Measuring the thickness of a layer of oil spilled on the water surface
The invention relates to measuring technique and can be used as a portable measuring the thickness of a layer of oil. The inventive device comprises two radiometric channel, each of which contains an antenna and a radiometric receiver enabled between switches polarization, as well as the sensors of the roll angle and the elevation angle. Measuring channels work on the nonmultiple frequencies. All components of the device are located in a single housing. Conical horn antenna, the polarization switch and a radiometric receiver in each channel have a rigid structural connection. One of the channels together with the sensors of the roll angle and the elevation angle are rigidly connected with the base supporting structure of the device. The second channel is selected by selecting an angle so that the center of projection of the radiation patterns of both antennas coincide in the area of measurement of the film thickness when the unit is at a certain height with orientation relative to the horizon at a certain angle designated in accordance with a preset algorithm processing when the roll unit 0relative to the horizon. The technical result - the operational definition of the parameters of the spill gettimeremaining technique and can be used as a portable measuring the thickness of a layer of oil on the surface of the water.Known radiometric device Ericsson [URL:http: //www.ssc.se/rst/mss/microwave radiometer], developed for use in the system MSS 5000 firms SSC, Sweden. The unit is intended for installation on Board of the aircraft. His work is based on the property of the periodic dependence of the brightness temperature of the layer of oil on its thickness, resulting from the interference of the reflected thermal radiation of the sky from the boundary of the air - oil and oil - water.The device consists of four radiometric channels formed by the same type of receiver paths, operating at a frequency of 35 GHz. The composition of each tract includes mirror antenna horizontal polarization and high-frequency radiometric receiver.All elements of the receive paths are located on the rotating relative to the vertical axis of the support-rotating device in such a way that constructively provided the angle of incidence of the beams of the antennas on the analyzed surface 25.The output signals from radiometric receivers are processed by the General evaluator made relative to the measuring part of the device.The main disadvantage of the known device, selected as a prototype, t is soshestvija resolution of more than 77 M. thus there is no possibility of measurements of small oil spills, and spills on the surfaces of the closed basins. In addition, the range of measurement of the thickness of the layer of oil is limited to approximately the size of a quarter of the working wavelength.The task of the invention is to implement a portable measuring the thickness of layers of oil on the water surface, providing an operational definition of the parameters of the spill with an increased measurement range, as for small spills, and spills on the surfaces of the closed basins.To achieve this, the technical result in the device for measuring the thickness of the layer of oil spilled on the water surface, containing radiometric channel, including the antenna and high frequency radiometric receiver and the transmitter to determine the thickness of the layer of oil at the specified algorithm based on measured parameters, inputs of the second radiation channel, operating at a frequency that is not a multiple of the operating frequency of the first channel, two polarization switch installed in each channel between the antenna and radiometric receiver, and the sensor roll angle and elevation, all of the components aceski receiver in each channel have a rigid structural connection, defined waveguide elements tract, and one of the channels together with the sensors of the roll angle and the elevation angle are rigidly connected with the base supporting structure of the device, and the second channel is mounted relative to the first channel using the device selection angle so that the center of projection of the radiation patterns of both antennas coincide in the area of measurement of the film thickness when the unit is at a certain height with orientation relative to the horizon at a certain angle designated in accordance with a preset algorithm processing when the roll of the device relative to the horizon 0.Use two meter radiometric channels causes the necessity of combining projections charts directional antennas of both channels in the measurement zone to receive signals from the same place a layer of oil. The combination of center of projection charts directions when measuring at a certain angle space is provided constructive arrangement of radiometric channels.The amount of tilt is determined by the height of placement of the meter operation (operation with the shoulder of the operator, the installation on the turret of the vehicle, etc.,) and placona made in the form of a U-shaped base, installed between the receivers of the first and second channels and rigidly associated with the upper surface, designed for installation of the receiver of the second channel, inclined at a certain angle with respect to the receiver of the first channel.The features that distinguish the proposed meter from the prototype, the presence of the meter body in which all components of the device, so that the center of projection of the radiation patterns of antennas coincide on the surface in the working position of the device installed in accordance with the specified processing algorithm, relative to the horizontal plane in elevation and 0roll determined using sensors of elevation angles and roll, enables the device portable and able to use it for measurement of small oil spills on the water surface, as well as spills on the surfaces of the closed basins, and the second measuring channel, operating at a frequency, nonmultiple frequency of the first channel, and switches the polarization (vertical and horizontal) on each channel allow you to extend the range of measurement of the thickness of the layer and remove the meter, where marked: 1/1 (1/2) antenna of the first (second) channel, respectively; 2/1 (2/2) switch the polarization of the