The way to identify areas of compromising the integrity of concrete dams

 

The invention relates to a method of determining the location and zone settings disorders (MN) integrity of concrete dams, as well as the contact zones of dams with rock bases and coastal adjacency. The method includes monitoring the position of the water level in observation wells in the dam body, initially filled to their mouth, the determination of the moment of lowering the level or the group, the determination of the location of the intersection of MN with the selected From. Through With their intersections with MN alternately with a constant flow pump air to the steady-state pressure, which is set. After that, the injection of air stops and the pressure is reduced to zero, measure the steady-state level With and appreciate nature stretch MN in the dam body, the type and parameters filled her environment, in the interval of intersection with a through flow FIG. Then determine the flow velocity in the plane MN, through With in the intervals of intersection with MN pump indicator environment and the expiration of the dam body visually determine the position of the boundaries of ZN on the surface of the dam. As an indicator of the environment in determining undrained pressure and flow through MN use colored liquid and to the division stagnant gravity MN also use foam. The spatial location of the MN is determined by the position of the surface, which belong to the intervals of the intersection of MN With the corresponding boundary on the surface of the dam. The invention allows for the receiving and measuring characteristics of the dam to choose the most efficient technology for removing ZN. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

The invention relates to a method of determining the location and zone settings violating the integrity of concrete dams, as well as the contact zones of dams with rock bases and coastal adjacency. The method can be used for studies of concrete dams of hydroelectric power plants and other hydraulic structures artificial, such as dams or mines, filled with liquid products or natural, such as the vessel wall, resulting in conditions of natural rock bedding.

There is a method of research areas of violations of the integrity of concrete dams, based on the analysis of processes of cracking in massive concrete on the basis of monitoring the stresses in the concrete (B. C. Serkov and other Standard instruction for operation of hydraulic structures run-of-river "dam storage" hidroelektra about strain, obtained using embedded strain gauges, temperature gauges, dynamometers. The method used to assess the processes of crack formation in zones of contact of the concrete (body) of the dam with the Foundation rocks and shore abutments.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is not very informative and does not allow to measure end-to-end (connected) cracks and their spatial orientation in the dam body, the kind filled their environment (air, water), the environment (static or dynamic), pressure filled environment. Marked information is important for assessing the degree of risk compromising the strength and stability of the dam, the characteristics of the complications presented by the fractured zone, forecasting its development and to develop technologies for its elimination.

In addition, the method does not allow to assess the presence and amount of wasteful leakage of water from the reservoir in downstream water flow zones cross-cutting fractures.

Another disadvantage is that since the service life of the mortgage instrument of hydraulic structures is substantially less than the service life of structures (ibid, page 33, p. 3.41), to implement the method is possible only in the initial organizational dams (ibid, p. 34, p. 3.44; 3.45; 3.46; page 35, p. 3.51), providing for periodic inspection of the condition of the surfaces of the dams, the fixation of the moment of occurrence of apparent violations cracks and tracking the dynamics of its size.

The disadvantage of this method is its low information content. It is not possible to determine other parameters, such as spatial position, borders stretch cracks in the dam body, the dimensions of the disclosure, the fullness of its environment (water, air), the parameters of the medium - pressure and speed.

Another disadvantage of the method is that it does not allow time to determine the occurrence of the violation, and only after its development to visually distinguish sizes. In addition, the application of the method is difficult when examining the hidden water surface of the dam, and the objectivity of the results of observations depends on the individual qualities of the watching experience, physiological features, such as fatigue, concentration, state of view, but also from other factors, such as weather, when observing non-pressure surfaces and water transparency during underwater observations.

Low information content and timeliness of the method does not allow us to detect the degree of hazard Narechenski costs but to do it in a timely manner at the initial stage of infringement, not at the developed stage, it is often more complicated or emergency. The elimination of complicated disorders associated with high costs.

Know the study material of the body of the dam with the study of the properties of the sample material obtained by sampling during drilling of boreholes or wells in the dam body (ibid, page 34, p. 3.44).

The method allows to determine the fact of "crossing" well zone violations by state samples formations drilled (state core) and its location. However, the method is also not very informative - not possible to determine the nature of the stretch "cross zone" violations of its borders, the fullness of the environment (water, air), pressure and speed of flow in the disturbed zone. It is not possible to characterize the change of the strength parameters of the dam, as well as to justify the most efficient technology for its elimination.

