for the causes of events

B) Finding ways to constructively solve

C) providing a sense of control over the situation

D) providing a sense of values compatible with youseo interpersonal interaction

1. Competing interpersonal interaction between members of the same group.

The situation is. In drawing lessons the student touched the picture with his neighbor and stain it. Between students tied dialogue:

- What have you done? You're everything to me you've gotten!

"I didn't mean to, I accidentally!

- ...

- I'll tell the teacher that I stain the picture accidentally.

The work situation is as described above.

2. Competing interpersonal interaction between members of the two opposition groups. Preparatory work: a) discussion of the job of the psychologist within the group; b) the selection of groups for dialogue; the dialogue between the two "opponents" that protects the interests of the group.

The Exercise Looks. It is necessary to describe the appearance of the player of the opposing team so he guessed that we are talking about it. When preparing to use the scheme description: clothing, facial expression, habits, qualities of character. If a player of the opposing team considers that his appearance is characterized not clear enough, he may not agree with the opinion of his pupil characteristic or to ask clarifying questions. Point poluchaete was able to prove his disagreement with this feature.

1st student: " this man's blue suit, blue eyes, he's funny, loves to eat. Who is this?

2nd student: " I could say this about me, but I have a blue suit black.

1st student: - no one else in the suit in that color, I was referring to the color of the suit, not the picture.

3. Conduct discussions with students on the content of speech.

Organization of work: a) discussion of the content of speech in a group; b) prepared speech on the subject; C) the answers to the questions "listeners"; g) discuss performance.

Support performance is the content of the text. Gradually, when connected "audience" in the discussion of the content of the speech (exercises "Speaker", "Interview", "Premiere" and others), the proportion of spontaneous, unprepared speech of students increases. Performance is assessed from the standpoint of relevance of content, logic, ethics, relationships with students.

Exercise "Speaker". Students choose a topic to prepare a speech before the "audience": "Museums", "Theatre", "TV", "Film", "Journey to a desert island", "Journey on the evil and the good planets and so on

One of the performances.

1st su, and good for good.

But one day there was a good researcher came to the evil planet. What happened after that. Sinister immediately felt the stranger and began to build before him various obstacles. Once a bit has not overfeed sweets. But a good researcher still have time to do their job and run away with the evil of the world.

2nd student: What opened good researcher that could help the people of his planet?

1st student: He knew their habits, it is also important to warn all good people.

3rd student: But the evil people probably don't consider themselves evil, how do you know?

1st student: If they do everything only for themselves in harm to others, here and sinister, etc.

This stage of work is possible only after successful completion of the first two.

Contraindications to the use of “Polyfactorial adjustment model selection” (PMCV) are: the age of 5 years; the lack of ability or desire of the parents to work with your child at home at least 3-4 hours a day; psychoses, mental retardation with severe mental decline, gross disturbance of higher cortical functions and psycho-emotional sphere (as the child and the parents); degenerative-dystrophies is a group of 6-12 people The duration of each occupied 40 minutes to 1.5 hours Pause for mind-body workout every 20-25 minutes

The selection of children in the group is carried out after the mandatory pre-survey psychologist, neuropsychologist, neurologist (if necessary), it is desirable to record the electroencephalogram (EEG), conducted with all the standard functional tests. Psycho-correctional work is carried out by a psychologist and a neurologist (if necessary).

Before the training the children and their parents gather at the preparatory session, which explains the basic directions of work of their leading goal. Parents also explains the need to consolidate at home those skills that will benefit children in the classroom.

Notebook of observations conducted throughout the period of exercise.

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. Luria A. R. fundamentals of neuropsychology. - M., 1973.

2. Zalewski, C. Mental rigidity in norm and pathology. - Tomsk, 1993 (prototype).

3. Terentiev Century. And. the Formation of full-fledged communicative activity in children with stuttering primary school age / Kida. dis. - M., research Institute of Defectology, 1997.


 

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