The invention relates to aircraft and is about creating self-stabilizing wig. Self-stabilizing wig is made on a "Duck" and has the fuselage. In the front part of the fuselage installed horizontal stabilizer rectangular shape in plan. The aft portion of the fuselage are a wing of small aspect ratio and vertical tail with rudder and engine with the propeller. At least two motors with propellers mounted on the horizontal tail can be rotated about the horizontal axis. The ratio of the area of the horizontal tail to the square of the wing of small aspect ratio determined from the relationwhere S2- the area of the horizontal tail; S1- the area of a wing of small aspect ratio, and the ratio of shoulder horizontal tail to shoulder wing of small aspect ratio determined from the relationwhere L2- shoulder horizontal tail is the distance between the center of pressure horizontal tail and the center of mass GeV; L1the shoulder wing of small aspect ratio is the distance between the center of pressure of the wing of small aspect ratio and center of mass GeV, and tehnicheski a result of implementation of the invention is to improve the safe operation of the wig by providing its longitudinal stability. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to an aircraft, in particular to sometimesiwonder the wig.From aerodynamics it is known that the transition from one mode of throwing machine to another, as well as the restoration balancing are additional forces and moments generated by the controls. In accordance with this, the controllability can be considered as an impact tool to transition from one flight mode to another. This concept includes the ability to maneuver longitudinal balancing GeV and restore the disturbed equilibrium of the longitudinal forces and moments.In the prior art, for example, Belavin N. And. The wig. Leningrad: Sudostroenie, 1968, it is known that the problem of stabilization (i.e., sustainability) of the aircraft near the screen is solved either by selecting the layout, or by using automatic control systems.In U.S. patent 4442986, CL 64 With 21/04, 244/12.1, publ. 17.04.84 presented wig, made by aircraft circuit and having a horizontal stabilizer with a large relative surface area. The use of horizontal tail with large relative size, prodit to reduce the efficiency of the use of the display effect, increase the weight of the structure and the moment of inertia of wig that has a negative impact on the flight characteristics and controllability GeV. The use of automatic control systems for such vehicles is associated with significant inputs required for practically continuous deflection surfaces, providing damping GeV, for example, the deviation of the elevators. In addition, the introduction of automatic control systems leads to a significant rise in the cost of the wig.In U.S. patent 5065833, class B 60 V 1/08, 180/117, publ. 19.11.91, presents the water-containing wing, fuselage, stabilizer, power unit, including the engine and gas thruster or propeller, blowing the stabilizer and rudder. Airflow horizontal tail gas stream from the propeller (propeller) really increases the resistance of the wig at the screen, because across the border streams do not pass the bevels flow induced attached vortex wing, the position of which largely depends on the height and pitch angle of the wing in the area of the display effect. However, the installation of the thruster under patinnova the angle of attack of the true angle of attack of the horizontal tail, blown by a jet of gas, will remain almost constant, not providing the necessary change in the value of the lifting force of the horizontal tail. This is to reduce the adverse impact of the jet propulsion flow over the horizontal stabilizer, on the stability of wig in U.S. patent 5065833 prompted to install the horizontal stabilizer at a large angle to the axis of the jet propulsion.Known patent of Russia 2097269, IPC B 60 V 1/08, priority 21.12.95 published 27.11.97, in which the ekranoplan, which implements the method of stabilization, contains the wing, stabilizer, and engine with the propeller and the generator and shaper jet, this wig is the orientation of the driver of the jet at a constant angle to the horizon, made for example in the form of a tilt actuator thruster propulsion.The essence of this invention is as follows: due to the fact that when flying in ground effect vehicle in the area of the display effect of the change of pitch angles is limited, the horizontal stabilizer will almost always be in a jet oriented at a constant angle to the horizon, and there will be little affected chamfered is therefore the angle of attack will change and the true angle of attack of the horizontal stabilizer and tail that, in the author's opinion, will provide a horizontal tail aerodynamic stabilizing moment that will provide stabilization i.e. the stability of wig in a longitudinal movement when flying in the area of the screen effect.With all the advantages of well-known wig its main drawback is the complexity of the system orientation shaper jet at a constant angle to the horizon.The closest solution to its technical essence and the achieved result for the proposed solution is and.with. The USSR 1316170 Semistability the ekranoplane the Canard configuration, IPC B 60 V 1/08, priority 17.07.85 stamped for official use. The stamp for official use only cleared on the basis of the Protocol EC Department vehicles Irkutsk Polytechnic Institute 37 from 30.06.98,The claims published in the official Gazette of Rospatent.According to the invention, the GeV on a "Duck" contains the fuselage, horizontal and vertical tail, wing of small aspect ratio, the engine with the propeller. According to the authors of the invention, for improvement of characteristicsa perturbations proposed horizontal stabilizer to perform in the form of two rigidly interconnected consecutive overlapping along the longitudinal axis of the wig-bearing profiled surfaces, and the installation angle of the rear bearing surface to perform more of the installation angle of the front bearing surface, at the location of the rear edges of the bearing surfaces in the same horizontal plane.The disadvantages of the known wig should include the following: - installation of double horizontal tail in the fore part of the wig will lead to an increase in weight, decrease the lifting force horizontal tail and increase the resistance.