Composition for degreasing of sheepskin fur
(57) Abstract:This composition can be used in fur production in degreasing fur sheepskin. Composition for degreasing fur sheepskin includes a nonionic surface-active agent (surfactant) and bacterial drug. The composition further comprises a prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas species. As bacterial drug use bacterial drug lipolytic and proteolytic properties produced by culture of Pseudomonas species. As the nonionic surfactants used Prevotella W-OF-7. The composition has the following ratio of components: non-ionic surfactants, Prevotella W-OF-7 0.5-1 g/DM3bacterial drug 1-2 g/DM3and prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas species in quantity of 105-107cells/cm3. table 4. The invention relates to light industry and can be used in fur production during the process of degreasing hair and the leather and fur skins.Known composition for degreasing fur sheepskin, containing the sodium salt of monoether sulfuric acid and the mixture of cetyl and oleic alcohol, sodium carbonate, formalin, hydrogen peroxide is on composition, that when it is used simultaneously with chemical and enzymatic degradation of wool fat is weakening due hairline with Koshevoy cloth sheepskin, which leads to teclast hair.The closest (prototype) to the proposed technical solution is the composition for degreasing of sheepskins, including anion active surfactants, formaldehyde, sodium carbonate, nonionic surfactant, proteolytic enzyme preparation steps, it G3X and water (see Komissarova, L. A., Shestakova I. C. Application of enzymes and a surfactant for cleaning and degreasing fur sheepskin // Leather and footwear industry, 1984, N9, S. 50-53).The disadvantage of this composition is the use of dietary insoluble nonionic surfactants and formalin difficult to clean wastewater and reduce the activity of protocolin G3X. The use of proteolytic enzyme preparation steps of protocolin G3X not only leads to the destruction of wool fat, but also can affect mucopolysacharides complex, located in the basal membrane of the hair bags, destroying it, which can lead to the weakening of bonds of the hair with Koshevoy cloth.The technical result is camping wastewater.The technical result is achieved in that the composition for degreasing fur sheepskin, comprising nonionic surfactant and bacterial preparation further comprises a prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas sp., in the following ratio, g/DM3:Prevotella W-OF-7, nonionic surfactants, 0.5 to 1Bacterial preparation (BP) 1-2Prokaryotic culturePseudomonas species 105-107cells/cm3In addition, the technical result is achieved due to the fact that bacterial product (BP) is produced by prokaryotic culture of Pseudomonas species and can be used for achieving concentrations in the environment within 1-2 g/DM3.A distinctive feature of the proposed structure is that the processing of the fur sheepskin is carried out at a much reduced consumption of detergents from 8 to 0.5-1 g/DM3and the exception of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde. In addition, the bacterial preparation is produced by culture of Pseudomonas sp., has both lipolytic and proteolytic properties. This effect degreasing is ensured by the fact that after cleavage of the protein coat of the fat cells observed the breakdown of lipids to glycerol and fatty to the of organizmov Pseudomonas sp. this hydrolysis occurs more fully, with the involvement of the resultant products in a constructive and energy metabolism. Minimal presence in the composition of detergents allows you to remove mechanical impurity from the surface of the hair and reduce the level of toxic pollution of sewage.Unpainted prefabricated sheepskin treated the proposed composition has a more clean and crisp hair than semi-finished processed by the composition of the prototype.Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the authors have not identified the sources with characteristics identical with all the essential features of the claimed composition for degreasing fur raw materials. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, which is closer to the totality of symptoms analogue, has allowed to establish the essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features set forth in the claims.Consequently, the offer from the of the fur sheepskin is prepared as follows.Wool fat hair consists mainly of cholesterol, and for the destruction of such a complex fat you must use lipolytic enzymes, whereas the fat in the leather, enclosed in a protein shell that requires the use of enzymes as proteolytic and lipolytic action. In this regard, the proposed composition for degreasing contains bacterial preparation (BP) produced by culture of Pseudomonas sp., possessing not only lipolytic, and proteolytic activities.Pre-prepared bacterial suspension is injected into the synthetic environment mineral bases, detergents, organic substances and culture of Pseudomonas sp. in the amount of 105-107cells/cm3that provides optimal receipt of the bacterial preparation. Duration of cultivation for 72 h with periodic mechanical impact and temperature (40±0,5)C.As an organic substance use wool fat, and as a nonionic surfactant - Prevotella W-OF-7 in the amount of 0.5-1.0 g/DM3.Culture of Pseudomonas sp., isolated from waste water after the process of emulsion degreasing fur sheepskin, predstavlyalka. On mesopatamia agar (MPA) colonies were large (d=4-5 cm), milky white, smooth, shiny