first (second) channel, respectively; 3/1 (3/2) - radiometric receiver of the first (second) channel, respectively; 4 - computer 5 - sensor fragile place; 6 - sensor roll angle; 7 - case.The meter has two measurement channels, each of which sequentially enabled conical horn antenna 1, the polarization switch 2 and the high-frequency radiometric receiver 3. The outputs of the measuring channel is connected to the transmitter 4, which is connected to control inputs of switches polarization and has a connector for connecting a GPS receiver. The angle sensors of the roll 6 and the elevation angle 5 have a rigid connection with the base supporting structure, as well as one of the measuring channels. The second measurement channel is set relative to the first channel using the device selection angle so that when placing the device in position at a certain height, for example on the shoulder of the operator, the centers of the radiation patterns of antennas coincide on the surface orientation of one of the measuring channels, combined with the basic load-bearing structure �src="https://img.russianpatents.com/chr/176.gif">on roll.The device is powered by battery, which can be integrated in a common housing or performed as a stand-alone unit.The meter may include a display for displaying measurement results, as well as the keyboard to control the device manually by an operator.The meter operates as follows.The operation of the meter based on the measurement of polarization-differential brightness contrasts thermal radio emission layer of oil on the water surface in the millimeter wavelength range.thermal radiation from the sky, reflected from the boundary of the air - oil and oil - water, is made conical horn antennas 1 if the orientation of the probe relative to the horizon at an angle designated 35relative to the horizon, in which the values of the coefficient of reflection of waves with vertical polarization for oil and water surfaces equal (Ron Goodman, Hugh Brown, Jason Bittner. The measurement of the thickness of oil on water. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments. Orlando, Florida, 17-19 March 1997, vol.I, p. 1-31 - 1-40) that is used in the algorithm, 0roll determined using the respective angle sensors 5 and 6.Depending on the situation Willy horizontal polarization is supplied to the corresponding radiometric receiver 3, where is the selection of the useful signal.Signals from radiometric receivers come to the transmitter 4, where they are processed according to a predetermined algorithm.The processing algorithm radiometric information based on known (Gromov N. N., Pisarev O. C., Savin P. B. Remote control of pollution of water in the oil spills. Gas industry, No. 13, 62-64, 2000] graphic-analytical method of determining the thickness of the layer of oil on the water surface when a priori information about the type of oil and natural water temperature, which in the transmitter 4 is a theoretical calculation of the reflection coefficients from the measured layer over the entire range of measured thicknesses on both polarizations with subsequent determination of the relationship radiative abilities in the entire measurement range. On the measured signals is the ratio of the radiative abilities layer of oil on both polarizations, which is compared with theoretical values calculated curve. If the match results in the error limits of meter decides the thickness of the layer.It Is Known (S. A. Pelyushenko. Microwave Radiometer System for the Detection of Oil Slicks. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin. Vol.2, No. 4, p.249-254, 1995] that radiotuna the same frequency for thickness, large/4is ambiguity in the definition of the measured values. To eliminate this effect when building meter used dual-frequency method for determination of thickness, in which the selected frequencies are not multiples of each other (1<2). Processing of results of measurements carried out on the above described algorithm, in which when the graphic processing uses two estimated quasiperiodic functions relations radiative abilities with the nonmultiple periods, resulting in each dimension in the range of thickness of the order of2/2there are a couple of values that uniquely identifies the measured thickness of the layer.The measurement results are displayed on the display screen. The offered meter is implemented in portable scheme-channel meter, operating at frequencies of 34 GHz and 12.2 GHz, respectively.The meter is designed to work with the shoulder of the operator, which growth (height in meter) corresponding to the average anthropological characteristics men [U. Woodson, D. Conover. A DSS is.F. Venda. - M.: Mir, 1968, C. 416-421, 440-445).Operating position device at a given algorithm works in elevation 35relative to the horizon and 0if the roll.The meter provides a determination of the thickness of the layer of oil on the water surface in the range of 0.2 to 12.0 mm at ambient temperatures from minus 20C to plus 50C.The device is made in the dimensions 580196248 mm and has a weight of 11 kg
ClaimsDevice for measuring the thickness of the layer of oil spilled on the water surface, containing radiometric channel, including the antenna and high frequency radiometric receiver and the transmitter to determine the thickness of the layer of oil at the specified algorithm based on measured parameters, characterized in that it additionally introduced the second radiation channel, operating at a frequency, nonmultiple the operating frequency of the first channel, two polarization switch installed in each channel between the antenna and radiometric receiver, and the sensor roll angle and elevation, all of the components of the device are located in a single to the have a hard a constructive relationship, one of the channels together with the sensors of the roll angle and the elevation angle are rigidly connected with the base supporting structure of the device, and the second channel is selected by selecting an angle so that the center of projection of the radiation patterns of both antennas coincide in the area of measurement of the film thickness when the unit is at a certain height with orientation relative to the horizon at a certain angle designated in accordance with a preset algorithm processing when the roll of the device relative to the horizon 0.
