The collimator reticle

 

The invention relates to the field of optical instrumentation and can be used in the development of opto-electronic systems, sighting and aiming. The collimator reticle contains a lens with a mark, a semitransparent reflector, and n focal levels. Mark and focal levels established in the focal plane of the lens. Semi-transparent reflector is placed at the output of the lens is inclined to the optical axis. Focal levels contain control scale and moving bubbles. Projection of scales on the horizontal Ground plane is oriented perpendicularly to the horizontal axis of the reference system of the viewing angles. Moving bubbles combined with zero risk control scales levels. For stabilization in space vertical reference plane of the viewing angles, the number n is 1. For complete stabilization in space of the reference system of the viewing angles, the number n is 2. The technical result - improving the accuracy of the sighting devices, eliminating the complexity of the calculations to account for the variability of the installer object. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to the field of optical instrument, in particular to a collimator wyzwania, including when determining spreads a protective helmet of the operator in various fields of science and technology.

All known collimator sight is based on the semi-transparent reflector, which is mounted between the eye of the observer and the space of sight, lens and brand (mesh) placed in the focal surface of the lens.

Analysis of the known analogues shows that all structural schemes collimator reticles can be classified by the type of your lenses:

lens (see L. P. Lazarev. "Opto-electronic guidance devices", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 247-250);

mirror (see the above book L. P. Lazarev, S. 250-253);

- mirrored-lens (see C. I. Borodin, G. I. Rylski. "AFCS and control system aircraft and helicopters", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1978, S. 151-152).

Considering the well-known counterparts in functionality, it can be noted that the collimator sight used in the following ways:

- offline using its own reference system of the viewing angles (see L. P. Lazarev. "Opto-electronic guidance systems", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 247-250), an application with a positive solution of Ukraine No. 95020874 from 24.02.swarat line of sight, the reference angles of sight) to perform their various systems (see U.S. patent No. 3375375).

With respect to the collimator reticle without installation on an Autonomous object reference system of the viewing angles is a Cartesian coordinate system, the axis of which in some way connected with the optical axis. For example, one of the axes coincides with the optical axis, and the other two perpendicular to it, which is determined by the functionality of the reticle.

The submission describes the reference system of the viewing angles (or some intermediate system to stabilize), the axis of which form a plane of reference as follows:

- two horizontal-axis reference system form a horizontal plane that is parallel to the plane of the Land;

- the vertical axis perpendicular to the horizontal plane and is the intersection of two vertical planes perpendicular to the plane of the Earth and passing through the first and second horizontal axes, respectively.

It should be noted that the stabilization of the system of reference in General, is ensuring invariance in space, its orientation relative to the Earth.

Analysis there are known collimator sight is not applied to the stabilization of the system of reference when building the viewing angles.

It should be noted that the use of a collimator reticle depending on the functional purpose can be applied partial stabilization of the reference system of the viewing angles, i.e., stabilization of a single plane.

For example, in the case of application of the collimator sight for hunting rifles (see application with a positive solution of Ukraine No. 95020874 from 24.02.95,) sufficiently stabilize the same plane for proper accounting sighting amendments, and in the case of stabilization to the scheme described in the book of L. P. Lazarev. "Opto-electronic guidance systems", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 247-250, required stabilization of the entire system.

The lack of stabilization leads to the fact that when you install the collimator reticle on the movable base or the vehicle arises the need for continuous adjustment of the value of the viewing angles based on current reversals and fluctuations of the object.

Thus, to maintain the same direction of the sighting beam in space relative to the Earth is necessary to make a number of measurements and calculations.

Thus, in the optical circuit (see the book of L. P. Lazarev. "Opto-electronic guidance systems", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1989 adjusted to all the fluctuations of the rolling base. Given the tight installation of the reticle on a movable base, fluctuations in the rolling grounds are fluctuations and reference system of the viewing angles, i.e., the reference system is not stable. In this regard, and requires continuous adjustment of the viewing angles using equipment that measures the fluctuation in the free space associated with the Earth.

In simpler circuits stand-alone applications, for example, collimator sight, designed for hunting rifles (see application with a positive solution of Ukraine No. 95020874 from 24.02.95,) the frame of reference of angles of sight (sight) is also not stable. However, due to the small size of the entire system, it is impossible to adjust the current of the viewing angles to compensate for the oscillations of a system of reference. In this case, the shooting accuracy with the use of unstabilized sight depends largely on the orientation of the reference system in the free space associated with the Earth, i.e., the skills and experience of the shooter.