surface, convex, translucent, slimy consistency. On mesopatamia broth (BCH) at incubation in a thermostat (390,5)C for 24 h gave good growth, while the formed thin uneven film milky color, slight flocculent precipitate, which is “know-how” for the authors of the present invention.Technology of application of the composition are as follows. Party fur sheepskin, after soaking, degreasing I and mechanical operations, including cutting, mestena expose the second degreasing composition containing bacterial drug - 1-2 g/DM3, Prevotella W-OF-7 - 0.5-1.0 g/DM3and culture of Pseudomonas sp. - 105-107cells/cm3when liquid ratio of 7, a temperature of 40-42S and duration 60 minutes Further processes and operations are performed on a Single processing fur sheepskin (1988).In the control variant (the prototype) was used, comprising: paste “News” - 8 g/DM3; sodium carbonate and 0.5 g/DM3and formaldehyde - 0.5 cm3/DM3.Next, the processing of fur sheepskin ve is the air traffic management fur sheepskin is presented in table.1.Reducing the consumption of the components of the proposed structure below the specified limits may result in incomplete removal of hair and the leather sheepskin. When the concentration of the components above the proposed limits of increasing the cost of treatment at similar effect degreasing.Example. Party fur sheepskin treated for 60 min with (40-42)and volume ratio equal to 7. A control batch process of the prototype (see table.1). After 60 min, the solution is drained, and sheepskin wash out with clean water when (38-40)and J. K. 7 within 30 minutes Further processes and operations of manufacture is conducted according to a Single processing technology fur sheepskin (Grigoriev, B. S. and other processing Technology fur sheepskin. - M.: Createrepo, 1988. - 200 C.).Indicators of chemical and physical analyses of comparable halves fur sheepskin, which characterizes the quality of the leather and fur processed skins, are presented in table.2.As follows from the table.2, the objective indicators of sheepskin, processed using the proposed structure fully comply with the requirements of GOST 4661-76. In addition to takego composition of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde.After the test and control degreasing were selected wastewater to assess their quality and level of toxic pollution. Evaluation of the quality of wastewater was carried out according to the following criteria: active reaction (pH); chemical oxygen demand (COD) and concentration of detergents. Characteristics of waste water after degreasing II are presented in table.3.To assess the level of toxic pollution (UTZ) conducted a toxicity study of the water after the model and the developed techniques. As a test object used crustacean Daphnia magna Straus. Indicator of the degree of toxicity was the ratio of dilution, which persists acute toxic effects. The observation was carried out for 96 h, the first 3 h hourly, and then once a day, given the number of living individuals. For control options and for dilution of wastewater used tap water after settling for 24 hours, the Survival rate in the control variant after 96 h was 100%. The result is presented in table.4.As can be seen from the table.3 and 4, the waste water after degreasing, made by the developed technique based on the use of bacteraemia composition for degreasing fur sheepskin allows optimal removal of fatty substances from the surface of the fur and leather fur sheepskin. While the resulting wastewater can be classified as moderately polluted by reducing the consumption of detergents, elimination of sodium carbonate and formaldehyde and used for degradation of fatty substances of bacterial drug produced by culture of Pseudomonas sp.The characteristics of sheepskin fur tanned correspond the requirements of GOST 4661-76.On the basis of the foregoing that the inventive composition for degreasing of sheepskin and fur raw materials meets the condition of “industrial applicability”. Composition for degreasing fur sheepskin, including nonionic surface-active agent (surfactant) and bacterial drug, wherein the composition further comprises a prokaryotic culture Pseudomonas species, as well as bacterial drug use bacterial drug lipolytic and proteolytic properties produced by culture of Pseudomonas species, as nonionic surfactants used Prevotella W-OF-7 in the following ratio of the components:Nonionic surfactants - Prevotella W-OF-7 0.5-1 g/DM3Bacterial drug 1-2 g/DM3Prokaryotic culture
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises pickling, tanning, and neutralizing the semifinished item. During pickling and subsequent tanning, the picking liquid is provided with acetate sodium in amount of 0.2-0.5 % and, then, chromic tanner in amount of 1.5-1.8%. The tanning is carried out until the pH of the solution reaches 4.2-4.4.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of tanning.
FIELD: defatting of crude sheepskin-and-fur material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating crude material in bacterial suspension having lipolytic activity of 20-30 units/g and proteolytic activity of 2.5-3.5 units/g. Suspension contains product of total microorganism vital activity used in an amount of 4-8 g/dm3, synthetic surfactant used in an amount of 0.25-0.5 g/dm3, and prokaryotic crop of Pseudomonas sp. type used in an amount of 107-109 cells/cm3, water the balance. Treatment is conducted at temperature of 40±2 C during 45 min by providing mechanical actions, and liquid coefficient of 7-10.
