The way the regulation patterns of the populations of microorganisms in the conditions of pesticide pressure
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used to reduce stress action of pesticides on populations of epiphytic microorganisms. The method is coupled with the use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Together with pesticides on plant surfaces cause an additional source of mineral nitrogen in the form of a solution of urea. Urea applied at the rate of 5 kg per ha in tank mixes with pesticides. The use of the invention allows to completely eliminate the negative effects of pesticide treatments on the microflora of the surface of plants. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tables. The invention relates to agricultural Microbiology, and can be used to reduce stress action of pesticides on microbial populations in surface plants (epiphytes), increase biological diversity and the normalization of the structure of the microbial community, reduce to a safe level the number of phytopathogenic species.Known method of regulating the population density of soil microorganisms under stress by providing the population with additional resources in the form of a carbon-containing polymer (chitin, the micro-organisms (Kozhevin P. A. Microbial populations in nature. - M.: Izd-vo Mosk. University, 1989. - S. 56-58).There is a method of regulation of microbiological processes in soils contaminated by pesticides, through the introduction into the soil of organic fertilizers (manure, straw, green manure), which leads to increased catalytic processes of transformation and detoxification of pesticides (Kruglov, Y. C. Microflora of soils and pesticides. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1991. - S. 120-121).The disadvantage of these methods is that they do not allow you to adjust the composition of the epiphytic microflora due to technical impossibility or economic disadvantage of surface treatment plants organic fertilizers and foliar fertilizing organic inductors chitinous nature (chitin, chitosan) or carbon-containing polymers of the type of cellulose. All this limits the resolution counterparts from the technological and economic perspective.The closest technical solution and the achieved result is a way of making together with pesticides in soil mineral fertilizers, causing neutralization of pesticides in the soil due to stimulation of microbial life. The reason is that useful Microbiology pesticides (Kruglov, Y. C. The microflora of the soil and pesticides. - M.: Agropromizdat, 1991. - S. 120-121).The disadvantage of this method is focus on the way it is on the soil, but not epiphytic microflora: it is unclear what kind of fertilizer, in what forms and doses can be useful for epiphytic microorganisms, while the use of mineral fertilizers for foliar feeding of plants is well known.The aim of the invention is to regulate the structure and dynamics of populations of epiphytic microorganisms in the conditions of pesticide pressure.This goal is achieved by the fact that together with pesticides on plant surfaces cause an additional source of mineral nitrogen in the form of a solution of urea in concentrations that promote the translation of ecosystems in the unsaturated state and increasing the rate of nitrogen required for the accumulation of biomass of microorganisms and optimization of the structure and dynamics of the microbial community of epiphytes.Elimination of pathogenic forms of the populations of epiphytes in this way is achieved at a later stage of succession, when the microbial system becomes enriched condition due to the emergence of competitors phytopathogenic species.Such brasilito.Example 1. Plants of spring barley in the phase of the tube was treated with herbicide, Dialin and tank mixtures with urea. For the comparative analysis of the community of epiphytic microorganisms were selected on 2nd and 10 days after treatment, plants flag leaves. In the laboratory analyzed the composition of the fungal community leaf surface and installed structural changes in the associations of phytopathogenic fungi by the similarity factor calculation of Sorenson-Chekanovsky. The results are given in table. 1, 2.Example 2. The same conditions as in example 1, but were subjected to analysis of bacterial community phyllosphere plants. To assess changes in biological diversity community prokaryotic organisms for different versions to calculate the Shannon index. The results are given in table. 