In complex systems, such as complexes of sight with the separation of functions of sight (see U.S. patent No. 3375375) functional objectives are as follows:

- setting the zero line visorbearer hard when installing the collimator reticle on the helmet of the operator;

- formation of the viewing angles - using electronic tracking systems, remotely determining the position of the support elements arranged on the helmet of the operator, along with the orientation of the zero line collimator sight in space.

In this case, as described previously Autonomous systems of sight, the reference system of the viewing angles is not stabilized, which leads to the need to continuously adjust these angles, taking into account fluctuations of the installer object.

Thus, as shown by the analysis, one of the major drawbacks collimator sight is the lack of own small stabilization of the reference system of the viewing angles.

The elimination of this drawback at present is very important, because it eliminates the need to use special computing devices and sensors for measuring vibrations of the object such sight than by expanding the scope bore sight, increases the accuracy of the viewing angles and allows the operator to work in free space associated with the Earth.

The closest technical solution known analogues is collimato is a, Engineering, 1989, S. 247-250.

This device is chosen for the prototype. The device consists of the following elements:

- semi-transparent reflector;

lens;

- input block brand;

- semi-transparent mirror;

the deflection device of the brand of sight.

When this input block brand marks, usually consisting of a lamp of illumination, frosted glass and grid marks which are printed on a special glass.

The deflection device mobile brand on the viewing angles is a measuring gyroscope associated with the computing system blocks object installation, fixed on its axis mirror.

The device prototype works as follows. The operator through the semi-transparent reflector observes the target and the target image of the reticle, which is projected into the field of view of the operator using the input block of the brand, the semitransparent mirror, the deflection device mark of the reticle, lens and reflector.

To overlay mark on the goal you want to change the position of its reference system collimator reticle in two directions:

- angle turn in the horizontal planeG;

- angle turn in the vertical planeGandInon winding measuring gyroscope.

In this case, as mentioned above, in the absence of Autonomous stabilization of the reference system collimator reticle is continuous calculation of anglesG,Inwith variations of this system fluctuations and reversals object installation, ie, no stabilization of the reference system, and indirect stabilization of the viewing angles due to the continuous adjustments in the labor-intensive computing and measuring operations.

The analysis described device shows that the collimator reticle can not work independently, but only in combination with the computing units of the installer object.

Thus the device prototype has the following disadvantages;

- lack of Autonomous stabilization system of reference of the viewing angles, providing work of the operator in the free space associated with the Land;

- the use of a large number of computational operations using measuring devices on the installation objects, FL collimator reticle with providing Autonomous stabilization system of reference of the viewing angles in free space, associated with the Earth.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that in the known device of sight, namely the collimator reticle, additionally, we introduce the stable block and control labels, the combination of which is the stabilization of the system of reference of the viewing angles, unlike the prototype allows the operator to work in free space associated with the Earth, and not to recalculate the viewing angles fluctuations in the installer object.

The essence of the invention consists in that the collimator reticle containing a lens with a brand that is installed in the focal plane of the lens, and a semitransparent reflector, placed at the output of the lens is inclined to the optical axis, optionally in the focal plane of the lens set n focal levels, containing control scale and moving bubbles, while the projection of the scales on the horizontal Ground plane is oriented perpendicularly to the horizontal axis of the reference system of the viewing angles, and moving bubbles combined with zero risk control scales levels.

For stabilization in space vertical reference plane of the viewing angles, the number n is equal to 1.

the first analysis of the proposed device and device-prototype shows what is claimed collimator reticle is characterized by the presence in its composition of the stabilization unit containing one focal level for stabilizing the same plane reference system of the viewing angles or two focal level for the stabilization of the whole system of reference, the composition of each part of control scale and a movable bubble projected into the field of view of the operator, respectively, as control and stable tag.

This solution of the problem allows for the combination of mobile bubble with the zero marks of the scale one focal level to stabilize the vertical plane of the reference system, and with the combination of mobile bubble of the second focal level of control scales to produce stabilization of the entire system in space relative to the Earth.