EFFECT: improved quality of defatting sheepskins, improved elastoplastic properties and reduced level of toxic contamination of sewage water.
3 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, process for pickling of sheepskin fur coats and raw fur material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling fur sheepskins in solution such as sour-milk composition having titratable acidity of at least 300 T, lactic acid concentration of at least 25 g/dm3 and medium active reaction below 3.5; providing said process at temperature of 30±2 C during 16 hours at variable mechanical action, with liquid to acid ratio of 7, sodium chloride consumption of 20 g/dm3.
EFFECT: improved quality of fur sheepskins due to reduced curling of hair-covering and improved elastoplastic properties thereof.
4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: fur industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to processing fur sheepskin intended for manufacturing clothing, headgears, footwear parts and other fur items. Crude fur sheepskin of all preservation types is subjected to soaking, first degreasing, squeezing, haircutting, and fleshing according to known technology. Then fur sheepskin is subjected to additional processing in aqueous solution of sodium chloride (15-20 g/L) and nonionic surfactant composition (1-2 g.L) for 2-6 h at 30-32°C. After second degreasing and washing, pickle salting is carried out for 20-24 h. 4-6 hours after the beginning of pickle salting, processing solution is supplemented by 3-5 g composition of nonionic surfactants (1:1 mixture of Neonol AF 9-12 and syntamide 5). Finally tanning and greasing are performed.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics fur sheepskin intermediate product.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: leather and fur industry.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages culturing of kefir fungal or kurungal ferment (obtained in amount 50%) on a nutrient medium, which medium is pasteurized skim milk for four first culturing days, pasteurized mixture composed of skim milk and fat-free curds whey on 6-14th days, and pasteurized fat-free curds whey on 15-18th days. Culturing is carried out for 18 days at 22±1°C and mechanical shaking twice a day for 15 min to give ferment with acidity 350-360°T. Ferment may be added to pasteurized cooled milk or to pasteurized curds whey in amounts 25% followed by fermentation at 22±1°C and acidity 350-360°T.
EFFECT: increased stability of ferment (double storage time), its acid-generating capability, and population autoregulation, increased activity to accumulate lactic acid by 2 1/2 times, and reduced restoration time by 4-6 h.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pickling leather depilated hide with sodium chloride and sulfuric acid, addition of chrome tanning agent to the same bath in its consumption 0.5-0.6% of depilated hide mass as measured for chrome oxide, and chrome-plating is carried out for 2-4 h. Aliphatic dialdehyde is added to same bath in the concentration 3-6% of depilated hide mass, and treatment is carried out for 2-3 h wherein glyoxal or glutaraldehyde is used as dialdehyde. Invention provides enhancing thermal stability and strength properties of leather and can be used in tanning leathers for different designation and assortment.
EFFECT: improved tanning method.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: material processing.
SUBSTANCE: method provides degreasing and/or drying of animals' skins. According to method, skins, being subject to degreasing and/or drying, are brought in contact with one or more extractants. At least one dissolvent, selected from group consisting of dimethyl ether, methylal, dioxolane, diethyl ether and methyl ethyl ketone, is used as single dissolvent. Sheep, cows', goat's or pig's skins are subject to degreasing and drying. Process is carried out in stator or rotor reactor under pressure of 1-12 bar and at temperature between 5°C and 40°C.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of cleaning; improved ecological safety of process.
14 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves degreasing sheepskin-fur raw material and can be used in fur production during degreasing of sheepskin-fur coat and fur raw material. Processing of the raw material is carried out in a degreasing bath containing a bacterial suspension, which has both lipolytic 50-60 units/gram and proteolytic 8-10 units/gram activity, with the total product of life activity of the microorganisms at a value of 5-6 g/dm3, synthetic surface-active substance - 0.5-1.0 g/dm3, catalase-positive procariotic culture of genus Erwinia sp. in the quantity 109-1010 cells/cm3 in the degreasing bath hydrogen peroxide is additionally added in the quantity 0.1-1.0 g/dm3, preliminarily dissolved in a tenfold amount of piped water. Processing is carried out at a temperature of 40±2°C, for 60 min., with some mechanical action from time to time and liquid crystallisation=10.
EFFECT: increase in quality of degreasing sheepskin and reduction in the level of toxic sewage production.
4 tbl, 4 ex