- reducing the lifting force and the increase of the resistance of the horizontal tail will reduce the quality of the wig.- dual "slotted" horizontal tail in the opinion of the authors leads to a reduction of the time-oscillatory process, which in our opinion is problematic.Object of the present invention is to improve the safe operation of the wig by providing its longitudinal stability.The technical result is to increase the aerodynamic quality and sustainability of the wig on a "Duck".The technical result is achieved by the fact that the self-stabilizing water on a "Duck", containing the fuselage in front of the what about the small aspect ratio and vertical tail with rudder, at least two motors with propellers mounted on the horizontal tail can be rotated about the horizontal axis, while the ratio of the area of the horizontal tail to the square of the wing of small aspect ratio determined from the relationwhere S2- the area of the horizontal tail; S1- the area of a wing of small aspect ratio, and the ratio of shoulder horizontal tail to shoulder wing of small aspect ratio determined from the relationwhere L2- shoulder horizontal tail is the distance between the center of pressure horizontal tail and the center of mass GeV; L1the shoulder wing of small aspect ratio is the distance between the center of pressure of the wing of small aspect ratio and center of mass GeV, and the area of its longitudinal stability is determined from the lower limit values of the ratio
the relative lengthening of the horizontal tail is less than the relative elongation of the wing of small aspect ratio.Ratiosbinds the design parameters of the GeV of the Canard configuration and defines the boundary of the zone of stability of this layout schemes.
what stop engines with propellers in a horizontal plumage;
- motors with propellers mounted to rotate about a horizontal axis;
the ratio of the area of the horizontal tail to the square of the wing of small aspect ratio in the ratio of 0.2-1;
- the ratio of shoulder horizontal tail to shoulder small elongation ratio of 0.59-4,5;
- use the wig in the area of its longitudinal stability, a certain polynomial stability thresholds;
In the known technical solution of such signs is not, therefore, the proposed solution meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."
well - known installation of engines with propellers in the fore part of the GeV (see the patent of Russia 2097269, class B 60 V 1/08), but not known to install them on the horizontal tail in the wig type "Duck";
- from the same patent of Russia 2097269 fundamentally known to use water-drive rotation of the gas engines.However, the prior art does not know the set of essential features, namely: the ratio of the area of the horizontal tail to the square of the wing of small aspect ratio with Saotome, use the wig in the area of its longitudinal stability defined by the polynomial bounds of sustainability.Thus, a new combination of previously known features and newly identified significant distinguishing features in the claimed technical solution allows to achieve the above objective and the technical result.The invention is illustrated by figures.In Fig.1 shows the ekranoplan, side view, Fig.2 is a view in plan of Fig.3 is a graph of the zone of stability of wig.The ekranoplan consists of a fuselage 1 with horizontal tail surfaces 2 and wings of small aspect ratio 3, the vertical fin 4 rudder 5.On the horizontal tail 2 shows the Central pressure 6, on the wings of small aspect ratio 3 - the center of pressure is 7, and on the fuselage center of mass of the 8 GeV. In the front part of the fuselage 1, the horizontal plumage 2 engines are installed 9 thrusters 10 can be rotated.Wing of small aspect ratio is equipped with flaps 11. Turning motors 9 thrusters 10 about a horizontal axis to direct the gas flow under the wing of small aspect ratio 3 (main wing GeV). This creates a static air cushion on the wing 3, similar to the static ones is ol, open front for receiving the gas flow from the thruster 10. Generated air cushion relieves the ekranoplan and facilitates its release in cruise flight mode.Polynomialbinds the design parameters of the square horizontal tail 2 and the wing of small aspect ratio 3 and their "shoulders" L1and L2about the center of mass 8 so that the ekranoplane of Canard configuration with the design parameters of this curve and below it (i.e., if they lie in the zone of stability) is always stable when exposed to external disturbances. In addition, the ekranoplan scheme "Duck" semistability in flight speed range of the speed of separation to maximum speed by changing otstoyniy wings from the screen and change the angle of the tangent depending on speed. The limit of the zone of stability (Fig.3) the left limitdictated by the schema definition "Duck".When the value ofdiagram "Duck".diagram of the "Tandem" (equal to the area of the wing of small aspect ratio and horizontal tail).When the value ofdiagram "Duck Back".M what about the perfection of the apparatus and its quality.Currently, the ekranoplan on a "Duck" is undergoing pilot testing.
