The method of construction of hydraulic structures in the shallow water area
The method can be used during the construction of long-term hydraulic structures during the development and construction of shallow sites, for example in the extraction and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, during the construction of the hatchery industrial complexes, in particular, during the construction of artificial Islands. Floating concrete matrix pontoon, equipped rastvorobetonny node and equipment for casting and installation of piles and loaded piles in the form of pipes, towed to the place of erection of waterworks. Pipe is installed vertically along the two sides of the concrete matrix pontoon symmetrically relative to its longitudinal axis. In the cavity of the tubes pour the concrete mix. Matrix pontoon moved to a new position and as stated above is mounted next group of piles along its two sides to complete the forming of the piers. Then the base pontoons having a width equal to the width of the matrix of the pontoon, in turn led into the gaps between the piles and rigidly secure each of the pontoons to the adjacent piles. Inside each of the basic pontoons load weight ballast. Then on the base pontoons create useful Naga is an ORM. At least one of the free sides of the base of the pontoon are fixed rigidly with removable hinged floating concrete pontoon. The invention provides simplified installation, reducing time and reducing the complexity of the construction of hydraulic structures, as well as improving the reliability of its design. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction and can be used during the construction of long-term hydraulic structures during the development and construction of shallow sites, for example in the extraction and deep processing of hydrocarbon raw materials, during the construction of the hatchery industrial complexes, in particular, during the construction of artificial Islands.There is a method of construction of hydraulic structures in the shallow water area in which the base pontoons towed to the place of erection of waterworks, mounted vertically piles, and basic pontoons rigidly fixed to adjacent to each of the piles (see RF patent 2159320 C1, E 21 In 15/02, 20.11.2000). This method is closest to the proposed combination of essential features and adopted as prot, as well as the high cost of construction of hydraulic structures.Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, simplifying installation, reducing time and complexity of the construction of hydraulic structures, as well as to improve the reliability of the structure.The problem is solved in that in the method of construction of hydraulic structures in the shallow water area, including basic towing pontoons to the place of construction of hydraulic structures, installation of vertical piles and rigid attachment of the base pontoons adjacent to each of these piles, according to the invention, to the place of erection of waterworks tow floating concrete matrix pontoon width equal to the width of the base of the pontoons and which is equipped with rastvorobetonny node and equipment for casting and installation of piles and loaded piles in the form of pipes, the last set vertically along the two sides of the concrete matrix pontoon symmetrically relative to its longitudinal axis and into the cavity of the tubes pour the concrete mix, matrix, the pontoon is moved to a new position and as stated above mount the following groups of piles along its two boron is Amy and rigidly secure each of the pontoons to the adjacent piles, inside each of the basic pontoons loaded weight of the ballast, and then, on the base pontoons create the payload. In some cases, of the complete method payload on the base pontoons create by placing them production equipment and/or education landscape and architectural forms. At least one of the free sides of the base of the pontoon are fixed rigidly with removable hinged floating concrete pontoon.In Fig.1 shows a diagram of installation of pile-forming pile field;in Fig.2 - scheme of installation of the base of the pontoons between the piles;in Fig.3 - basic pontoon located on it payload;in Fig.4 is a basic pontoon attached to the free sides hinged floating concrete pontoons.For the construction of hydraulic structures in the shallow water area use basic pontoons 1 of the same width. When this construction is carried out using a matrix of the pontoon 2, the width of which is equal to the width of each of the basic pontoons 1.To the place of erection of waterworks tow floating concrete matrix pontoon 2, which is equipped with AR (rastvorobetonny node) the CSOs and right) of the matrix of the pontoon 2, which are essentially guides for piles 3, mounted vertically symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis 4 of the specified pontoon 2 pile 3. To do this, first set the vertical pipe, and then to increase the weight of these pipes, as well as to ensure the rigidity of the pile 3 in the cavity through the feeder AR pour the concrete mix. Designed piles 3 under its own weight zadumivaetsa in the ground 5. If the soil 5 very solid and the weight piles 3 is insufficient, provide additional push her with additional cargo. Piles 3 can be mounted simultaneously on the two sides of the matrix of the pontoon 2.Then the matrix pontoon 2 tow to the new position 6 according to the plan, and as stated above along