All-season hydroelectric dam
The invention is intended to generate electricity using the power of gravity flow of water at different depths at any time of the year. Hydroelectric has been recorded in the flow through the bottom of the Foundation or floating means mounting cage made near the beginning of the meeting flow two drive drums, and at the end of the cell on its corners with drums idling. Thus strengthen the Central cage wall. The drums are hollow with axes and located on the ends of the drum gears are in contact with the chain gear. At last through the axes of the fixed folding blade, forming a closed, conveyor type, right and left hinges, made of rigid material and spaced at an angle from the Central partition, ensuring the rotation in different directions driven reels associated gear unit reverse rotation and the multiplier to a generator. And the leaf blades attached loosely to the opening and closing of threads, closing the inner leaf blade is slidable along the axis of the drum idling and fixation opening Stalinist work. 4 Il.The invention relates to hydropower, in particular, to hydroelectric plants, which can be installed in a gravity flow of water at different depths, and to work at any time of the year.Proposed by the inventors of the hydropower plant, which converts the free flow of water into rotational motion of the shaft of the generator, on the principle of removing energy from gravity flow, can be divided into two main types: wind, turbine which spins curly wing blades, uses aerodynamic effect, as, for example, propeller turbines, and traction, which can be simplified compared with the performance of the sail.For this model include: vane rotor Daria with a vertical axis of rotation; a number of devices inventors Century Blinova, have figured blades fixed on the rope, down or across stream and due to the unwinding of the cable spins the shaft of the generator (there are more than 10 patents); "bottom power" ,Ghinculov (RF Pat no.2163691, bull. No. 6, 2001), whose garland of turbines mounted on a parabolic cables, untwist them and due to this rastru the American inventor A. Gorlova (the newspaper "Izvestia" 30.04.1998), he proposed to use in the Florida current, etc.To traction include: ancient water wheel, which part of the blade rises from the oncoming flow branch in the air to not interfere with the blade under load in the water; "reduced" water wheels on a closed belt or rope type conveyor in which the blades rise up from the water or up on the oncoming flow branch by means of a special device, or samoladas, as, for example, parachutes at the unit, Stillman (U.S. Pat no.3867817, 1975); underground water wheel, which has V-shaped blades that are located inside the wheels, the rotation is moved along the guide rails, increasing or decreasing the flow resistance, resulting in its rotation (UK Pat.№2048391, 1979); the number of units with a vertical axis of rotation coinciding with the simplest design of the cylinder as the Savonius rotor. For example "all-weather Dam HPP" author filed an application (RF, Pat no.2171912, bull. No. 32, 2001) and otherCommon disadvantages of these known devices is that they do not take all the energy of flowing water, which adjoin (impact). Part of it takes the path of least soprano force because they have low efficiency.Recessed units with propeller, radial-axial turbines and the like to implement the aerodynamic effect require large flow velocity (Vp) than give them gravity flow in rivers. The principle of operation they have laid off pressure turbines or windmills, for which water is dispersed due to the elevation. Here, in order to increase the speed of rotation of the turbine, are forced to reduce its weight, therefore, power, and through the use of modern materials while it is possible to find the optimal solution, but tangible progress is not achieved. This clearly confirms the plastic lightweight spinner A. Gorlova, which he had in the project schedule on embedded platform in the Florida current from the fact that there Vponly about 2 m/s, a huge amount - 50000 pieces and the same number of fixtures, starting with the generator, which increases the project. In addition, this group may not be considered for commercial electricity with gravity flow on the rivers due to the small there of depth and lack of relationship with the size of the rotor channel width and length.In a gravity flow some advantages show hydroel force velocity head so what is the velocity of the flow is taken and converted into a cube (V3p). A classic example of this can serve as the rotor of Stillman (parachutes on a closed rope) which tests in the Florida Strait high efficiency, but proved unreliable in operation due to soft bases.Soft base requires relatively complex blade attachment points to it, constant monitoring, adjustment, and replacement. The disadvantages of this group should include the fact that they tend to interact with the two branches of the stream: "working" and "counter", which have to clean the blade in the air or put in the water reducing drag. Increasing the number of blades does not increase significantly their power, so as to each blade has received the highest possible energy, it is necessary to increase the distance between them to eliminate the mutual influence, and with increasing distance between the blades not only grow the total length of the soft "water wheel", material consumption, but also increases the total resistance to motion, decreases efficiency. Also, the longer such a relatively soft light "water wheel" (as a rope with a garland of curved blades in a wind band), the more they Bo is whose pulley - the impeller of the hydraulic unit.Water wheels have the same rigid structure reliable, sturdy blade, but by raising the blade out may not work in all seasons - freezing for most of the rivers will stop them.Conclusion: the future are buried generating units, with a rigid structure with a rigid curved sliding vane, working on the principle of traction and has a maximum allowable size of the blades under load, the best of strength calculations. The interaction of the flow with the blade(s) and its passage through the article, including a support, takes into account the forces acting on the aerodynamic principle in favor of the blades. That is, he and the other principle must be present to create the optimum conditions of the blades. But still to be traction mainly because gravity flow of water has the same flow velocity, where the aerodynamic effect can manifest itself in full measure. The product must provide the capture stream to work with both sides to increase the concentration of water on the working part of the blade, which should not shade each other.The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is selected as the prot is 3887817, 1975). On a closed loop of rope (the ellipse), placed along the stream attached parachutes open automatically upon contact with the working branch continuously moving cable, which passes through the drive wheel, spins it, and it spins the shaft of the generator. Chute opening on the working branch flow as a curved blade, has a high energy conversion efficiency, built on the same branch of the counter - low value of resistance to movement in the water. The exception shading in front of the blade (parachute) followed somewhat offset by the value of their disclosure.The disadvantages of the known devices are: soft substrate (cloth, rope) leads to complexity in the operation, which stayed above; the absence of a second wheel in place of the pivot hinges give unwanted oscillations in the system even with a relatively small perturbation of the flow, making it difficult to develop parachutes and clearly carried on a driven wheel; due to the asymmetry of the application of force to the cable, the latter is shifted from the predetermined direction strictly on the thread that creates more interference.The aim of the invention is to increase system efficiency and reliability.
the Oia curvilinear blades with each other on site, and also passing these blades path in the opposite direction in the folded position providing the least resistance in the water with slow oncoming traffic. Reliability is achieved by the apparatus of rigid material (metal, plastic, etc).In the inventive device "all-season hydroelectric Dam" (BVGES) is the working principle of hydraulic unit of Stillman in the sense of ensuring the work of curvilinear blades lowered along the stream, but instead of parachutes on the rope applied folding blades of rigid material mounted on the conveyor chain and closed Ellipso loop that provide them with the drums, which fix the configuration loop, convert the force through a rigid coupling - gear, gear, etc.Each axis folding blades attached to a chain transfer at a certain distance from each other and provides the conveyor loop some rigidity. The opening and closing of the valves blades automatically power flow. Hold-open valves at a predetermined angle limiter is performed in a known manner. Drums and hollow at the ends are notched to the her. The dimensions of the blades are closely linked with the drums, through which they enter the working and counter flow branch and the diameter of the axes of the drum ensures the smooth folding wings and opening them.Unlike the prototype BVGES has two closed loops with blades spaced from the Central partition which is installed parallel to the flow direction at an angle with a dual purpose: 1) the inclusion in the work flow on both sides of the product; 2) ensuring nizatidine newly discovered subsequent blade.The Central partition is mounting base, connecting the cage and provides rigidity to the whole structure.In the beginning of the meeting flow of the product drums and other loop, called slaves, interact with each other through the transfer device and the reverse rotation and the multiplier, which gives the desired speed shaft of the generator. Drums at the end of the loop are idle and act as guides. The angle of separation of the loops of the partition is determined by the possibility of obtaining the greatest unshaded area of the blades under load, but with the deletion of the greatest drag flow loop itself. It is governed by the number of blades in passporter, which occurs due to the difference in the flow resistance of the working branch opened and closed the blades on the counter.Fixing BVGES in the stream has several options: mount on the bottom of the Foundation; the fixation on the floating tool and subsequent flooding in the right place; the consolidation of the catamaran (in rivers without lidosta); fixation at half depth with the help of anchors and floats, etc.The device action, confirmation of the availability of the invention, called "all-season hydroelectric Dam" (BVGES) is given by the following drawings, diagrams and explanations.In Fig.1, 2 are front and horizontal projection BVGES (respectively). In Fig.3 - BVGES in perspective view. In Fig.4 shows the interaction of gear drum with the transfer device and the reverse rotation and the multiplier.BVGES includes a mounting cage 1, reinforced in the center by a partition 2. Using them in the beginning of the meeting stream running next two driven drum 3, and at the end of the cage (1) on its corners on the drum idling 4. The drums are hollow and are on the ends of the toothed wheel 5, which moves the chain closed-loop transfer 6, through which the axes 7 are attached doctorcom from the Central septum (2). The drums (3, 4) flange 10 and the axle 11 is performed in diameter, durability, as well as the possibility of a free and orderly passage of the valves of the blades (8). Connection (under load) at the right and left hinge (9) of the blades (8) the outer sides of the conveyor belt produces rotation of the driven drum (3) in different directions, because through the transfer device and the reverse rotation 12 spins multiplier 13, which transmits a known manner required turns the electric generator 14.Different rotational speed on the drums (3) due to the differential velocity with one or the other side of the product is aligned gear unit reverse rotation (12) and the multiplier (13) is reduced, before the shaft of the generator (14).Consider the interaction of the parts and mechanisms BVGES and define optimal working conditions, providing the most power.Stream going to the construction BVGES is forced to split into two parts. The more Central wall (2) is installed on the stem of the stream and divides it into equal parts, the higher efficiency products, although the mechanisms it doesn't matter - they will take and convert to kilowatts average force that the floor of one of them.Free fixed leaf blades (8) of the conveyor loop, passing through the drive pulley (3), automatically rise to the working branch flow and held at a given angle limiter made by one of known methods (not shown), held to the drum idling (4) under load from the stream and produce the work (see Fig.2, 3). The drum idling inner leaf blade (8), sliding along the axis (11) of the drum (4), is formed, and the second fold is formed at the output of the branch counter flow together and pass this path, producing a resistance movement, mainly by friction.Driving drums (3) and other loop (9) is forced to rotate in different directions, because the multiplier (13) rotating in the same direction from which comes through a special device (12). The shaft of the generator (14) the multiplier spins with a given speed in a known manner.The diameter of the drums (3, 4), the angle between the conveyor loop (9) and the Central partition wall (2), the number of blades on a loop, their width is determined by the opportunity to give the greatest total area of the blades under load and prevent shading, finding the best option taking into account the total length of the n idle (4). The optimum angle of opening of the valves blades (8) are determined by the opportunity to bring its configuration to a curved, to obtain the greatest resistance to the flow, at the same time achieving the highest projection it on a worker thread. For more efficiency, more blades curved her sash can be rounded, but considering that the oncoming flow branch they will not provide significant resistance to movement that will be determined in the experiment for different sizes of blades at different Vp.If you achieve that folded, smooth, loosely attached leaf blades, passing oncoming branch flow, provide resistance to movement only by friction, the estimates show that this force is more than 40 times less power received from the stream open blade on the working branch. (R=·cx·Sl·Vp/2). Defining R dimensionless friction factorTrtake for steel (painted)=0,013-0,017. Because the blade is flown by a thread with the two sides entered into the calculations 2·Sl. Determining the drag of open curved blades Rlentitled to takex=1,4, since the plate Withx=1,28. Vptake equal with one another stereocamera this loss is achieved by reducing the gear ratio of the gearbox, what is possible with the use of multi-pole, low-speed generator.BVGES the greatest efficiency will show in the manufacture for a particular stream taking into account its depth, width, and Vp. When changing the Vp(flood, floods) optimal removal of energy is achieved at the expense of reserve power generator or operation of the multiplier, as the box PTO. In large structures, the application of automation. When serial production BVGES possible standardization of components and assemblies, in this case under the river with different Vpprovides for replacement of the generator and change gear multiplier.The installation of a separate BVGES in remote areas will expand mining and processing of raw materials on the spot. If you narrow the river channel or to straighten the bend derivational channel for more Vpthen installed here a few BVGES along the stream and summarized on a single building will give electricity industrial value at cost, not in excess of hydroelectric dams.Field tests by the author of this application BVGES with a vertical axis of rotation (Pat no.2171912, bull. No. 22, 2001) showed that the involvement in the work flow on both sides of the product curvilinear hard love, passing directly through the blades, ~0,65. But this construction is not possible to increase the area of the blades under load depending on the length of the stream. We offer same design BVGES suitable for this, so will find wide application in the mountain rivers, where shallow increase the total area of the blades (8) under load is possible only by increasing the length of the loop (9), which will increase the capacity of the product.
ClaimsAll-season hydroelectric dam, containing immobilized in the flow through the bottom of the Foundation or floating means mounting cage made near the beginning of the meeting flow two drive drums, and in the end stand on its corners with drums idling, thus strengthen the Central cage wall, the drums are hollow with axes and located on the ends of the drum gears are in contact with the chain gear, which through the axes of the fixed folding blade, forming a closed, conveyor type, right and left loops, made of rigid material and spaced at an angle from the Central partition with providing rotation in what estrogenization, and the leaf blades attached loosely to the opening and closing of the flow, closing the inner leaf blade is slidable along the axis of the drum idling and hold-open valves produced by the limiter.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.
EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.