1. Self-stabilizing wig on a "Duck", containing the fuselage, in front of which has a rectangular shape in plan horizontal tail and aft fuselage - wing of small aspect ratio and vertical tail with rudder, motor mover, characterized in that at least two engines with propellers mounted on the horizontal tail can be rotated about the horizontal axis, while the ratio of the area of the horizontal tail to the square of the wing of small aspect ratio determined from the relationwhere S2- the area of the horizontal tail;S1- the area of a wing of small aspect ratio,and shoulder horizontal tail to shoulder wing of small aspect ratio determined from the relationwhere L2- shoulder horizontal tail is the distance between the center of pressure horizontal tail and the center of mass GeV;L1the shoulder wing of small aspect ratio is the distance between the price titsa lower limits of ratios2. Self-stabilizing ekranoplan under item 1, characterized in that the relative lengthening of the horizontal tail is less than the relative elongation of the wing of small aspect ratio.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing-in-ground-effect craft consists of front, main and rear low-aspect ratio wings forming air cushion, installed in tandem in direction of movement and adjoining each other. Main wing is formed by upper and lower saucer hull shells connected to each other. Front and rear wings are coupled by bow and stern parts of floats-skegs on which main wing rests. All round vision saucer hull is connected with spaces of floats-skegs by airtight passages. Upper rigid shell of said hull is provided with sealed access hatch and windows. Main tractor engine with propeller and auxiliary control cabin are found in front part of each float-skeg. Auxiliary engine has priopeller arranged in ring holder with rudder mounted on rear end face. Said propeller is secured on transverse support crosspiece coupling stern parts of floats-skegs on which vertical control surfaces are mounted. Bow lifting wing is installed on auxiliary control cabins of floats-skegs.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of wing-in-ground-effect craft, possibility of movement over frozen water surface and snow and at height exceeding height of air cushion.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; designing rescue trimaran-type ground-effect craft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ground-effect craft includes three fuselages-hulls which are interconnected by means of rectangular wings. Fuselage-hull located in axis of symmetry of ground-effect craft is extended forward. Ground-effect craft has keel and swept stabilizer. Fuselages-hulls are stepped in construction and are provided with several tiers; they are divided lengthwise into compartments. Length of side fuselages-hulls exceeds length of center fuselage-hull by at least twice. One of rectangular wings has passage inside it for connection with side fuselages-hulls. Swept wings at negative dihedral angle (v) are provided on external side of two fuselages-hulls in accordance with position of rectangular wings. End of each wing is secured to mooring rod protected on the outside with streamlined elastic belt. Lower part of said rod performs function of stall fence during flight. Bottoms of each fuselage-hull have recesses where extensible hydrofoils are mounted; area of hydrofoils is variable which is effected by means of remote control system. At the top each fuselage-hull is provided with evacuation and inspection openings covered with acrylic plastic and located at distance relative to one another. Mounted on front upper part of fuselage-hull lying in axis of symmetry of ground-effect craft is aerial rudder; tail parts of two side fuselages-hulls are provided with extensible coaxial propellers and hydrodynamic control surfaces. Mounted on last rear rectangular wing between side fuselages-hulls on streamlined brackets are ramjet engines located at equal distances. Turbo-jet engines are mounted on similar brackets at the same level with ramjet engines.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of ground-effect craft.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding and wing-in-ground-effect craft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing-in-ground-effect craft contains hull, wing, tail unit and power unit. Wing is installed at angle of 2-5є to base plane of wing-in-ground-effect craft so, that wing leading edge be at a distance from waterline above still water equal to 0.01-0.2 ( is mean aerodynamic chord of wing). End plates of height equal to distance between wing and base line are arranged at ends of wing span, with clearance between lower part of plate and base line equal to 0.1-0.2 m. Flaps with chord are attached to wing in stern part. Said flaps deflect through angle of -(5-10є) to +(40-60є). Lower edge of flap in shifted down position should not get behind base line of hull in area of arrangement of flaps. Engines of bow starting power unit are fastened on horizontal pylon coupled with hull structure. Axial line of engine air intake should be at distance from water line on still water being found from formula (dimensions in meters) where is rarefaction at engine inlet in meters of water column; is diameter of air intake. Installed angle of engine is found from formula where is distance from axial line along rear edge of engine to base line; ; is distance from leading edge of wing to base line; d is diameter of engine nozzle; is height of design wave at takeoff; is hull draught by bow; 1 is distance of leading edge of wing from nozzle exit section. Distance from nozzle exit section of engine to leading edge of wing in horizontal is found from equation where d is diameter of engine nozzle; is temperature of gases at nozzle exit section, K; is required temperature of wing structure, K. From one to three intermediate plates of length equal to 3/4 MAC and draught 0.1 m less than draught of hull in this area are rigidly secured to surface of wing.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of wing-in-ground-effect craft.
