Device for burning fuel

 

The invention can be used for burning fuel in low-emission combustion chambers of different energy systems. Device for combustion contains the starting and the main combustion chamber, the input air supply, fuel and first swirler located on the input side of the starting of the combustion chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel, a mixing chamber, starting the combustion chamber is cylindrical with smooth walls, the device is further provided with gazivoda, whose input is connected to the output pad of the combustion chamber and the mixing chamber is located coaxially around gazivoda, forming an annular channel, which consists of three consecutive sections - first, second and third diffuser, the input of the first section of the mixing chamber is at the input side of gazivoda, the exit of the diffuser section of the mixing chamber is at the entrance of the main combustion chamber, the output of gazivoda is located at the entrance of the diffuser section of the mixing chamber, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel intake side in the first section of the mixing chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture intake side launching chamber shareislam, the device is further provided with a swirler located at the entrance to the diffuser section of the mixing chamber. The first swirl made in the form of holes in the body start the combustion chamber, twisting the thread about the axis specified camera. Swirl, located at the entrance to the diffuser section of the mixing chamber made in the form of blades. The first section of the mixing chamber is made confused. The first section of the mixing chamber is cylindrical. The second section of the mixing chamber is cylindrical. The main combustion chamber is made of a ring. At the entrance to the primary annular combustion chamber installed several start-up combustion and mixing chambers. The invention allows to reduce the emission characteristics of the device for burning fuel to reduce the calorific starting and main combustion chambers, to improve characteristics of the mixing of air and fuel and to expand the range of sustainable modes of combustion. 7 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill.

The invention relates to a power system and can be used for burning fuel in low-emission combustion chambers of different energy systems: gas turbine units (GTU), Hastur the measure combustion GTE company Jeneral Electric), in which to reduce harmful emissions preliminary mixing, spin and poor combustion of fuel-air mixture in a multizone combustion chamber. This device achieved a relatively low level of emissions of NO100 ppm, but this level does not yet meet the requirements of international standards (A. Lefebvre. The processes in the combustion chambers of the CCD. - M.: Mir, 1986, S. 42 (Fig. 1.18), S. 508 (Fig. 11.26.a) [1].

A device for combustion of a fuel (low-emission combustor company Pratt & Whitney), closest to the offer. The specified device contains the starting and the main combustion chamber, the input air supply, fuel and first swirler located on the input side of the starting of the combustion chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel and the second swirl and mixing chamber primary air and fuel (U.S. Patent N 3872664, IPC F 02 C 3/00, 1975) [2].

This camera has the best compared to similar emission characteristics NO50 ppm.

The specified device has the following disadvantages. Starting the combustion chamber operating at a sufficiently rich coefficients of excess air requires dostatochno effective mixing chamber leads to a significant pulsations of the concentration of combustible and high emission characteristics of the device. The recirculation mechanism of stabilization of combustion in terms of lean air-fuel mixtures limits the range of sustainable modes of combustion.

The technical problem solved by the invention is to further reductions in emission characteristics of the device for burning fuel, reducing calorific starting and main combustion chambers, the improvement of the characteristics of the mixing of air and fuel and the expansion of the range of sustainable modes of combustion.

The specified technical task is solved in that the device for combustion contains the starting and the main combustion chamber, the input air supply, fuel and first swirler located on the input side of the starting of the combustion chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel, a mixing chamber, starting the combustion chamber is cylindrical with smooth walls, the device is further provided with gazivoda, whose input is connected to the output pad of the combustion chamber and the mixing chamber is located coaxially around gazivoda, forming an annular channel, which consists of three consecutive sections - first, second and third diffuser, input Pozen at the entrance of the main combustion chamber, the output of gazivoda the entrance of the diffuser section of the mixing chamber, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel are located on the input side in the first section of the mixing chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture intake side of the starting of the combustion chamber on its axis, the first input of fuel between the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture and the first swirler, the device is further provided with a swirler located at the entrance to the diffuser section of the mixing chamber. The first swirl made in the form of holes in the body start the combustion chamber, twisting the thread about the axis specified camera. Swirl, located at the entrance to the diffuser section of the mixing chamber made in the form of blades. The first section of the mixing chamber is made confused or cylindrical. The second section of the mixing chamber is cylindrical. The main combustion chamber is made of a ring. At the entrance to the primary annular combustion chamber installed several start-up combustion and mixing chambers.

