Flat fabric for forming a structure having a three-dimensional configuration
The fabric is woven to the workpiece for a reinforced composite material which can be woven flat and then bent to obtain the final form without creating undesirable deformations of the fabric. Flat fabric for forming a structure having a three-dimensional configuration, contains the first part, second part, which may be bent from the first part, and many of the threads connecting the first and second parts. The thread passing from the said first part to this second part, determines the path of the thread, which is part of the thread, which is woven shorter than the path, and the part of the thread, which is woven longer than this path. When bending the second portion of the tissue from the first part of the fabric of that part of the thread that is woven over short stretches that part of the thread that is woven longer, along the path of the yarn so as to compensate for the bending. This fabric features an improved design compared to the existing blanks. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill. The technical field,This invention relates to a woven preform for a fiber reinforced composite material that can be woven flat and then bent to obtain the final shape without the created composite materials for the production of bearing members currently widespread, especially where the aim is to achieve low weight, high strength, stiffness, heat resistance, self-supporting structure and ease of moulding and profiling. Such elements are used, for example, in aviation, aerospace, satellites, in batteries, in the field of recreation and entertainment (for example, racing vessels and cars), as well as in other areas.Typically, these elements consist of reinforcing materials, immersed in a binder (matrix). The reinforcing component can be made of materials such as glass, carbon, ceramic, aramid (such as Kevlar), polyethylene and/or other materials which have the desired physical, thermal, chemical and/or other properties, most of which is highly resistant to destruction under the action of loads. Through the use of such reinforcing materials, which ultimately become the ingredients for complete details, their desirable characteristics, such as very high strength, are transferred to the finished composite part. Such reinforcing materials can usually weave, knit, or otherwise oriented with the obtaining of desired configurations and profiles reinforcing blanks. Etousa reinforcing materials. Such reinforcing materials which are combined with a matrix material to form complete the necessary elements or blanks for them.After the desired reinforcing blank is created, the matrix material is usually applied at the top and inserted so that the reinforcing blank is surrounded by matrix material, which fills the intermediate region between the constituent elements of the reinforcing blanks. The matrix material may be any of a wide variety of materials, such as epoxy resin, polyester, an ester of vinyl alcohol, ceramics, carbon and/or other materials which have the desired physical, thermal, chemical and/or other properties. The materials selected for use as such, may or may not be identical with the reinforcing materials of the workpiece and may or may not have comparable physical, chemical, thermal or other properties. However, as a rule, this will not be the same material or they will not have comparable physical, chemical, thermal or other properties, as among common goals towards which when using composites in the first place is an achievement in the final product t is thus reinforcing the workpiece and the matrix material can then be solidified and stabilized by a single operation, heat or other known methods, and then subjected to other operations to create the desired item. Here it is important to note that after such curing, the hardened mass of matrix material is usually very firmly adheres to the reinforcing material (e.g., to a reinforcing blank). As a result of this mechanical stress in the finished element through the matrix material, acting as a glue between the fibers, can be effectively transferred to the reinforcing material of the workpiece and stick to them.It is often desirable to form elements with configurations that differ from those of simple geometric shapes such as plates, sheets, rectangular or square solid, etc. This can be done by combining these basic geometric forms required in more complex forms. One such typical Association is done by connecting the reinforcing blanks manufactured as described above, an angle (usually direct) relative to each other. The usual purpose of such gussets reinforcing blanks are, for example, create the desired profile for the formation of the reinforcing piece, which contains one or more end walls or T-shaped intersections, or increasing the resistance on the, to deformation or fracture under the action of external forces, such as compression or tension. In any case, each connection between components of the workpiece components must be as durable as possible. When very high strength themselves integral parts of the reinforcing blanks the fragility of the connection between them becomes, in essence, the “weakest link” design.An example of intersecting configuration is described in U.S. patent No. 6103337, the content of which is incorporated in this description by reference. This document describes an effective way of connecting two reinforcing plates in the T-shaped structure.To create such connections have been made and various other suggestions. It was proposed to form and cure the panel element and the element forming area rigidity, separately from each other, while the area of rigidity has a single panel contact surface or is bifurcated at one end to form two diverging, coplanar panel contact surface. These two elements are then joined by adhesive bonding of the contact surface (s) of the element forming area stiffness to the contact surface of the other element with the applied utverzhdenii panel or the outer layer of the composite structure, even a very small load result of the efforts