3.From the presented data shows that the pesticide acted on fungal and bacterial community phyllosphere plants as stress factor, reducing biological diversity (Shannon index was only 0,46-0,98) and causing deviations in the structure of the complex of microorganisms (similarity factor community of micromycetes with that in the control variant already on the 2nd the p>Introduction urea increased biological diversity of epiphytic bacterial and fungal populations. In a variant, where urea was applied in conjunction with the pesticide at a dose of 5 kg D. C./ha, the similarity factor remained consistently high, indicating a stabilizing effect of urea on the community structure of epiphytic micromycetes. Due to the receipt of the additional source of mineral nitrogen was increased microbiological activity and increased biological diversity in phyllosphere plants, which resulted in a reduction of the area affected leaf diseases from 16.3% in the variant with dialnum to 15.3% in the variant with dialnum and urea in a dose of 5 kg of nutrient content/ha.Increasing the dose of urea to 10 kg D. C./ha impractical because optimizing the impact on the community structure of epiphytes in this case was less effective in some cases, marked the emergence of negative trends (reduction of the coefficient of similarity on the 10th day after the application of agrochemicals on the surface of plants, the increase of the area affected leaf infections to 16.8%).Are given in table. 1-3 data confirm the possibility of optimization in terms of pesticide stress patterns of associations EP what and mineral nitrogen in the form of an aqueous solution of urea in a dose of 5 kg D. C. /ha. the Proposed method is easy to perform, allows you to completely eliminate the negative effects of pesticide treatments on useful epiphytic microflora of plants and get environmentally friendly products.
Claims1. The way the regulation patterns of the populations of microorganisms in the conditions of pesticide pressure in the soil through the joint use of pesticides, mineral fertilizers, characterized in that together with pesticides on plant surfaces cause an additional source of mineral nitrogen in the form of a solution of urea in concentrations that promote the translation of ecosystems in the unsaturated state and increasing the rate of nitrogen to accumulate biomass of microorganisms and optimization of the structure and dynamics of the microbial community of epiphytes.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that urea is applied at a rate of 5 kg/ha in tank mixes with pesticides.
FIELD: agriculture, insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to insecticide covers for seeds that comprise one or some binding substances taken among the group including polymers and copolymers of polyvinyl acetate, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, vinylidene chloride, acryl, cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polysaccharide, and insecticide and a filling agent also. A binding agent forms matrix for insecticide and a filling agent. Also, invention relates to a method for control of insect-pests that involve applying a cover on seeds. Also, invention relates to a method for preparing seeds with cover that involves mixing a binding agent, carrier and insecticide, applying a mixture of seed, drying and applying an additional filming cover. Method for protecting the germinating seedlings involves applying the insecticide cover on seeds. Invention provides reducing the phytotoxic effect of insecticide on seeds.
EFFECT: valuable agricultural properties of insecticide cover.
24 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: agriculture, plant science, plant protection.
SUBSTANCE: the suggested herbicidal composition of selective action contains, except generally accepted additional substances for the composition, a mixture as an active substance including a) herbicidally efficient quantity of compound of formula (I) , where R1 and R3 each independently means ethyl, ethynyl, C1- or C2alkoxy; R4 and R5 forms together the group Z2-CR14(R15)-CR16(R17)-O-CR18(R19)-CR20(R21)-(Z2); R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20 and R21 means hydrogen; G means hydrogen, -C(X1)-R30, -C(X2)-X3-R31; X1, X2, X3 means oxygen; R30, R31 each independently means C1-C10alkyl, or salts or diastereoisomer of compound of formula (I), and b) efficient quantity of antidote of formula IIa to prevent harmful action of herbicide, where R22 means hydrogen, alkaline-earth metal or ethyl, or of formula IIb , where R23 means hydrogen, alkaline-earth metal or ethyl, and method for selective control for weed plants and grasses in cultivated plants. Thus, the antidote decreases the damage of cultivated plants induced by herbicide of formula (I).
EFFECT: higher efficiency of plant protection.