In the other technical solutions in the field of optical instrumentation such set is not detected, which causes a large economic effect of this proposal:

- improvement of the accuracy of reference of the viewing angles;

- no need for computing operations;

- ensuring the work of the operator in the free space associated with the Earth.

Detailed description of the IG.1 - The block diagram of the proposed device with a focal level.

Fig.2 is an Optical diagram of the device with one focal level.

Fig.3 is an Optical diagram of the device with one focal level and beam-splitting block.

Fig.4 - the Location of the projection of the labels in the field of view of the operator when using the proposed device, one of the focal level.

Fig.5 is a Block diagram of the proposed device with two focal levels.

Fig.6 - the Location of the projection of the labels in the field of view of the operator when using the proposed device, the two focal levels.

Fig.7 is a layout of one and two focal levels relative to the reference system of the viewing angles.

On the drawings and in the text the following notation:

OXYZ system of reference of the viewing angles;

OXGYGZG- the coordinate system associated with a movable base installation collimator reticle;

X;Zthe angular deviation of the reference system of the viewing angles relative to the horizontal plane of the Earth.

The proposed device is colno Land:

- stabilization of one vertical plane reference system;

- complete stabilization of the reference system.

Let's consider two types of offered devices.

In Fig.1 presents a block diagram of the collimator reticle with the vertical plane of the reference system of the viewing angles.

This proposed device consists of the following blocks:

1 is a semi - transparent reflector;

2 - lens;

3 - mark of the reticle;

4 - focus level;

5 - lamp illumination.

In more detail the placement of the component parts of the device relative to the optical axis, i.e. the line of sight of the operator, is given on the optical circuit shown in Fig.2.

Thus, the proposed device can be applied to any lens made according to the scheme of the classical collimator lens.

In Fig.2 shows the lens lens described in the book of L. P. Lazarev. "Opto-electronic guidance devices", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 247-250.

However, the classical scheme collimator lenses can be made by type:

- mirror lens (see the book of L. P. Lazarev. "Opto-electronic guidance devices", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 250-253);

- mirror-l the helicopters", Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1978, S. 151-152).

There are other possible schemes collimator lens, for example, holographic and other

In all cases, the performance of the collimator lens at the output it at an angle to the optical axis is semi-transparent reflector 1, and in the focal plane - mark 3 and the focal level 4.

The arrangement of type and level can be combined in one place and lit one lamp 5, as shown in Fig.1 and 2, and may be spaced from each other in accordance with the optical circuit of Fig.3 and aligned in the focal plane of lens 2 only with additional lamp illumination beamsplitter 6 and unit 7. While the idea of performance collimator reticle with the vertical plane of the reference system of the viewing angles is not disturbed.

Mark 3 that is specified in the diagrams of Fig.1-3, may be performed in various ways, for example in the form of a cross, similar to the device prototype.

Level 4, which is vertical to the reference plane of the viewing angles relative to the Earth, can be performed in accordance with Fig.4.69 or 4.38 (see M. J. Kruger and other "Handbook of design opto-mechanical devices", is ispolneniya the collimator reticle.

Level 4 contains the control dial 8 and the movable bubble 9 (see Fig.4).

The installation of the scale 8 and the rolling bubble 9 is made so that the projection of the scale on the horizontal Ground plane oriented perpendicularly to one of the horizontal axes of the reference system of the viewing angles, and a movable bubble combined with zero risk control scale level, as shown in Fig.7.

The proposed collimator reticle with the vertical reference plane of the viewing angles (n=1) works as follows. The operator through the semi-transparent reflector 1 (see Fig.1-3) observes the target, and the target image 3 Vizir together with the image control scales and rolling bubble level 4, which is projected into the field of view of the operator using the illumination device 5, the lens 2 and the reflector 1. View field of view, which observes the operator during the operation shown in Fig.4.

For the overlay mark of the reticle on the target, the operator must move only in the vertical plane of the reference system, which is stable in the proposed device, using a level 4. In the circuit of Fig.7 shows that with the help of a level 4 stable vertical plane HOU, since the level 4 when the STI to fluctuate in space on the angles of deflection of the movable baseXand to occupy the position of a movable base, i.e., system (BGYGZG) associated with it.

Thus, the operator with the proposed sight is that simultaneously with the imposition of the crosshairs on the target, the projected field of view of the brand 3, to keep the bubble 9 within the zero scratches control scales 8.

