Gas-dynamic infrared emitter

 

The invention relates to power engineering, mainly to heat technology, and can be used to obtain infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range. Gas-dynamic infrared emitter includes an acoustic resonator for generating high frequency shock waves and gas generator, a supersonic nozzle which is installed precisely aligned to the working cavity of the resonator. Between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator is made of the cavity filled with fusible vysokoteploprovodnyh metal. The cavity between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator have increased the volume from the back end towards the input side of the cavity resonator. At the mouth of the acoustic resonator has profiled acoustic reflector, the input part of the working cavity made confused by the length of not less than 1/3 of the whole length of the working cavity, and a hollow end is concave. On the outer surface of the resonator is made of a coating of refractory material. The invention allows to obtain a uniform temperature of the radiating surface, to increase efficiency, as well as to receive infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 2 apotheke, and can be used to heat the environment, for example, in heating systems, drying devices, infrared (IR) radiation in a predetermined wavelength range, and also to simulate the radiation of different heat-generating objects.

Known acoustic igniter and ignition method for liquid-fuel rocket engine [international application WO 99/34105, class F 02 K 09/95, publ. 08.07.1999]. The structure of this known device consists of a cylindrical chamber prior to combustion, nozzle, fuel injection nozzle, and an acoustic resonator, located opposite the nozzle. The camera pre-combustion consists of a cylindrical and two end walls, the first and second. The nozzle of the fuel injection is located in the first end wall. Jet rocket fuel inside the nozzle coaxially with him. The acoustic resonator is installed in front of the nozzle to the second end wall of the chamber prior to combustion. Fuel through the nozzle moves in the chamber prior to combustion and through the nozzle is directed in an acoustic resonator, which causes in recent formation of shock waves. Converting the kinetic energy of high frequency shock waves in thermal periodictable mixture.

The disadvantages of this device is low efficiency due to the lack of efficient use of energy high-frequency shock waves that occur in the acoustic resonator, and dissipation of thermal energy units. The disadvantages also include large consumer spending on the working process, in particular a large gas flow.

Known devices closest to the invention to the technical nature, the achieved result and selected as a prototype is a gas heater [RF Patent №2062953, class F 23 Q 13/00, publ. 27.06.1996], containing an acoustic resonator for generating high frequency shock waves and gas generator, a supersonic nozzle which is installed coaxially working cavity resonator. The device is used to ignite the two, including two-phase systems. The compressed gas is accelerated in a supersonic nozzle and is directed into the cavity, inside of which appear high-frequency shock waves. When this blind end of the cavity is heated to a high temperature and ignites the combustible mixture.

The disadvantages of this invention are:

the uneven temperature distribution of the radiation is of atur heating occurs only at its blind end. This leads to a nonuniform temperature distribution along the length of the outer surface of the cavity and, consequently, uneven thermal radiation in the environment, which makes it impossible for the energy density of radiation in the devices of heating, drying and simulate radiation of different fuel facilities;

- low efficiency of the device due to the inability of using the kinetic energy of the shock waves due to scattering of thermal energy. That is, is irrational (incomplete) use the kinetic energy of the high-frequency shock waves, converted into heat, which is caused by the design of the acoustic resonator. Deaf end of the resonator is made flat, which leads to that reflected from the shock wave can not concentrate on the axis of the resonator;

- inability to obtain infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range due to the fact that the radiating surface of the acoustic resonator is heated unevenly, which does not allow to adjust the range of infrared radiation surface.

It is obvious that the existing gas heaters do not provide a uniform temperature distribution of the radiating surface, have the necessary devices, allows you to receive infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range, for example, in the systems of drying, heating, and simulation of infrared radiation of different heat-generating objects for testing IR instrumentation, where their concentration radiative energy and its specified spatial field distribution would be essential.

The basis of the claimed invention is the task of obtaining a uniform temperature (uniform temperature field) of the radiating surface of the gas-dynamic infrared emitter, increase efficiency and reduce consumer spending on the working process of the device, as well as the opportunity to receive infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range.

The problem is solved in that the gas-dynamic infrared emitter includes an acoustic resonator for generating high frequency shock waves and gas generator, a supersonic nozzle which is installed precisely aligned to the working cavity of the resonator. According to the invention, between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator is made of the cavity filled with fusible vysokoteploprovodnyh metal.

Preferably, the cavity between the inner iniu to the input side of the cavity resonator.

In addition, at the mouth of the acoustic resonator has profiled acoustic reflector, the input part of the working cavity resonator made confused by the length of not less than 1/3 of the whole length of the working cavity, and a hollow end of the working cavity is made concave.

On the outer surface of the resonator can be made of a coating of refractory material.

