The method of restoring the broken ledges during operation of the quarry
The invention relates to the field of construction and mining. The objective of the invention is to increase the bearing capacity and width of berms disturbed areas high steep ledges. The method of restoring the broken ledges during operation of the quarry includes the installation of formwork frame in the recess in the base of the ledge, pinning his anchors and the pouring of the concrete solution in opalubochnoj space. Before installing formwork frame hold the disturbed drainage area. The pouring of the concrete solution of lead layers to align with the top of the berm scarp, with the advance weights of the casing at the height of the layer. After hardening of the concrete solution are waterproofing the top and bottom of the berm bench and remove the weights. Prigruzku rubble can make first with the lower berm ledge, and then from the top of the berm scarp. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the construction and mining and can be used to restore the ledges quarry during its operation.With the collapse of part of the ledge, which is the capital of the Congress and in the limiting contour of the existing quarry, the renewal of the land Board never the period of operation of the quarry. Known various constructions of concrete retaining walls, including those used in industrial and hydraulic constructions, as well as the containment and the methods of calculation set forth in the writings of N. To. Snitko, E. L. The Galustyan. Consider wall can be divided into two types:- thin walls with great depth in the soil;massive wall with a shallow height laying in the ground.Massive and thin walls are mainly located on the slope, they usually back ground and not restore the part of the escarpment escarpment (Static and dynamic pressure of soils and calculation of retaining walls. State publishing house of literature on construction, architecture and building materials. Leningrad, 1963, Moscow, pages 109-110, pages 129-132, Gastrolyzer, 1963). With this arrangement, the wall will make narrower the width of the berm that will create an obstacle to the employment of technological transport and increase the load on the lower ledge. Given that the slope of the escarpment is composed of rocks which are incorrect differently oriented cracks, the use of thin walls without additional fastening measures that prevent intensive destruction of the ledge, the article is hydropulper side of the array, will have an effect on the very thin wall, because it is usually small width compared to length, so you cannot neglect its curvature (lifting). Violation of the strength and integrity of the wall will affect the stability and strength of the ledge.Based on the foregoing, we can say that this design is ineffective to restore the carrying capacity disturbed areas of high ledges.The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is the method of attachment of ground slope, including installation of formwork frame in the recess in the base of the ledge, pinning his anchors and the pouring of the concrete solution in opalubochnoj space (application Germany No. 2618459, E 02 D 17/20, a Way to strengthen ground slope / priority Japan 14.05.1975 declared Germany 27.04.1974, publ. 25.11.1976). Used for fastening structural frame consisting of two flexible side walls, parallel to and between the side walls is mounted armature, which is connected with the side walls in the form of simple ready-made unit. On the sides of the walls is laid concrete with low water-cement ratio, so that they are fully embedded in concrete. In resolusi is the low bearing capacity of the structure because of the impossibility of laying flexible mesh design for fault high power. This structure, located directly on the ledge of a slope with a height up to 30 m, take the main load that occurs during hardening of the concrete itself, because it cannot rely on a slope, which will require significant strengthening of strength and will not allow, without any additional measures to prevent further destruction of the resulting break. As a consequence, will require a significant increase in metal consumption and increased cost of construction. In addition, when applying concrete on a flexible mesh structure, located on the slope of the ledge height of 30 m and a high angle of repose, there is a difficulty with retention of the concrete from leaking.The aim of the invention is to increase the bearing capacity and restore the width of the berms disturbed areas high steep ledges.This objective is achieved in that in the method of restoring the broken ledges during operation of the quarry, including installation of formwork frame in the recess in the base of the ledge, pinning his anchors and the pouring of the concrete solution in opalubochnoj space before installing formwork frame hold the drainage of the broken part of the ledge, the pouring of the concrete solution are poslaju concrete solution are waterproofing the top and bottom of the berm bench and remove the weights.And prigruzku rubble carried out first with the lower berm ledge, then from the top of the berm scarp.Conduct drainage violated section allows to eliminate the ingress of flood waters on the internal cracks of the ledge and, as a consequence, the occurrence of dangerous hydrostatic pressure between the wall and the rock, can lead to loss of stability, bearing capacity and collapse to smaller berms.Layer-by-layer filling of a concrete solution allows you to provide the mode of stacking intervals of the hardening (curing), which increases the carrying capacity of the broken part of the ledge and the ledge in General.Anticipating the weights of formwork frame allows you to balance the load from the concrete solution, closes the space between the casing and the slope to prevent leakage of the slope. Concreting is carried out to align with the upper