of “taking” that separate elements from one another along the surface of their junction, as the effective strength of the connection is equal to the strength of the matrix material and not glue. The use of metal screws or rivets on the boundary surfaces of such elements is not valid, because they at least partially disrupt and weaken the integrity of themselves composite structures, add weight and lead to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion as compared with the actual elements, as compared with the surrounding material.Other approaches to solving this problem is based on the concept of the introduction of high-strength fibers passing through the connection, using methods such as the binding of one component with another and use sewing thread to the introduction of such reinforcing fibers in the joints. One such approach is described in U.S. patent No. 4331495 and No. 4256790. These patents describe connections made between the first and second composite panels made of layers of fibers that are connected by bonding. The first panel is split at one end to form a known manner two divergent, copla the composite yarn, passing through both panels. Panel and thread together otverzhdajutsja, i.e. otverzhdajutsja at the same time.Another way to improve the strength of the connection described in U.S. patent No. 5429853.While known approaches to improving the structural integrity of reinforced connections and has achieved some success, especially in the case of U.S. patent No. 6103337, it is desirable to further improve or solve this problem without the use of adhesives or mechanical connections. One approach could be the creation of three-dimensional woven structure specialized machines. However, this entails significant costs and is rarely advisable to have a weaving machine, designed to create a simple structure.Another approach is to weave a flat structure and then to bend it in the profile view. For example, from U.S. patent No. 4686134 known flat fabric for forming a structure having a three-dimensional configuration that contains a first part and a second part which can be bent from the first part. However, the bending of the flat structure usually leads to the fact that part of the blank are deformed when it is bent. The deformation occurs because the length of the fibers in the woven procurement the spine in those areas, where the length of the woven threads are too small, and swelling in those areas where the length of the fibers are too large. These deformations cause unwanted surface anomalies and reduce the strength and stiffness of this element. Although the problem can be reduced by cutting and forming tucks, such a procedure is undesirable because it is time-consuming and may jeopardize the integrity of the workpiece.As mentioned above, it is desirable to form a three-dimensional workpiece, which can be manufactured reinforced composite part, because they provide increased strength compared to a flat layered composite materials. These blanks are particularly useful in such applications where the composite material requires resistance to loads applied perpendicular to the plane of the material.Accordingly, there is a need in the three-dimensional workpiece having such a construction that provides an alternative and/or improved method of creating a three-dimensional workpieces and/or reinforced composite structures.The inventionTherefore, the main purpose of the invention is to provide a three-dimensional preform, which is designed to yavlyayuschuyusya composite structures.Another objective of the invention is to provide a three-dimensional preform, which can be bent to obtain the desired configuration without the warp yarns forming the workpiece.Another aim of the invention is to provide a three-dimensional preform, which is particularly useful for forming a reinforced composite materials with a T-shaped profile.These and other objectives and advantages are achieved through three-dimensional woven preform, which may be woven flat and then bent to its final form prior to its impregnation binder without creating undesirable deformations in the threads. This is achieved by adjusting the lengths of the yarns in the weaving process so that some of them were too short in some areas and too long in others. The filaments are then aligned, when the blank is bent to obtain the required forms, providing a smooth transition in place of a bend. Although this method is especially well suited for the formation of woven pieces with a T-shaped profile, it can be used to generate different profiles. In addition, although considered a woven preform, the applicability of this method for non-woven materials, such as wicker Britanie, features flat fabric for forming a structure having a three-dimensional configuration that contains the first part; the second part, which may be bent from the first side; and many of the threads connecting the first and second parts; and the thread passing from the said first part to this second part, determines the path of the thread, which is part of the thread, which is woven shorter than the path, and the part of the thread, which is woven longer than the path, so that when bending the second portion of the tissue from the first part of the fabric of that part of the thread that is woven shorter, stretches that part of the thread that is woven longer, along the path of the yarn so as to compensate for the bend.The fabric, in accordance with the invention preferably contains a basic and weft threads, and these connecting threads are the weft yarn. The fabric is preferably woven flat, and the first and second parts of the fabric can be moved relative to each other with obtaining a three-dimensional configuration, for example, U-shaped or T-shaped profile. The fabric can be in the form of billets for reinforcing a composite material. In addition, the fabric can have multiple woven layers in the first and second parts, and many ways Nettie, its objectives and advantages will be clearer from the description given below with reference to the drawings.In Fig.1A and 1B respectively