In Fig. 1 presents the proposed device for burning fuel, a General view.

In Fig. 2 shows the start-up combustor.

In Fig. 3 presents the main annular chamber SGAs is AMI combustion and mixing chambers.

In Fig. 5 - section a-a in Fig. 3.

In Fig.6 presents the results of a study of emission characteristics (NO, ppm) device for burning fuel, depending on the excess air coefficient.

In Fig. 7 presents the results of a study of the boundaries of steady-state combustion (the dependence of the gas temperature TgTo, from).

In Fig. 8 presents the results of a study of thermal state of the starting of the combustion chamber and gazvoda (the dependence of the wall temperature Tw, K, a function of L/d, where L is the length of gazivoda, d - diameter of gazivoda).

Device for burning fuel (Fig. 1) contains the starting of the combustion chamber 1, the main combustion chamber 2, the first input 3 of the air supply, the first input 4 of the fuel supply, the first swirl 5 air device 6 ignition of fuel-air mixture, the second input 7 of the air supply, the second input 8 of the fuel, swirl 9, the cylindrical gasovod 10, the camera 11 of mixing, forming an annular channel, which consists of three consecutive sections 12, 13, 14, the first, second and third diffuser, the housing 15 to the input 16 of air from a compressor (not shown).

The first inputs 3 and 4 respectively of the air supply and then the channel camera 11 mixing is situated coaxially around the cylindrical gazivoda 10. The input of the first section 12 of the camera 11 of the mixing is situated at the input side of the cylindrical gazivoda 10. The output of gazivoda 10 is located near the entrance to the diffuser section 14 of the chamber 11 of the mixing. The second inputs 7 and 8, respectively, the supply of air and fuel are located on the input side in the first section 12 of the camera 11 of the mixing. Swirl 9 is located at the entrance to the diffuser section 14 of the chamber 11 of confusion.

Starting the combustion chamber 1 (Fig. 2) comprises a cylindrical housing, the output of which is gasovod 10, the first input 3 of the air supply, the first input 4 of the fuel supply, the first swirl 5 air device 6 ignition fuel-air mixture.

The first swirl 5 starting the combustion chamber 1 can be made in the form of a set of blades or holes in the body start combustion chamber 1, the axes of which are located in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the launching chamber 1 combustion (perpendicular to the radius vector launching chamber 1 combustion). Swirl 9 made in the form of blades. The first section 12 of the camera 11 of the mixing performed confused or cylindrical. The second section 13 of the chamber 11 is cylindrical mixing. The main combustion chamber 2 is made of a ring. At the entrance to the primary annular combustion chamber 2 can the and the proposed method works as follows.

Primary air is supplied to the second input 7 (Fig. 1) and then into the chamber 11 of the mixing. Starting air supplied to the first input 3 and then starting in the combustion chamber 1. Starting fuel through the first input 4 serves in starting the combustion chamber 1. The costs of air and fuel inlet in starting the combustion chamber 1 can be less than 5% of the total cost of air and fuel through the device for burning fuel. Include device 6 ignition fuel-air mixture. In the starting chamber 1, the combustion air-fuel mixture is ignited by the ignition device 6. The combustion process starts inside the starting of the combustion chamber 1. The combustion process continues inside the cylindrical gazivoda 10. At the exit of gazivoda 10 is formed a pilot torch 17. The main fuel is fed through the second inlet 8 at the entrance to the chamber 11 of the mixing. The resulting primary fuel-air mixture passes through the chamber 11 of the mixture and swirl through 9, where twists, and enters the diffuser section 14 of the chamber 11 of the mixing. In the diffuser section 14 ends the creation of a homogeneous air-fuel mixture, which is ignited by the pilot flame 17 and begins to burn in a cone-shaped front 18 of burning at the entrance to the main combustion chamber 2 with selected is of primary air-fuel mixture is created using the pilot torch 17, burning at the output of gazivoda 10.

The effect is achieved due to the intense swirling flow of air in the starting of the combustion chamber 1, the combustion process at the walls is not implemented due to the high pressure gradient along the radius, which provides intensive cooling of the walls of the launching chamber 1 combustion and gazivoda 10 in the localization of the combustion process in the paraxial zone. A process of sustained ignition of fuel-air mixture from the pilot torch 17 is implemented in a wide range of absolute costs of air and fuel. After the expiry of the air-fuel mixture and products of incomplete combustion from gazivoda 10 in the main combustion chamber 2, the swirling flow is sharply reduced, implemented turbulent mass exchange between prosavin layer burning and a peripheral layer of air-fuel mixture with an intense combustion is the last in the main combustion chamber 2.