9 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building of ground-effect craft, mainly cargo and passenger craft up to 8 t capacity.
SUBSTANCE: proposed ground-effect craft has center-wing section provided with aerodynamic profiles in longitudinal sections. Cigar-shaped fuselage of ground-effect craft is mounted on center-wing section. Crew cabin and passenger saloon are located in fuselage. Hollow hermetic longitudinal beams are mounted over periphery of center-wing section at its ends. Inflatable shock-absorbing balloons are mounted under longitudinal beams. Two keels with rudders are installed on tips of longitudinal beams. Horizontal tail located on keel includes elevator located between keels and ailerons located on section of peripheral cantilevers. Pusher-type horizontal thrust propeller is enclosed in ring-shaped external fairing. Screw propeller engine is mounted inside fairing of tail fuselage. Takeoff and landing complex includes units for creating static air cushion under center-wing section.
EFFECT: improved flight and technical characteristics.
9 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building ground-effect craft and takeoff-and-landing complexes for such craft with the use of static air cushion.
SUBSTANCE: proposed complex includes pusher-type propeller for horizontal thrust which embraces tail section of fuselage. Screw propeller of ground-effect craft is embraced by ring-shaped fairwater and is provided with engine mounted in tail section of fuselage. Ground-effect craft is provided with hermetic center-wing section and hermetic longitudinal beams mounted on peripheral ends of center-wing section. Inflatable shock-absorbing balloons are mounted in lower portion of longitudinal beams. Complex is also provided with units for forming static air cushion under center-wing section. Method of takeoff and landing of ground-effect craft consists in maintenance of excessive pressure in shock-absorbing balloons under longitudinal beams on sides of center-wing section; front and rear retractable guides of air cushion are placed in working position; swivel door is shifted from air duct shutoff position to position at angle relative to upper surface of center-wing section corresponding to 10-15% of air offtake flow created by air propeller at takeoff and landing modes, thus forming air intake for this part of air flow; part of air flow is transported to space for forming air cushion under front part of center-wing section behind front flexible guard and creating excessive static pressure of air.
EFFECT: improved flight and technical characteristics of ground-effect craft.
8 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibious vehicles on dynamic air cushion. Proposed vehicle has platform-wing rectangular in plan with aspect ratio at 0.3-0.4 of its length, flap in aft part and interceptor on lower surface installed for deflecting downwards and with axle of rotation arranged at a distance not exceeding 0.7 of its length from force edge of platform. Three-dimensional skegs of vehicle are installed at end faces of platform parallel to its longitudinal axis, and vertical control surfaces are located in aft part of skegs. Elastic air bottles are installed on lower surface of each skeg. Wheel house of vehicle is found on upper surface of platform in its diametral part. Gas-turbine (turbofan) blow-under engines and thrust engines are mounted, respectively, in fore and aft parts of each skeg. Blow-under engines are furnished with tubular exhaust unit pointed to fore part of vehicle. Front part of exhaust unit is located before platform, being made parallel to its fore edge and equipped with nozzles deflecting in vertical plane, installed parallel to longitudinal axis of platform and secured on beam-pylon resting on fore parts of skegs Nozzle exit sections are located before fore edge of platform at distance not less than 0.15 of its length. Exhaust unit of thrust engine is provided with nozzles installed for turning in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: improved maneuverability of vehicle at optimum arrangement of interceptor in length and turning of nozzles of exhaust unit of thrust engine in horizontal plane.
