A method of creating ice crossings
The invention relates to the production of ice and can be used for the reconstruction of crossings. A method of creating ice crossings involves the use of an icebreaker with subsequent freezing of the destroyed part of the terminal. What's new is that when the ice thickness of more than 0.5 m at some distance from the ice terminal in the ship channel stop transport vessels, which bypasses the ice back at a distance greater than the width of the ship channel, and cuts out part of the ice field, forming a slot, through which the breaker is returned to its original position, and then cut the part of the ice field icebreaker gets in the ship channel seal to complete freezing. The technical result of the invention consists in the accelerated restoration of disturbed ice terminal and its bearing capacity. Il.The invention relates to a method of manufacturing ice and can be used for the reconstruction of ice crossings.There is a method of creating ice crossings, providing for the freezing of water with the formation of the ice cover, where after the formation of the first ice cover his ruin, formed the 809266, MCI G 25 3/04, from 15.04.93, bull. No. 14).The disadvantage of this method is the slow recovery of the ice crossing.The technical result of the invention is the rapid restoration of disturbed ice terminal and its bearing capacity.The technical result is achieved in that in the method of creating ice crossings, involving the use of an icebreaker with subsequent freezing of the destroyed part of the terminal, what is new is that the ice thickness of more than 0.5 m at some distance from the ice terminal in the ship channel stop transport vessels, which bypasses the ice back at a distance greater than the width of the ship channel, and cut out part of the ice field, forming a slot, through which the breaker is returned to its original position, and then cut the part of the ice field icebreaker gets in the ship channel seal to complete freezing.After the formation of the channel in the ice field in the thickness of more than 0.5 m of ice cut portion size a little more than the width of the channel and the seal is slid into the channel, filling the area of the existing ice crossing, complete restoration which occurs after complete freezing carved out of the ice field with the walls of blade ice, consisting of several parts, he quickly regains its integrity under the influence of freezing a thin layer of water, always taking place on the ice surface, regardless of the temperature. The temperature of the ice depends only on the thickness of the surface layer in a state of liquid phase. Restore the integrity of the ice from separate parts occurs when 0C.In addition to restoring the integrity of the ice cover is increasing its load carrying capacity due to the so-called "arch effect" that occurs after pre-compaction routine part of the ice field. Seal ice also contributes to the rapid restoration of its integrity and in places the newly formed cracks.In the drawing is given of implementation of the method.This method is carried out according to the following scheme. At some distance from the proposed ice crossing of the ship canal in ice cover stop transport vessels 2, 3. Icebreaker 1 reverse passes judgment on the distance than the width of the channel, forming the slot 4. Then the slits 4 is returned to its original position. Then, getting the necessary speed, your body pushes carved plate 5 in the court is but to be less than 50 of the ice cover thickness (for example, when the ice thickness of 1 m, the distance should be 50 m). This method of creating a terminal is most effective when the ice thickness of more than 0.5 m, in which the recovery of the ice crossing occurs within one hour. When the ice cover thickness of less than 0.5 m effective way is creating Toledano mixture in place of the crossing of the ship slot.The phenomenon of sublimation of ice allows you to restore the monolithic ice from separate blocks for a short time (within one hour). The formation of solid ice from Toledano mixture occurs over a long time (over a month). In addition, within the channels of the destruction of the individual blocks (block size commensurate with the dimensions of the channel) ice is mainly from compressive stresses (the effect of the collapse or “arch” effect). The strength of the ice cover during compression of 1.5 times the strength against bending strains. Hence there is an increase in the bearing capacity of the ice cover.
ClaimsA method of creating ice crossings, involving the use of an icebreaker with subsequent freezing of the destroyed part of the terminal, characterized in that when the ice thickness of more than 0.5 m on nodet back at a distance, the larger width of the ship channel, and cuts out part of the ice field, forming a slot, through which the breaker is returned to its original position, and then cut the part of the ice field icebreaker gets in the ship channel seal to complete freezing.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.