Another disadvantage is its slow, since the drilling of the borehole or well carried out, as a rule, when there is evidence of complications. A consequence of the slow determination of infringement is neoperativnost measures for their elimination, with cliscim to the proposed method of research areas violating the integrity of concrete dams of hydroelectric power plants is used in drilling exploration wells, the method of study zones absorption (integrity) of rocks (L. M. Ivashev. Fighting acquisitions drilling fluid during the drilling of exploration wells. - M.: Nedra, 1982 , pp. 54-64). The method involves monitoring the position of the static water level in the well is initially filled to its mouth, the determination of the moment of lowering the level in the well, which corresponds to the appearance of zones of integrity, characterized by the permeability and which is intersected by the borehole, determining the location of the crossing violations well, for example by a method of downhole flow metering, the definition of the static level in the well.

The method can be used to study concrete dams and allows to establish the fact of crossing the borehole zone integrity of the dam, to determine the depth position and the thickness of the zone of disturbance in the interval of intersection. However, as the above method is not possible to determine the spatial location and boundaries of the strike zone integrity in the dam body; its volume and linear dimensions; message area with pressure or non-pressure surfaces; fill its environment (water, air); the state of this environment (static, dynamic) and the velocity of the medium; a pressure filled environment. them of the reservoir.

Small informative method does not allows to assess the degree of risk compromising the strength and stability of the dam, to predict the development zone violations, to develop the most efficient technology to eliminate areas of compromising the integrity of the dam.

The task of the invention is to provide a method of research areas violating the integrity of concrete dams of hydroelectric power plants, to assess the degree of risk compromising the strength and stability of the dam, to predict the development zone violations by increasing the informativeness of the study.

This object is achieved in that in the known method to identify areas of compromising the integrity of concrete dams, providing for the monitoring of water levels in observation wells in the dam body, initially filled to their mouth, the determination of the moment of lowering the level in the well or group of wells and which corresponds to the appearance of zones of integrity, characterized by the permeability and crossed by an observation well or group of wells and extends to the surface of the dam, the location of the intersection zone violations with lower level, through wells in the intersection of these zones violations alternately with a constant flow pump air to the steady-state pressure, which is determined, after which the injection of air is terminated and the pressure is reduced to zero, measure the steady-state level in wells and evaluate the nature of the stretch zones breaches in the dam body, appearance, and options to fill them with the environment, however, belonging to the interval of intersection with a non-pressurized area of violation to determine if the steady-state level in the borehole at the same level in the reservoir, and established the discharge pressure of the air in this area was greater than zero, the identity of the interval intersection with stagnant water zone violation define if the steady-state level in the well coincides with the sole interval crossing violations well, and established the discharge pressure of the air in this zone was equal to zero, the identity of the interval intersection with through-flow area of violation to determine if the steady-state level in the borehole is located between the level in the reservoir and the interval of intersection with the zone violations, and the steady pressure of air injection was greater than zero, the interval Perez is vazhiny in intervals of intersections with violations pump indicator environment and the expiration of the dam body visually determine the position of the boundary zones of disturbance on the surface of the dam, at the same time as the indicator of the environment in determining undrained pressure and flow through zones violations use colored liquid and additionally foam to define their boundaries on the pressure surface of the dam, if it takes place, and when determining undrained pressure zone violations use foam, the spatial position of the zones of disturbance is determined by the position of the surface, which belong to the intervals of the intersection zones of violations by wells and their corresponding boundaries on the surface of the dam.

Observation wells can be provided by the project and implemented during the construction of the dam, for example, using a slipform.

Through the observation hole in rising or falling stagnant pressure zone violations with the horizontal position of the boundaries of its intersection with the pressure surface of the dam pump indicator environment, and in the case of the rebels zone as an indicator of the environment of the use of colored liquid with a density less than the density of water, such as a lightweight mud, and in the case of drop zone - colored liquid with a density greater than the density of water, for example weighted Glynis is ecene of the border zone violations on the pressure surface of the dam, and the volume of voids zone violation is determined from the following expression: V = Qt, where V is the volume of voids in rising or falling zone violations, m3Q - capacity of the pump, which pumped indicator environment in the area of the violation through a hole, m3/min;t is the period of time from the start of discharge of the indicator medium in the zone of disturbance through the hole before it expires from the border zone on the pressure surface of the dam, minutes

In the case of intersection bore two zones of the violation, before its implementation, zones divide the packer with the column pipe to the wellhead.