3 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: organic chemistry, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: claimed mixture from herbicides and antidotes contains (A) herbicidically active substance based on phenylsulfonylureas of formula I and salts thereof (in formula R1 is hydrogen or C1-C6-alkyl; R2 is C1-C3-alkyl; R3 is C1-C3-alkoxy; R4 is hydrogen or C1-C4-alkyl; Hal is fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine); and (B) antidote of formulae II or III , wherein X is hydrogen, halogen, C1-C4-alkyl; C1-C4-alkoxy, nitro or C1-C4-haloalkyl; Z is hydroxyl, C1-C8-alkoxy, C3-C6-cycloalkoxy, C2-C8-alkenyloxy, C2-C8-alkynyloxy; R5 is C1-C2-alkandiyl chain optionally substituted with one or two C1-C4 alkyl residues or (C1-C3-alcoxy)carbonyl; W is bivalent heterocyclic residue; n = 1-5; in weight ratio herbicide/antidote of 100:1-1:100. Also disclosed is method for protection of cultural plants against phytotoxic side effect of herbicidically active substance of formula I. Claimed method includes antidote application of formulae II or III on plant, plant parts, plant seeds or seeding areas before or together with herbicidically active substance in amount of 0.005-0.5 kg/hectare in weight ratio of 100:1-1:100.
EFFECT: mixture for effective selective weed controlling in cultural plant, particularly in maize and grain cultures.
8 cl, 2 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: organic chemistry, agriculture, herbicide composition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to herbicide composition, containing conventional inert additives and mixture of a) herbicidically effective amount of substance satisfying the formula I [in formula R1 and R3 are the same or different C1-C4-alkyl; R4 and R5 together form groups of formulae: -C-R6(R7)-O-C-R8(R9)-C-R10(R11)-C-R12(R13)-(Z1), -C-R14(R15)-C-R16(R17)-O-C-R18(R19)-C-R20(R21)-(Z2), or -C-R22(R23)-C-R24(R25)-C-R26(R27)-O-C-R28(R29)-(Z3), wherein each R6-R29 is hydrogen; G is hydrogen or -C(X2)-X3-R31; X2 and X3 independently are oxygen; R31 is C1-C10-alkyl]; b) herbicidic synergic amount of at least one herbicide selected from group containing sulfonylureas, phenoxyacetic acids, as well as florsulam, tralcoxidim, klodinafol-propargil, phenoxaprop-P-ethyl, trifluramine, pendimethaline, picolinafen, etc. Composition also may contain safety effective amount of protective agent, such as chloquintocet-mexyl and additive (e.g., mineral oil or C8-C22-fat acid alkyl esters) in amount of 0-2 mass %. Also disclosed is method for selective controlling of weeds and grassy plants in cultural plants by treatment of cultural plants, seeds or seedlings thereof, or vegetation area thereof with claimed composition.
EFFECT: effective composition and method for weed controlling.
5 cl, 11 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of 2-chloro-4,6-bis[thiophenyl]-1,3,5-triazine as antidote to reduce phytotoxic action of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester thereof to sunflower germs end vegetating plants.
EFFECT: effective increase of root length and sunflower yield.
2 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a chitosan-base composition reducing the content of nitrates in plant growing production. The composition comprises chitosan of molecular mass 20-150 kDa, organic acids - mixture of succinic, ascorbic and sorbic acids in the mass ratio = 2:1:1, respectively, activating agents of nitrate and nitrite reductases - iron nitrate, ammonium molybdate, indolyl acetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the mass ratio = 20:5:1:1, respectively; or iron nitrate, ammonium molybdate, indolyl acetic acid and N,N-dicarboxymethylglutamic acid in the mass ratio = 20:5:1:1, respectively, and substances enhancing synthesis of chlorophyll - 2-oxoglutaric acid and L-glutamic acid in the mass ratio = 30:1, and a surface-active substance also in the following ratio of above indicated components, wt.-%: chitosan, 15-25; organic acids, 15-25; activators of nitrate and nitrite reductases, 25-30; enhancers of chlorophyll synthesis, 29-35, and surface-active substance, 1-3. The composition provides enhancing assimilation of inorganic nitrogen in plant and reduces the content of nitrates in plant growing productions.
EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.
FIELD: organic chemistry, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to selective herbicidal compositions, containing customary auxiliary substances, as well as: a) herbicidal effective amount of compound of formula I or agriculture acceptable salt thereof wherein R are independently C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C1-C4-alcoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, or C1-C4-alcoxy-C1-C4-alcoxy-C1-C4-alkyl; m = 2; Q is group of formula wherein R23 is hydroxyl and Y is C1-C4-alkylen bridge; and b) synergetically effective amount of one or more herbicides; and methods for controlling of undesired plants in tame cultures using the said composition. Also disclosed is composition containing customary auxiliary substances, as well as herbicidal and synergetically effective amount of 4-hydroxy-3-(2-methyl-6-trifluoromethylpyridine-3-carbonyl)bicyclo[3.2.1]octo-3-ene-2-one of formula 2.2 and herbicidal antagonistically effective amount of antidote of formula 3.1. Compositions based on 4-hydroxy-3-(2-methyl-6-trifluoromethylpyridine-3-carbonyl)bicyclo[3.2.1]octo-3-ene-2-one and herbicidal antagonistically effective amount of antidote, as well as methods for controlling of weeds and cereal grasses in tame cultures also are described.
EFFECT: compositions useful in effective controlling of many weeds both in pre-spring and post-spring phases.
5 cl, 63 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, herbicides, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a composition showing the selective effect and comprising as conventional inert adjuvants and the following mixture as an active component: a) effective amount of compound of the formula (I): as a herbicide wherein each R1 and R3 means independently of one another (C1-C4)-alkyl; R4 and R5 mean the group: -C-R14(R15)-C-R16(R17)-O-R18(R19)-C-R20(R21)-(Z2) wherein R14, R15, R16, R17, R18, R19, R20 and R21 mean hydrogen atom; G means hydrogen atom, -C(X1)-R30, alkaline metal cation, earth-alkaline metal cation, sulfonium or ammonium cation; X1 means oxygen atom; R30 means hydrogen atom, (C1-C10)-alkyl, and salts and diastereomers of compounds of the formula (I) under condition that R1 and R3 don't methyl group simultaneously; b) effective amount of protective agent (antidote) for prevention of hazard effect of herbicide wherein antidote is taken among the group comprising clochintocet, clochintocet with alkaline metal cation, earth-alkaline metal cation, sulfonium or ammonium cation, clochintocet-mexil, mefenpir, mefenpir with alkaline metal cation, earth-alkaline metal cation, sulfonium or ammonium cation and mefenpir-diethyl, and c) additive comprising (C8-C22)-saturated acids alkyl ester or emulsified vegetable oil, or mineral oil taken in the amount 0.01-2% as measured to the spraying mixture mass. Also, invention describes a method for selective control of weed and grassy plants in cultural plant plantings that involves using the abovementioned composition for treatment. Invention provides the selective effect in control of weed and grassy plants, in particular, in cereals crops plantings.
EFFECT: improved control method, valuable agricultural properties of composition.
3 cl, 8 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a new compound 4,6-bis-(morpholyl)-2-[(2'-ethoxyacetyltetrazolyl)-5'-yl]-1,3,5-triazine of the formula: that represents an antidote against phytotoxic effect of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on germinating sunflower seeds and seedlings.
EFFECT: valuable properties of compound.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to herbicidal agent containing effective amount of active compound mixture including a) 2-(2-methoxycarbonylsulfonyl aminocarbonyl)-4-methyl-5-propoxy-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-one of general formula I 1 or sodium salt thereof; and b) one compound improving resistance of agriculture plants, namely diethyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5-licarboxylate in ratio a/b of 1:0.025-25 pts.
EFFECT: herbicidal agent reducing damage of agriculture plants, in particular cereals.
1 cl, 24 tbl, 2 ex