If there are multiple tubular combustion chamber or annular multi-burner (starting combustion chambers 1 and cameras 11 dilution) (Fig. 3, 4) initiation and regulation of thermal power may be exercised not only by the regulation of the flow rate of the primary fuel and the fuel / air mixture in the chamber 11 of the mixing, but the latter is constantly working starting the combustion chambers 1, creating a pilot torches 17 on the outputs of all gazovozov 10.

To ignite the air-fuel mixture in the device as the device 6 ignition of fuel-air mixture was used electric spark plug, installed at the entrance of the starting of the combustion chamber 1 (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

Experimental studies have shown that the output of gazivoda 10 creates a flame with a temperature of 1500-1700 K, which reliably ignite and support combustion of fuel-air mixture in the main combustion chamber 2, the set temperature of the inner walls of the launching chamber 1 combustion and gazivoda 10 does not exceed 500 K (Fig.8) in the absence of cooling elements.

Experimental research prototypes of low emission combustion chamber and its nodes yielded the following main results. On the main operation mode of the camera when the excess air coefficient= 2-2.2 and the air temperature at the inlet 720 To the concentration of nitrogen oxides is shown in Fig. 6 is 1.5-2 ppm, which is more than an order of magnitude lower emission characteristics of combustion chambers [1] (analogue) and [2] (the prototype), and well below international standards.

The study of a range of sustainable modes is ecirculation methods stabilize the combustion showed (Fig. 7) that the proposed flare adjustment scheme (FS) significantly expands the range of stable combustion of the mixture in comparison with recirculation (PC).

Study of thermal state of the launching chamber 1 combustion and gazivoda 10 shown in Fig.8, showed that the proposed scheme currents in the starting chamber 1 combustion and low combustion efficiencies inside the structural elements leads to the fact that the starting temperature of the combustion chamber 1 and gazivoda 10 does not rise above the inlet air temperature more than 200 in the absence of additional cooling of these elements.

Claims

1. Device for burning fuel containing the starting and the main combustion chamber, the input air supply, fuel and first swirler located on the input side of the starting of the combustion chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel, a mixing chamber, characterized in that the triggering of the combustion chamber is cylindrical with smooth walls, the device is further provided with gazivoda, whose input is connected to the output pad of the combustion chamber and the mixing chamber is coaxial, the second and third diffuser, the inlet of the first section of the mixing chamber is located at the input side of gazivoda, the exit of the diffuser section of the mixing chamber is located at the entrance of the main combustion chamber, the output of gazivoda is located at the entrance of the diffuser section of the mixing chamber, the second inputs of the supply of air and fuel are located on the input side in the first section of the mixing chamber, the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture is on the input side of the starting of the combustion chamber on its axis, the first input of the fuel located between the ignition device of an air-fuel mixture and the first swirler, the device is further provided with a swirler located at the entrance to the diffuser section of the mixing chamber.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the first swirl made in the form of holes in the body start the combustion chamber, twisting the thread about the axis specified camera.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the swirl, located at the entrance to the diffuser section of the mixing chamber made in the form of blades.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the first section of the mixing chamber is made confused.

5. The device under item 1, characterized in that the first area to which messenia is cylindrical.

7. The device under item 1, characterized in that the main combustion chamber is made of a ring.

8. The device according to p. 7, characterized in that at the entrance to the primary annular combustion chamber installed several start-up combustion and mixing chambers.

 

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FIELD: methods for burning of solid fuel.

SUBSTANCE: the method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene, whose term of safe storage has expired consists in the fact that trinitrotoluene is fed to the combustion chamber in a melted state (at a temperature of 80 to 90 C) and burnt off in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel-methane not containing oxygen in its composition, as a result of burning due to own oxygen of trinitrotoluene, a great amount of own carbon (soot) is extracted, which then finds industrial application. For burning of trinitrotoluene use is made of an installation including a combustion chamber, pressure regulators for delivery of molten trinitrotoluene and gaseous fuel (methane), electric igniter and a filter for catching soot.

EFFECT: provided safe method for salvaging of trinitrotoluene in the combustion chamber in the atmosphere of gaseous fuel (methane).

2 cl, 1 dwg

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