The present invention provides:

- obtaining a uniform temperature of the radiating surface by running between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator cavity filled with fusible vysokoteploprovodnyh metal. During operation of the device due to the oscillatory regime in the working cavity resonator generates shock waves that heat the gas at its blind end. Thermal energy from the blind end of the working cavity resonator is transmitted to its inner surface. This leads to the melting of the metal filling the cavity created between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator, and consequently the alignment of the temperature field of the external surface of the cavity in the stationary mode (=), because the molten metal ILEA can be performed with increased volume from the back end towards the input side of the cavity resonator. This helps to ensure a more effective alignment of the temperature of the external surface of the resonator due to more intensive circulation in areas of lowest heat. Additionally, a uniform field of thermal radiation can be effectively concentrated by various types of reflectors;

- increased efficiency and reduced consumer spending in the workflow. This is achieved due to the fact that in the inventive gas-dynamic emitter near the mouth of the resonator has profiled acoustic reflector. Input the shock wave reflected by this reflector, increases its amplitude, which causes an increase in the power of shock waves in the working cavity of the resonator. This allows more efficient use of the kinetic energy of the shock wave. Also due to the fact that the input part of the working cavity acoustic resonator made confused by the length of not less than 1/3 of the entire working length of the cavity resonator, the supersonic flow at the inlet is compressed and the amplitude of the shock wave increases. The ratio of length to confused the input part and the entire working length of the cavity resonator as not less than 1/3 determined experimentally and provides the best chance of avellani in heat to increase the efficiency of the device. Deaf end of the working cavity acoustic resonator is made concave to focus the reflected shock waves on the axis of the resonator, which leads to additional increase in the gas temperature due to molecular rearrangement - reduction of molecular mileage molecules and increase the internal energy of the gas. This achieves a more complete conversion of the kinetic energy of high frequency shock waves into heat and, consequently, increase system efficiency and reduce consumer spending in the workflow;

the possibility of obtaining infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range that is achieved by coating the outer radiating surface of the acoustic resonator, which is made of refractory material. That is, by selecting the material of this surface receives radiation in the desired wavelength range.

In Fig.1 shows a gas-dynamic infrared emitter - longitudinal section; Fig.2 is a variant of the invention, in which the volume of the cavity is filled with metal increases from the back end towards the input side of the cavity resonator.

The inventive gas-dynamic infrared emitter contains gasolinera the > da. The supersonic nozzle 2 of the generator 1 is precisely aligned to the working cavity 4 acoustic resonator 3 distance (x) from the mouth 5 of the acoustic resonator 3. The distance x is equal to the length of the first "barrels" (unstable zone) supersonic unplanned gas jet. At the mouth 5 has profiled acoustic reflector 6. The working cavity 4 formed by the inner surface of the cavity 3. Deaf end of 7 working cavity 4 is made concave, and the input part 8 - confused. The length l of the input part 8 is not less than 1/3 of the entire length L of the working cavity 4 cavity 3. Between the inner and outer surfaces of the acoustic resonator 3 is executed, the cavity 9 is filled with fusible vysokoteploprovodnyh metal 10 (for example, sodium -PA,magnesium -Mgcopper -Cand others). The volume of this cavity 9 is increased from the side of the back end 7 toward the front part 8 of the working cavity 4 cavity 3. The volume of the cavity 9 V1more volume of metal 10 V2volumeV=V1-V2designed for a given maximum mode warm-up of the back end of the resonator 3. This additional volumeV required for the temperature rassis refractory material. As the refractory material may be used a metal (such as molybdenum, titanium, chromium, tungsten), a ceramic material, etc.

The device operates as follows. In the gas generator 1 generates an unplanned supersonic jet of gas, which is using the supersonic nozzle 2 through confused the input part 8 is directed into the working cavity 4 acoustic resonator 3. In the cavity 3 occurs in an oscillating shock wave (shock wave) with high frequency and known amplitude. By creating a self-oscillatory mode in the working cavity 4 cavity 3 continue to generate a shock wave, resulting heated gas from the concave back face 7. The input shock wave is reflected profiled acoustic reflector 6, its amplitude increases, which causes an increase in the power of shock waves in the cavity 4 of the cavity 3 and the increase in gas temperature in the deep end 7. The reflected shock wave is concentrated on the axis of the resonator 3 with concave back end 7 of the working cavity 4, whereupon the temperature of the gas continues to increase due to molecular rearrangement - reduction of molecular mileage molecules and increase the internal energy of the gas. This is the EOS 3 in a stationary mode (=). Floor 11 provides the ability to receive IR radiation from the outer surface of the acoustic resonator 3 in a predetermined wavelength range.

Thus, in the present device achieves a uniform temperature of the radiating surface is due to the fact that the heat on the outer radiating surface of the acoustic resonator is distributed evenly. The invention also improves the efficiency of the device and reduce consumer spending on the workflow due to the full conversion of the kinetic energy of the shock waves into heat. And, finally, the claimed invention allows to receive infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range in accordance with the requirements of the operation.

The invention may find wide application not only in heat technology, but also in those areas of technology where necessary device for infrared radiation in a predetermined wavelength range, for example in drying systems, heating, simulation of the IR radiation of different heat-generating objects for testing IR instrumentation.

Claims

1. Gas-dynamic infrared is virtualave nozzle which is installed precisely aligned to the working cavity resonator, characterized in that between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator is made of the cavity filled with fusible vysokoteploprovodnyh metal.

2. Gas-dynamic infrared emitter under item 1, characterized in that the cavity between the inner and outer surfaces of the resonator have increased the volume from the back end towards the input side of the cavity resonator.

3. Gas-dynamic infrared emitter according to any one of paragraphs.1 and 2, characterized in that at the mouth of the acoustic resonator has profiled acoustic reflector.

4. Gas-dynamic infrared emitter according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the input part of the working cavity resonator made confused by the length of not less than 1/3 of the whole length of the working cavity.

5. Gas-dynamic infrared emitter according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the hollow end of the working cavity resonator is made concave.

6. Gas-dynamic infrared emitter according to any one of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that on the outer surface of the acoustic resonator is made of a coating of refractory material.

 

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FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

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