two of its sides are mounted next group of piles 3: first set of tubes, and then into the cavity of these pipes through the feeder AR pour the concrete mix. Moving matrix of the pontoon 2 in the new position is terminated by the formation of a pile field 7. Matrix pontoon 2 is given in area waters near the pile field 7, but free from piles 3.Then the estimated number of base pontoons 1 towed to the pile field 7, alternately one after the other slid between symmetrica, either welding or flanges, or any other known method.Then in the hold of each of the basic pontoons 1 load weight ballast. For example, towed along the other side of the pile 3 matrix of the pontoon 2 through the feeder AR inside each of the basic pontoons 1 pour the concrete mix. Thus there is a further push into the ground 5 vertical piles 3, attached to the base pontoons 1, up to the point of contact of these pontoons 1 with the bottom 8 of the waters.Then on the base of the pontoons 1 place the necessary production equipment and/or form of landscape architectural forms, thereby impacting the base of the pontoons 1 payload 9 and pressing them tightly to the bottom 8 of the waters and podavlivaya them in the ground 5. The number, diameter and depth of piles 3 are determined on the basis of the mass is filled into the cavity of the 3 piles of concrete mixture, the mass of the top add-ons in the form of a payload of 8 and geological conditions.To free the sides 10 of permanently installed on the ground 7 of the base pontoons 1 can be rigidly docked with removable hinged floating concrete pontoons 11. These hinged pontoons 11 may differ from the base of the pontoons 1 in size and pharmaciescom structures designed for retrofit hydraulic structures and based on them interchangeable elements infrastructures and lightweight architectural forms.The described method allows to build hydraulic structure on the bottom with any on the hardness of the ground water, with a guarantee of its stability during operation. Because the width of the matrix of the pontoon and the width of each of the base pontoons are the same, this width determines the distance between the symmetrical piles and allows to keep this distance constant, reduces the time for determining the positions of the symmetric piles. In addition, the installation of piles simultaneously on two sides of the matrix pontoon also saves the time of the erection of waterworks. As a matrix and the base of the pontoons are encouraged to use the well-known standard pontoons, which saves money on creating unique and expensive constructions. The use of hinged floating concrete pontoons optionally allows you to easily increase or update erected hydraulic structure.
Claims1. The method of construction of hydraulic structures on shallow teaching the same vertical piles and rigid attachment of the base pontoons adjacent to each of these piles, characterized in that to the place of erection of waterworks tow floating concrete matrix pontoon width equal to the width of the base of the pontoons and which is equipped with rastvorobetonny node and equipment for casting and installation of piles and loaded piles in the form of a pipe, the latter is installed vertically along the two sides of the concrete matrix pontoon symmetrically relative to its longitudinal axis and into the cavity of the tubes pour the concrete matrix pontoon moved to a new position and as stated above is mounted next group of piles along its two sides to complete the formation of a pile field, then the base pontoons in turn led into the gaps between the piles and rigidly secure each of the pontoons to the adjacent piles, inside each of the basic pontoons loaded weight of the ballast, and then on the base pontoons create the payload.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the payload on the base pontoons create by placing them production equipment and/or education landscape and architectural forms.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that at least one of the free sides of the base of the pontoon is
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly building bases and foundations, namely bridge piers, in water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves monitoring water obstacle in support building place, including investigating water parameters, recording water level in the course of year, determining floor shape, investigating floor ground, influence of outer disturbing forces and calculating weight and dimensions of support foundation case on the base of above parameters; producing hollow case with several cavities; moving case to installation place; submerging case in water; pacing thereof on floor; fixing case by piles and smoothing floor. Case submerging and placing operations are performed simultaneously with stabilizing vertical case position by performing control and filling of corresponding cavities. Bottom smoothing process is carried out by forcing artificial material, such as concrete layers with crushed stone interlayers, under case bottom. During case placing case is secured by blades built in case bottom and by piles inserted in cavities. Correspondence between case weight, number of blades, head resistance and side friction thereof for particular ground is determined to provide case stability on ground. Upper edge of submerged case is located above maximum possible water wave height. Rock fill is formed around underwater case part.