shows a cross-sectional fabric, side view, as it is woven, and after bending for use as a preform for a fiber reinforced composite material.In Fig.2A and 2B respectively shows a cross-sectional fabric, side view, as it is woven, and after bending for use as a preform for a fiber reinforced composite material according to this invention.In Fig.3A and 3B respectively shows a cross-sectional, side view of the woven fabric and fabric after bending, illustrating many of the weft fibers with different lengths, according to this invention.In Fig.4A and 4B respectively shows a cross-sectional, side view of the woven fabric and fabric after her curls with a different configuration according to this invention.Detailed description of preferred forms of carrying out the inventionConsider now in more detail to the drawings, in which similar parts are numbered the same. In Fig.1A shows a textile fabric 10, containing weft fibers 12A, b and C (shown for illow, however, for use in aviation are typically used carbon fiber or fibers based on carbon.In Fig.1A and 1B shows the basic approach to the creation of such a woven preform, which can be bent to give her a given shape. To do this woven material provides the space 16 where the bottom four rows of the main fibers 14 in the weaving weave missing. This allows you to bend the adjacent parts 18 and 20 of the fabric 10 perpendicular to the plane of fabric 10, as shown in Fig.1B.However, since the length of the weft fibers 12A, b and C remain the same, when the fabric is flat and when it is bent, after bending experiencing depression or waviness in the areas 22 and 24, where fiber 12V is too short, and swelling in the areas 26 and 28, where the weft fibers 12C is too long. Depression or waviness in the areas 22 and 24 occur because the weft fibers 12, which are too short, when bent fabric pull main fiber down. As in the areas 26 and 28 weft fibers 12C is too long, after bending the fabric they vyputyvayutsya out. All this leads to undesirable surface anomalies and reduces the strength and stiffness of the part.Refer now to Fig.2A and 2B, in which ohline fibers in the tissue immediately after the weaving process (Fig.2A) compared to the fiber length after bending tissue (Fig.2B), cuts fiber weave is too short in the area 30 and too long in the field 32. These differences in length are aligned when the blank is bent in the form of a profile, so that one obtains the required length. In Fig.2B shows a typical path of the fiber preform, which is after the floppy has a U-shaped cross-section. Thread 12V’ intentionally weave, flowing along this path, after which flexible makes the fibres are too short in the area 30 and too long in the field 32. This causes tension on the short side at the bend of the workpiece in the form of a U-shaped profile, which causes retraction of the long thread so that the length of the fiber 12V’ on both sides on the bent portion becomes equal and correct and prevents deformation and expansion discussed above.It is obvious that Fig.2A and 2B only explain the basic concept, showing the use of a single filament 12V. Along the length of the workpiece may have a lot of threads that will have the same path. There may be additional weft yarns, woven in a similar manner to provide different desired length depending on their position in the tissue, as will be discussed below.Refer now to Fig.3A and 3B, showing, according to the economic profile of the workpiece is shown only for the purpose of illustration, as this invention may be used with regard to numerous profiles, as it is obvious to the experts.As shown in the drawing, the upper part 34 of the fabric 10 of the workpiece intended to create a U-shaped profile, contains layers of core yarns 14 and the weft yarn, generally indicated by the position 12’. The elements 36 and 38 of the future of the side pieces likewise contain layers of core yarns 14 and weft threads 12. The fabric 10, as in the previous examples, are woven with the desired weaving weave (for example, satin and so on) corresponding to its purpose. As in the previous example, the invention is directed to preventing deformations and suchevane, which usually occur at the transition from flat fabric to a curved configuration.As can be seen in Fig.3A, the path of the threads will be determined depending on their position in the weaving weave. For example, the weft threads 40 have the same length on both sides from the space 16, the thread 42 is too long on the left side of Fig.3A and too short on the right side. Similarly, the filament 44 is too short on the left side and too long on the right side.Because of this, when the side parts 36 and 38 thibaudia down, as shown in Fig.3B, the length ribakove parts 36 and 38 and the upper part 34 is shown exaggerated for illustrative purposes.Refer now to Fig.4A and 4B, which shows the diagram of the formation of the workpiece 50 with a T-shaped profile. In Fig.4A shows the fabric immediately after the weaving process, and Fig.4B - fabric after flexible.The upper part of the T-shaped profile made of two side parts 52 and 54. The basis of the T-shaped profile formed part 56. As in previous examples, the workpiece is woven with the desired weaving weave relevant to its assignment, but with a modification of the weft threads 58 so as to realize the advantages of the present invention. This thread 58 is too long at the top and too short at the bottom. The thread 60 is too short at the top and too long at the bottom. The threads 62 are of equal length at the top and bottom.As shown in Fig.4B, the threads 58 and 60 act as described earlier, because of too long and too short paths threads. They serve to connect together the parts 52 and 54. The threads 62 are used to connect parts 52 and 54 parts 56.As in the case of all other preparations made according to this invention, after the bend in the profile, they may be impregnated or coated with a bonding material to create a composite structure with the desired profile.Thus R is a recreational form of its implementation, they in no way limit its scope, which is defined by the claims.