To determine steeply dipping shear zones violations, for example coinciding with the contact areas of the dam shoreline abutting the observation wells are drilled inclined or vertically directed.

The mouth of the observation wells are placed on the surface of coastal adjacency.

For detail of the boundaries of zones of violation of a network of observation wells is thickened by drilling additional wells, and position in the body of the dam is determined by the crossing or no intersections of their zone violations.

For the reduction is the Finance core, as well as the organization monitor the washing process, the boundaries consistently perevarivaemy intervals intersect with areas of violation of pre-defined by an unbalance injected into the well fluid in and out of her, magnitude, and stabilization of the unbalance, and the nature of the violations of the condition of the fracture and the output of the core corresponding to the spacing of intersections with violations.

As a colored liquid used, for example, mud or lime water to determine the limits of disturbance on the underwater surface of the dam.

Observation wells after the execution of the studies used as channels for injection of the grouting material in the spacing zone violations with a view to their elimination. Plugged interval pereboryut, and to ensure the readiness of the monitoring wells to establish the occurrence of the next integrity it is filled with water to the mouth.

To reduce the erosive destruction of the walls of observation wells to fill their water inhibitory add an additive, such as polyacrylamide.

Assess the nature of the zones violations of concrete dams (pressure stagnant, progulki wells with compressed air and taking into account the provisions of the zones of intersection of the borehole zone violations and subsequent targeted operations using indicator environments, allowing to estimate the position of the zones of disturbance, their geometrical dimensions, the volume of voids, is not obvious and determines, in our opinion, the inventive step of the proposed technical solutions.

The method is as follows.

In Fig.1-10 shows the schematic of the proposed method. In Fig. 1 schematically shows a concrete dam run-of-river hydropower plants with longitudinally spaced zones of violations and monitoring wells (conditionally turbines with generators not shown). In Fig.2 (a) schematically shows the sequence of determining the flow through area of violation: a diagram of the implementation of the method of downhole flow metering (left) and rashodovana (right); b - scheme of "purging" wells with compressed air; in the diagram, the pressure in observation wells of the indicator fluid; g is the position of the static level in the observation well is located closer to the surface gravity dam; d - circuit position of the boundary end-to-end, flow-zone violations on surface gravity dam; (e diagram the position of the boundary end-to-end, flow is to be placed in stagnant pressure zone violations having communication with the reservoir and below the level of the reservoir: a diagram of the implementation of the downhole flow metering (left) and rashodovana (right); b - scheme of "purging" the well and the position of the static level in it after the "purge"; in the diagram, the pressure in observation wells of the indicator fluid; g diagram the position of the boundary stagnant zone violations on the pressure surface of the dam. In Fig.4 (a-d) schematically shows the sequence determination of free-flow zone violations, with the message with the atmosphere, extending to surface gravity dams: a diagram of the implementation of the downhole flow metering (left) and rashodovana (right): b - scheme "purge" of the well and the position of the static level in it after the "purge"; in the diagram, the pressure in observation wells foam; g diagram the position of the boundary zone violations on non-pressure surface of the dam. In Fig.5 schematically shows part of the dam with inclined discharge zone violations, one of which is located below the reservoir, and the other part is above the level of the reservoir, and surveillance, and Fig.6 (a-d) schematically shows the sequence definition this zone violation: a diagram osushestvlenie level it after purging; in the diagram, the pressure in observation wells of the indicator medium (colored liquid or foam); g diagram the position of the boundary zone violations on the pressure surface of the dam; d - diagram of the location of the violation on the crest of the dam (a view of the dam from the top). In Fig.7 schematically shows a part of the dam with two zones of discontinuity "crossed" one observation well, and Fig.8 (a) schematically shows the sequence to identify areas of disturbance for the occasion: a diagram of the implementation of the downhole flow metering (left); b - rashodovana; in the scheme of separating two zones violations "crossed" well, "purge" and the provisions of the static levels of the separate volumes of the well. In Fig.9 schematically shows a part of the dam and landfall with transversely spaced zones of discontinuity (vertical) and observation wells, and Fig.10 (a) schematically shows the sequence of the definition of such zones disorders: a diagram of the position monitoring wells across-flow, cross-cutting area of violation in contact dam with the landfall and the position of the static level in it after the "purge" (left), rashodovana (right); b - scheme of the provisions of the observation well is e static level in it after the "purge" (left), rashodovana (right); in the diagram position well, "crossing" non-free-flow zone violations in contact dam with the landfall and polozhenie static level in it after the "purge" (left), rashodovana (right).