EFFECT: reduced time of support erection, increased reliability and stability, safety and service life, reduced labor inputs, possibility to erect supports in Arctic basin.
3 cl 1 ex
FIELD: stationary sea oil platforms.
SUBSTANCE: block has underwater support, made in form of two-level bench, formed by vertical beam cases and horizontal links, and also has support columns, connected to support. Horizontal links of bench are made in form of floating tanks, while links, placed along perimeter of lower level of bench, are separated by water-impenetrable walls on sections, provided with ballasting means. Method for mounting support block at the bottom of continental shelf includes transporting, ballasting of floating tanks and fixing support block at the bottom of water body. Support block is transported into wells drilling zone in planned position, sections of floating tanks are ballasted until lower level of support lowers into bottom of water body for 0.3-0.7 of its height, different and slants are evened and holding beams are inserted into cases of support with their following forcing into hard bottom portion and fixing in cases. Ballasting of sections of floating tanks and forcing of holding beams can be performed in pairs in diagonal planes relatively to center of lower level of support.
EFFECT: simplified assemblage, higher reliability.
2 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for forming temporary structures for enclosing closed in plane water area bottom part and space above the bottom part through the full water thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method of shallow tunnel construction involves forming structure enclosing closed in plane bottom part; removing water from the structure; performing works in dry structure and demounting above structure. Method of enclosing structure forming involves producing bottomless hydraulic enclosure with controlled floatability; transporting and moving thereof to tunnel path; immersing the enclosure in water up to reaching water area bottom by reducing floatability thereof and fixing enclosure with fastening means and anchor system; leveling upper enclosure part with horizon line and arranging cranage and platforms for building material storage on upper enclosure part; erecting cutoff walls inside space defined by enclosure; removing water from the enclosure; developing bottom ground by trench digging; constructing pile tunnel base; building foundation grill on pile tunnel base; locating composite or precast reinforced concrete tunnel sections on foundation grill; recovering initial floatability of the enclosure. Enclosure structure has movable fastening means formed as blades along vertical walls thereof.
EFFECT: increased tunnel reliability, reduced time of erection thereof.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of ice.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises producing a hollow near the ship's side, delivering air under the ice cover, the air volume does not exceeding the volume of the space defined by ice covering from the top, water from the bottom, and ice walls from the sides over the contour of the future hollow. The walls are frozen from top to bottom by means of direct nonseparable heat exchangers mounted in advance into the covering immediately behind the contour up to the bottom of the future hollow. The delivery stops and the bottom of the future hollow is frozen with the use of L-shaped nonseparable heat exchangers set into the covering simultaneously with the direct heat exchangers. As a result, a closed space is defined, which is stripped, and ice blocks are removed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly underwater structures adapted for oil and gas well operation, preferably on shallow continental shelf having bottom covered with thick silt layer and in ice-covered period.
SUBSTANCE: platform comprises base, vertical pile holders connected with the base and positioning unit for drilling string and well-control equipment fixation. Base is formed as a structure with cavities filled with ballast. The structure is composed of hollow members and functionally divided into two areas. Positioning unit is arranged in the first area, another area including catching opening. Platform is additionally provided with removable mounting frame with production equipment installed on the frame. Arranged in lower frame part are inclined guiding means to provide access into catching opening during mounting frame connection with support platform base in underwater position.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs for production equipment mounting and maintenance, increased reliability.
FIELD: offshore oil-field hydraulic structures, namely for building fixed platforms.