SUBSTANCE: method includes recording number of particles emitted by radioactive layer on basis of number of voltage or current pulses recorded by counting device, then to measuring detector a flow of ionizing radiation is directed from calibrating standard electrode and also registered is number of particles, position of covered electrode is change no less than two times, by turning it in horizontal plane around its axis for arbitrary angle, while repeating measurement of pulses number, while measurement time is selected to be such that number of recorded pulses was no less than 3600 pulses for each measurement position, and then selection of necessary number of electrodes is calculated for forming electrode system in chamber.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher safety.
FIELD: MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY.
SUBSTANCE: electromagnet wave is induced by means of directed aerial. The wave is incident to dielectric plate. Brusterain angle of incident wave is defined from minimum value of reflected wave and value of dielectric permeability is calculated. Power of incident and reflected waves are measured and the value of reflectivity and specific conductivity are calculated as well as value of dielectric loss of dielectric plate. Then incident angle of electromagnet wave is increased till achieving value providing total internal reflection of electromagnet wave and attenuation of intensity is measured at normal plane relatively direction of wave propagation. Factors of normal attenuation and thickness of dielectric plate are calculated. Method allows to find complex dielectric permeability and thickness of dielectric plates free of dielectric substrates.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
FIELD: electrical measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device is proposed for measurement of dielectric and magnetic permeability as well as thickness of spin coatings on surface of metal and can be used in chemical industry for inspecting composition and properties of liquid and solid media. Electro-magnetic field is induced in body of dielectric material to be inspected which material is applied onto dielectric substrate, by means of sequent excitation of slow surface waves: two E-waves are excited at different, but having almost the same value, wavelengths λr1 and λr2 and one H-wave having wavelength of λr3. Attenuation of field intensity is measured t normal plane in relation to direction of wave propagation by means of receiving vibrators system for different values of base d between them. Normal attenuation factors αE1,αE2 and αH are found from ratio of E(y)= E0 exp[-α(y) y]. Magnetic and dielectric permeability and thickness of magneto-dielectric coating are found from relations of and where has to be phase coefficient of H-wave.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: meter determines dielectric permittivity and thickness of the oil layer by measuring at two angles unequal to the Brewster angle.
EFFECT: simplified design and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: radiometric testing.
SUBSTANCE: counting of electric pulses of all the detectors stops simultaneously as soon as any detector registers no less than specified number of electric pulses caused by ionizing radiation.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: non-destructive inspection.
SUBSTANCE: primary and secondary n detectors are made of multielement converting elements made of materials having different atomic numbers. Materials are disposed in detectors subsequently starting from lower number to higher ones. Converting elements of primary and secondary n detectors are electrically connected with inputs of (1+n) analog-to-digital converters. Primary detector is rigidly fastened to collimator of radiation source and is turned to item with side having been made of material with higher atomic number. Secondary n detectors are turned to item with sides having lower atomic number. Points of stop of discrete displacement of radiator with primary detector along the rail are coincided with radial directions being placed in the middle of radial directions which form sectors and cross the items at lateral cross-section through their longitudinal axis and centers of secondary n detectors. Value of equivalent atomic number of any layer of coating is calculated from algorithm introduced into processor.
EFFECT: improved precision of inspection.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of non-destructive control of objects with using of x-ray radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a source of x-ray radiation, three detectors of radiation and a scheme of processing. The characteristic feature of the arrangement is using of detectors with three-sectional converting elements with different spectral sensitivity. The technical result of the invention is increasing of energetic resolution expanding functional possibilities conditioned simultaneous measuring of the thickness of sheet material out of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
EFFECT: the invention provides high metrological parameters.
FIELD: inspection of dynamics of changes in cellular structures.
SUBSTANCE: method concludes angular collimation of α-radiation by means of Soller collimator, registration of energy spectrum of collimated flux of particles, determination of lateral structures from the shape of registered spectrum on the base of its mathematical model.
EFFECT: improved precision; improved speed of measurement.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: microwave electromagnetic fields of running surface slow E-waves and E1 and E2 at two wavelengths λosc1 and λosc2 of oscillator being close in value above dielectric-metal surface at single-mode regime. Damping factors αe1 and αe2 of electric field strength are measured at normal plane relatively direction of propagation of slow surface of wave. Real value of dielectric constant and thickness of coating are calculated. Taking measured values of damping factors into account, values of deceleration are calculated for those wavelengths by relation of Directional pattern maximum angle of inclination θdp max(fz)=θe1(e2) is measured at far zone by means of vertically oriented receiving vibrator. Length of dielectric coating le1 and le2 is determined from relation of le1(e2)=0.552·λosc e1(e2)/(νdf e1(e2)-cosθe1(e2) and its value l=(le1+le2)/2 is subject to averaging.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of longitudinal sizes of dielectric coating.
FIELD: non-destructive inspection; X-ray technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has X-ray radiation source, first and second radiation detectors, processing circuit and registrar. Detectors with different spectral sensitivities are used. The detectors are disposed one after another in such a way to make contact to each other at the side being opposite to where X-ray source is located.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved sensitivity.