terrace of the ledge that leads to the restoration of its width and ensuring that the exploitation of technological transport.The waterproofing of the upper and lower berm scarp eliminates the ingress of flood waters from the berms and dangerous hydrostatic pressure between the wall and the rock, and the same after recovery of part of the ledge remains the danger of falling into flood waters, that leads to the water content of the rocks and the manifestation of hydrostatic pressure on the concrete wall. To eliminate the negative effects are waterproofing the top, and after cleaning up the weights and lower the berm.Due to the large height of the ledge prigruzku rubble carried out first with the lower berm ledge, and then from the top by bulldozer handling.The components of the design of formwork frame were calculated on the basis of the conditions of stability of a slope in the fault zone under the action of loads from transport, sustainability grounds for lifting the stability and strength of the wall with the force of hydrostatic pressure at the level of the water 10 m, and the strength of the casing elements during concreting. Was also calculated thickness of the layer of weights.As a result of implementation of the method turns out locked design of the ledge with the restored load capacity and wide.In Fig.1 shows a vertical section of a slope of the shelf in its extreme position, which shows the current state of the fault;in Fig.2 is a top view of Fig.1 is a plot of the same ledge with the crack;in Fig.3 shows a cut reinforcing ledge;in Fig.4 shows a diagram of the installation of formwork frame on odataset time the bench is in its extreme position, under the inclination of 75 degrees, a height of 30 m, width of the fault up to 10 m, depth fault 5 mOne of the main reasons that influenced the violation of the slope of the ledge - crack 2, she was instrumental in the formation of a powerful fault 3 (Fig.2, 1) a great height.The slope is composed of rocks which are incorrect differently oriented cracks. In the summer fractured zone is characterized by high water content and a weak ability of rocks to collapse.Renewal of the disturbed area of the pit is not considered in view of the finding of the ledge in the limiting position.The restoration of the ledge is due to complete concreting broken parts. For this calculations the following parameters: the angle of inclination of the base wall 15-25 degrees, the maximum height hydropower 10 PMBefore starting the recovery conduct preparatory work.Conduct a sweep of the berm and the frill of the slope of the ledge mechanized method using excavator backhoe, front loaders, bulldozer-Ripper. After conducting a mechanized ruffles separate the remaining nevisi, “visors” removed manually by a team of drifters mountain slopes.The excavator over the entire lengths of the ohms at the lower edge dig a pit depth of 1 m, the width of the fracture 10 m, with a slope of 15 to 25 degrees in the direction of the slope.Symmetrical fault 3 at the base of the ledge prepare deepening of section 3030 cm, a depth of 0.5 m on the distance between the centers of the recesses 5 mTo divert water from the slope of the ledge at the bottom of the fracture 3 fan set horizontally, with a slight bias towards the excavation portion of the pit, pipe 4 5-6 m long and with a diameter of 80-100 mm Open ends of the tubes facing escarpment escarpment (Fig.3), they are closed by wooden plugs.Upon completion of the preparatory work set shuttering frame (Fig.4).Shuttering the framework includes the following elements:5 - the guide casing (channel number 22);6 - rod;7 - anchor;8 - timber (pine sawn timber 200200500 mm).In the preparatory deepening with emphasis on the slope at the same angle 75 degrees set in the guide casing 5, they exceed the height of the ledge (the lower part of the base of the channels is installed in a prepared recess). In the upper part and along the entire height of the guide casing 5 communicate with each other by means of rods 6.Set the shuttering frame from the routing guides on the up in the frame beam 8 to a height of 1 m and is filled with the concrete formwork solution for the space (at this height).The estimated proportion of components of a concrete solution by volume is 3.8:1:7,3:10,5 accordingly cement : water : sand : aggregate.To prevent bulging of the casing it on the external side prigruzhajut with grab crane gravel size 20-70 mm After picking up the casing to a height of over 15 m prigruzku rubble carry out a truck from the top of the berm. Work with layers to 1 m in height and stand by time of not less than one day for the concrete setting. Concrete pouring is carried out to align with the upper terrace of the ledge.After hardening of the concrete solution (about 26 days) are waterproofing the top of the berm. To do this, in the deepening stack clay and happen even earlier its vehicles. After final hardening of concrete solution remove the counterweight and likewise held the waterproofing on top of the berm spend them on the bottom of the berm. On completion of all works the drill tube from the pipe 4 for water drainage.
Claims1. The method of restoring the broken ledges during operation of the quarry, including installation of formwork frame in the recess in the base of the ledge, pinning his anchors and zaliukas spend the disturbed drainage area, the pouring of the concrete solution of lead layers to align with the top of the berm scarp, with the advance weights of the casing at the height of the layer, and then pour the concrete solution are waterproofing the top and bottom of the berm bench and remove the weights.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that prigruzku rubble carried out first with the lower berm ledge, and then from the top of the berm scarp.
FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.
EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.
3 cl, 3 dwg