FIELD: shipbuilding; building of dynamically-supported amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transport facility has hull, wing with flaps, vertical tail with rudder and stabilizer, side skegs and pneumatic bottles whose outer shells are provided with planing steps. Engine with propeller unit is located in front of leading edge of wing. Side skegs are located over edges of wing in parallel relative to axis of hull. Side pneumatic bottles are mounted in lower portion of side skegs and central pneumatic bottle is located on lower surface of wing and hull along hull axis; its lower edge lies above lower edges of side pneumatic bottles. Upper boundary of planing steps is matched with upper edge of outer shells of pneumatic bottles and skis are located along lower portion of pneumatic bottle shells. Height of skis exceeds height of planing steps. Arranged inside outer shells of pneumatic bottles are longitudinal stiffening members. Central pneumatic bottle is so positioned that its fore edge is shifted relative to leading edge of wing towards fore portion of hull at distance no less than half wing chord; height of its lower edge above lower edge of side pneumatic bottles is found from the following relationship: where Δh is height of lower edge of central pneumatic bottle, mm; lw is wing span, m; λ is wing aspect ratio. Height of ski cross section may be no less than 1.5Hpl and its width, 5Hpl where Hpl is height of planing step.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of dynamically-supported transport facility.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; building hydroconverti ground-effect craft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydroconverti ground-effect craft has low-wing monoplane, mid-wing monoplane and high-wing monoplane arranged in tandem. Mounted on their outer panels are annular channels equipped with turning units and cantilever propellers for creating vertical and horizontal thrust; they are provided with propeller gearboxes mounted on stiffening ribs; front and rear ones are combined by means of transversal and longitudinal transmission shafts located at different levels with two intermediate T-shaped gearboxes driven by power plant. Power plant is provided with at least two main engines mounted in gondolas on either side from longitudinal axis of fuselage-gondola on upper part of high-set wing. Vertical tail is mounted on tail boom. Three-leg landing gear is retracted into fore compartment. The proposed hydroconverti ground-effect craft is built in three-boom pattern. High-set wing is additionally provided with two booms at level of tail boom. Mid-set wing is made in form of stabilizer and its two propellers are just inter-boom propellers; they are provided with units for turning the annular channels which are mounted coaxially relative to single transversal axis of horizontal stiffening ribs located in stabilizer plane. Hermetic side compartments smoothly change to aft compartment behind aft section of fuselage-gondola. Aft compartment is provided with two C-shaped cuts under inter-boom propellers without shading them in creating the vertical thrust. Aft compartment is made under tail boom along its longitudinal axis in form of streamlined aft float of longitudinal stability.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ground-effect vehicles. Proposed craft has hull with wing. Pneumatic bottles are installed on wing lower surface and on lower surface of hull in diametric plane. Craft has engines and stabilizer and includes additionally one or more cantilevers with engines mounted on their ends constantly kept in water and made for synchronous and asynchronous turning relative to axes, both longitudinal and perpendicular to diametric plane of craft. Engines of craft are electrohydroreactive, of continuous action. Number of engines is one or more.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of aerodynamic cushion craft.
FIELD: aircraft manufacture; manufacture of seaplanes for conducting search and rescue operations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed float-type seaplane is used for rescue of people at sea swell number 5; it is provided with fuselage with additional elevators in nose section for enhancing the seaplane controllability and engines for supercharging under center-wing section located in nose section of fuselage in technical compartment for forming air cushion under center-wing section and blowing-off incoming wave; seaplane is provided with pilot cabin. Seaplane is provided with delta-type low-set swept wing. Center-wing section extends over entire length of fuselage performing the function of main load-bearing structural member of seaplane connecting together fuselage, twin-fin unit tail, with mid-positioned stabilizer on which cruise turbo-jet engines are installed and two parallel elongated floats of deadrise or torpedo-like form; they are secured on pylons under center-wing section. Mounted on floats and in nose section of fuselage are three dampening sliding water ski extended during takeoff and landing and retracted in flight.
EFFECT: enhanced stability, seaworthiness; reduced hydrodynamic and aerodynamic drag; enhanced strength of seaplane construction and its controllability.
2 dwg, 1 tbl