Examples of such target systems that can be stabilized only one vertical plane of the reference system due to the fact that they enter only one vertical amendment for aiming, is a miniature collimating sight for hunting rifles (see application with a positive solution of Ukraine No. 95020874 from 24.02.95 year).

The second form of the device is a collimator reticle with full stabilization of the reference system of the viewing angles relative to the Ground (n=2), the block diagram of which is shown in Fig.5.

This proposed device consists of the following blocks:

1 is a semi - transparent reflector;

2 - lens;

3 - mark of the reticle;

4 - focus level;

5 - lamp illumination;

10 - additional focal level.

As can be seen from the diagram of Fig.5, the th the th plane of the reference system of the viewing angles (devices of the first type ~ n=1) only one focal level 10, installed in the focal plane of lens 2.

In this regard, all of the above structural features of construction of the device of the first type can be referred to the second type device, so the extra 10 discussed below in more detail.

Level 10 may be made in accordance with Fig.4.69 or 4.38 (see M. J. Kruger and other "Handbook of design opto-mechanical devices", Leningrad, Mashinostroenie, 1980, S. 252-253).

The choice of design of the level 10 is determined by the choice of design level 4 for the identity operator when they are used together.

Level 10 contains a control dial 11 and the movable bubble 12 (see Fig.6).

This setting of the control dial 11 and the rolling bubble 12 is made so that the projection of the scale on the horizontal Ground plane is oriented perpendicular to the second horizontal axis of the reference system of the viewing angles, and a movable bubble at this level combined with zero risk control scale, as shown in Fig.7. Thus, the projection control scales of the two levels 4 and 10 are perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to each other are projected into the field of view of the operator (see the Finance operates as follows. The operator through the translucent reflector (see Fig.5) observes the target, and the target image 3 Vizir together with the image control scales moving bubble levels 4 and 10, which is projected into the field of view of the operator using the illumination device 5, the lens 2 and the reflector 1. View field of view, which observes the operator during the operation shown in Fig.6.

For the overlay mark of the reticle on the target, the operator can shift it in any plane reference system in connection with its full stabilization.

While the viewing angles are measured in the earth's coordinate system and do not require recalculation due to fluctuations in the rolling groundsX;Z.

In the circuit of Fig.7 shows how the stabilization of the reference system.

With the help of a level 4 stable vertical reference system HOU, since the level 4 when combining zero scratches control scale 8 with a movable bubble 9 does not allow this vertical plane to vary in space on the angles of deflection of the movable baseZGassociated with him.

If you have a second level 10, the operator simultaneously stabilizes and the second vertical plane reference system YZ, and hence the entire system.

Level 10 when combining zero scratches control scale 11 with a movable bubble 12 does not allow the plane YOZ fluctuate in space on the angles of deflection of the movable baseZand to take the relevant provisions of this rolling basis, i.e., system OXGYGZGassociated with him.

Thus, the operator of the proposed collimator reticle is to simultaneously superimposed on the target, the projected field of view of the brand, to keep the bubbles of the first and second levels within the zero marks of the respective control scales.

It should be noted that instead of two levels in the device of the second type may be applied one of two-level spherical type, containing two mutually perpendicular reference scale and one movable bubble.

The analysis of the block diagram of the construction of the device, namely the collimator reticle with stabilization of the nicks with small dimensions and weight. This completely eliminates the drawbacks of the prototype, due to the lack of stabilization of the reference system.

Thus, the application of the proposed device provides a large economic effect resulting from the increase in precision sighting devices, eliminating the time-consuming calculations to account for the variability of the installer object, which leads to the expansion of the scope collimator sight due to the introduction of small channels stabilizing system of reference in optical circuits vizier of the type in question.

Claims

1. The collimator reticle containing a lens with a brand that is installed in the focal plane of the lens, and a semitransparent reflector, placed at the output of the lens is inclined to the optical axis, characterized in that it further in the focal plane of the lens set n focal levels, containing control scale and moving bubbles, while the projection of the scales on the horizontal Ground plane is oriented perpendicularly to the horizontal axis of the reference system of the viewing angles, and moving bubbles combined with zero risk control scales levels.

2. The collimator reticle under item 1, differing

 

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