Claims1. Flat fabric for forming a structure having a three-dimensional configuration, containing the first part, second part, which may be bent from the first part, and many of the threads connecting the first and second parts, and the thread passing from the said first part to this second part, determines the path of the thread, which is part of the thread, which is woven shorter than the path, and the part of the thread, which is woven longer than the path, so that when bending the second portion of the tissue from the first part of the fabric of that part of the thread that is woven shorter, stretches that part of the thread that is woven longer, along the path of the yarn so as to compensate for the bend.2. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that it contains the basic and weft threads, and these connecting threads are weft threads.3. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that it is woven flat, and the first and second parts of the fabric can be moved relative to each other with obtaining a three-dimensional configuration.4. The fabric on p. 3, characterized in that the first and second parts of the fabric, you can move the HB on p. 4, characterized in that it has the shape of a workpiece for reinforcing a composite material.6. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that it has multiple woven layers in the first and second parts, and there are many paths between different threads woven layers of the first and second parts.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposal is given of a sheet with at least, two monolayers, each of which contains unidirectional oriented fibres, binding substance and parting film with porosity of 40-90% on both outer surfaces. The unidirectional oriented fibres in the monolayer have breaking stress of approximately 1.2GPa, and Young's modulus of at least 40 GPa. The direction of fibres in each monolayer is opposite the direction of fibres in the adjacent monolayer. The invention also pertains to assembling of at least, two such sheets and a flexible object, resistant to ballistic effects, with such a structure.
EFFECT: increased ballistic stability.
11 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: engineering procedures.
SUBSTANCE: one version of the method consists that the cloth is placed on porous substrate movable on the straight or rotating about the axis. At least one side of the cloth is processed with some water jets rowed perpendicularly to cloth moving direction. Herewith a row is formed with one-section jets and at least other section jets different from the first one.
EFFECT: improved surface properties of the product.
33 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to roll roofing materials. Roll roofing material contains upper protective layer, substrate and polymer reinforcing mesh arranged in between. Protective layer is made of composition that consists of polyvinyl chloride, dioctyl phthalate, chalk, titanium dioxide and thermal stabilisers. Substrate is made of composition made of polyvinyl chloride, dioctyl phthalate, chalk, thermal stabilisers and wastes of roll roofing material production.
EFFECT: invention provides for lower level of linear dimensions variation in process of material heating and high quality of material with increase of its thickness.
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: stock comprises a central part with interwoven layers, the first and second end parts with independent woven layers. Layers of the independent woven layers pass along whole length of the stock in the central part to form a 3D woven structure. The layers are woven independently from each other in the end parts to form a pile of woven fabrics. Diagonal layers are added between independent woven layers in the first and second end parts. The 3D composite structure reinforced with a woven stock comprises a central part, the first and second end parts, and also a binding material.
EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility of the structure to perceive high concentrated loads.
22 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly to production of structural parts from composite materials. Window composite ring with multilayer reinforcing material has ring-shape closed contour and nonstandard profile. It comprises inner and outer flanges and ribs made from laid textile reinforcing materials bent from flange into rib and embedded into stiff polymer binder. Ring layers are made up of braided and woven hose-shaped clothes with diagonal braiding of threads. Layering is performed by horse-shaped cloth bending over inner and outer edges of flanges and rib so that every next layer makes an extension of previous layer to allow a smooth continuous seamless transition of layers from flanges to rib and vice versa.
EFFECT: lower labour input and costs.
16 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: carbon fibre reinforcement frame for producing carbon-carbon composite material, which is resistant to oxidation and erosion under high temperature and pressure, for example, for the tip of a rocket head, comprises a central unidirectional cylindrical bundle of a given diameter made of carbon fibre bonded with binder - aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution, on which, like an arbour, a cocoon of carbon fibre is wound by honeycomb winding. The workpiece for making a reinforcement frame of carbon fibre is in the form of a unidirectional cylindrical bundle of a given diameter arranged centrally along an axis and made of carbon fibre which is bonded with aqueous polyvinyl alcohol, on which, at a distance equal to the height of a workpiece of the tip of a rocket head by ring winding, polar barriers are applied in the form of a spherical surface made of carbon fibre soaked with the binder - aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution. The method of making a reinforcement frame from carbon fibre for producing carbon-carbon composite material, which is resistant to oxidation and erosion under high temperature and pressure, is carried out in the following sequence: winding a cocoon of carbon fibre soaked with aqueous polyvinyl alcohol on a workpiece, having a bundle of unidirectional carbon fibre with two polar barriers by honeycomb winding, as on an arbour. After drying the frame and cutting off the ends of the cocoon with polar barriers, the frame is taken for saturation with a carbon matrix.