SUBSTANCE: support substructure comprises three-dimensional latticed structure having prismatic shape and composed of tubular members. The structure has vertical panels with posts, cross-pieces, struts and horizontal diaphragms connected one to another. Horizontal diaphragms have guiding nets for marine risers. The structure is secured to ground by main piles arranged in vertical posts and by foundation having additional piles, which is rigidly connected to tubular members of side edges of above structure. The structure is provided with ice-protection means formed as two truncated prisms of sheet steel and having beveled side ribs rigidly connected one to another by major bases. Marine risers are arranged inside prisms. Each prism of ice-protection means is rigidly connected with tubular members of corresponding diaphragms of three-dimensional latticed structure.
EFFECT: increased resistance to wave, seismic and ice loads, improved manufacturability and, as a result, reduced cost of permanent offshore structure building.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: offshore oil-field hydraulic structures, namely for building fixed platforms.
SUBSTANCE: method for forming support substructure by welding large blocks involves producing and serially connecting precast members to create flat units, namely panels and diaphragms; connecting flat units by tubular inserts and tubular links to create three-dimensional latticed structure. All operations are divided into four stages in accordance with technological order. The first stage includes forming tubular links and tubular inserts, pile sections and marine riser sections. The second stage includes assemblage of flat panels and diaphragms in horizontal position on corresponding mats. The third and the forth stages include simultaneous installation of flat panels and diaphragms and rigid connection thereof.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs, time and cost for assembly work performing due to elimination of complicated tubular joints used as assembly units.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: ground hydraulic structure erection, particularly to decontaminate silt or bottom sediments in water bodies.
SUBSTANCE: method involves building protective dam along perimeter of silt and/or bottom sediment area to be protected; laying waterproofing layer along inner dam perimeter, wherein waterproofing layer height is 2 times as much as silt and/or bottom sediment layer; forming artificial ground massif of watertight ecologically friendly natural ground in water area inside the dam, wherein artificial ground massif thickness is equal to at least three thicknesses of silt and/or bottom sediment layer; forming above-water relief area having 2.5 m height over water surface; forming surface flow discharge system and planting greenery in artificial ground massif.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced contamination concentration, prevention of hazardous substances ingress in ambient space and improved ecological safety.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: marine hydraulic structures, particularly fixed marine oil and gas production platforms.
SUBSTANCE: method for pile installation with the use of handling machine involves driving each pile in conical hole made in guiding means fixedly secured to marine platform base; installing pile and guiding means in coaxial position by guiding device having body installed on guiding members of the base so that the body may be displaced and fixed in predetermined position; lowering pile to working position; installing guiding device above water level on guiding members of platform base in predetermined position, wherein the guiding device is made as cylindrical body part and cylindrical part of guiding member secured one to another and having crossing axes so that cylindrical part of guiding means and cylindrical part of guiding member of guiding device are brought into coaxial state by corresponding linear and angular guiding member displacement; securing guiding device body with guiding members of platform base.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities and simplified method of pile installation in working position.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: marine oil production hydraulic structure building, particularly marine platform assemblage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming assembly units, namely support unit, load-bearing deck and block units of upper structure, at subassembly site; docking floating vehicle to subassembly site; serially installing assembling units on stockpile carts; moving assembly units from subassembly site to floating vehicle with the use of above stockpile carts; transporting thereof to assemblage site and performing successive mounting thereof with the use of crane-and-mounting ships. The successive mounting operation involves installing support unit on previously prepared ground; installing piles in corresponding bell-shaped guiders of the support unit; driving the piles and cementing thereof to create pile foundation; arranging load-bearing deck on struts and installation guiding bars having different heights and previously formed on support unit, wherein the load-bearing deck has seats for struts and bars receiving and connection thereof is carried out by successive alignment of above bars and seats.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of building equipment and floating vehicle usage; reduced building time, decreased number of operations to be performed at sea, reduced labor inputs and decreased costs of marine fixed platform building.
7 cl, 17 dwg