EFFECT: making a high-density reinforcement frame which, after saturation with a carbon matrix, is used to produce carbon-carbon heat-protective material, which is resistant to erosion under the effect of high temperatures and pressure, for example, the tip of a rocket head.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: rotor blade comprises rotor blade housing and rotor blade root section, made integral with rotor blade housing. Housing of rotor blade is formed by stacking of multiple composite sheets, each of which is made of fibres and matrix resin, and includes multiple first sets of composite sheets and multiple second groups of composite sheets located in direction of thickness of blade. Each first group of composite sheets comprises multiple composite sheets laid one on another from centre of thickness of blade towards blade back and which differ from each other by orientation angle of fibres. Each second group of composite sheets comprises one or more composite sheets laid one on another from centre of thickness of blade towards blade pressure surface and which differ from each other by orientation angle of fibres. Layouts of multiple composite sheets in first and in second group of composite sheets are identical. Resultant direction of orientation of fibres directions in multiple composite sheets in each of first group of composite sheets and second group of composite sheets is inclined to rear edge at acute angle from direction of span, passing from central end of rotor blade housing to upper end of rotor blade housing. Another invention of group refers to fan, which includes rotor blade installed in mounting groove of its disk.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides resistance to vibrations of rotor blades at reduction of weight.
4 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in aerospace industry, in production of sports goods and leisure products. Prepreg with formability comprises a base material from a stitched carbon fibre. Multiple sheet materials 1 are arranged in layers and then stitched and joined together in a stitched base material using stitch thread 2 interlaced when passing through sheet materials 1. Each sheet material 1 is formed by arranging lines 11 of the carbon fibre parallel to each other. Direction of arranging lines 11 of the carbon fibre of each sheet material 1 forms an angle ranging from ±30° to ±60° to the direction of movement of interlacing stitch thread 2. Degree of the stitched base material tension in its longitudinal direction in case when a specific load per inch of width of the stitched base material is applied in the direction of movement of interlacing stitch thread 2 is equal to or below 4 % when the load is equal to 5N and is equal to or higher than 10 % when the load is 25N. Prepreg is formed by impregnation of the base material from the stitched carbon fiber, in which multiple sheet materials 1 are arranged in layers and then stitched and joined together using stitch thread 2 interlaced when passing through sheet materials 1 by a thermosetting resin within the range from 30 wt% to 50 wt%.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a base material from a stitched carbon fibre, which has high shape stability and moldability and provides for convenience in processing a wet prepreg, facilitates production of a 3D shape.
9 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: sheet includes the first nonwoven web and the second nonwoven web, each of them is the nonwoven web in which the mesh made from the long fibers and it is bonded by thermally connected sections by fusion. Each of the long fibers is the monocomponent fiber, made in the process of uniform spinning of melted thermoplastic polymer. The sections connected by fusion forming the sheet, forms by partial connection by fusion of the first nonwoven web and the second nonwoven web, and each section connected by fusion forming the sheet has on the inner side of its contour the through hole in which the outer peripheral edge has the shape similar to the shape of the contour. The first nonwoven web and the second nonwoven web are connected in the section between the contour of sections connected by fusion forming the sheet and the outer peripheral edge of the through hole.
EFFECT: invention allows to reduce the liquid residue in the absorbent product and reduce its rewetting.
26 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: composite radius aggregate contains two or more radius laminated materials. Each radius laminated material comprises a laminated material of composite layers stacked one on top of another, made with a predetermined radius. The predetermined radial orientation of the stacked composite layers coincides with the radial orientation of adjacent stacked composite layers of the composite structure surrounding said two or more radius laminated materials. Each radius laminated material is cut in such a way that at least one side thereof is aligned adjacent to the others to form a composite radius aggregate having a shape corresponding to the area of the radius aggregate of the composite structure.
EFFECT: reducing the cracking of the composite radius aggregate under the action of residual thermal stresses.
15 cl, 17 dwg