In Fig.1-10 introduced the following notation: 1 - the right shore abutment of the dam; 2 - left coast abutment of the dam; 3 - body reinforced concrete dam run-of-river hydro (water of hidrocarbonetos conventionally not shown); 4 - reservoir; 5 - the flow of water downstream; 6,6' boreholes in the body of the dam, across-flow, cross-cutting area of violation 7; 8 observation well in the body of the dam, crossing the non-pressure zone violations 9; 10 observation wells in the body of the dam, crossing the non-pressure zone violations 11; 7, 9, 11 is a longitudinal zone of the breach in the dam body, respectively, through (flow), non-pressure and non-pressure; 8' - option provisions blind, pressure zone violations, in which one part is located below the level of the reservoir (filled with water), and the other part is above the level of the reservoir (filled with air); 7', 9", 11" - transverse (vertical) zone the infringement is taking place two zones violations; 13 - gauge borehole flowmeter; 14 - mouth sealing head for conducting downhole flow metering, while maintaining the injection medium into the borehole; 14' - mouth head for discharge into the borehole environment; 15 - unit - balance for lowering the downhole sensor in the borehole; 16 - cable geophysical (control load): 17 - packer set in the well and release it; 18 - additional column pipes, on which the packer is lowered into a borehole; 19 - mouth head for discharge into the well environment through additional column;- the intersection of wells, including additional, non-pressure-free zone violations;- the intersection of wells, including additional, with through-flow area of violation;- the intersection of wells, including additional, non-pressurized area of violation;- the intersection of wells, including additional, mentally extended beyond the boundaries of the surface areas of violations (not confirmed crossing).

The implementation of the method is illustrated with the example channel dam hydropower and onshore junctions 1 and the reservoir 3. In the body of the dam WIPO,5-2,0 m The dam height is 45 m, the depth of the reservoir at the dam - 39 m Position of the static water level in the reservoir is the distance from the upper horizontal surface of the dam to the level in the reservoir is Hin=6 m

In the process observation wells are filled up to their mouthOrganize regular monitoring of the position of the level in the observation wells. As a result of long observation level was near the mouth of the observation wellsThe earthquake level in observation wells 6, 6', 8, 10 decreased. Using the sensor is defined by a static levels in these wells (from the surface of the dam). Static levels were, respectively, to wells of a 6 - Hand= 12 m, for wells 6' - Nand= 32 m wells 8 - oand= 6 m and 10 wells - Hand= 28 m

Lower levels in selected wells confirmed the emergence of new messages wells through the integrity of the dam and the corresponding new hydrostatic conditions.

In selected wells determined the location of the intervals of their intersections with the zones of discontinuity. For this is shown respectively in Fig.2A; 3A, 4A. When carrying out the method of the downhole flow metering (on the example of Fig. 2A) in the well is lowered on the cable sensor downhole flowmeter 13, for example of the type TCP with a diameter of 50 mm Through the estuarine cylinder 14 is injected into the well with a constant flow of water, the level in the well rises, and therefore violated hydrostatic equilibrium, and the water starts to move to the area of the violation. Moving the cable through the block-balance 15 sensor downhole flowmeter and stopping them in different depth points of the well, determine the flow rate Q. the flow rate of water on the well depth Q stores the value to zone violations, equal to 80 l/min (point dimensionIn the interval zone violations consumption decreasesand below the sole of the zone of disturbance is equal to zero (point). On the basis of the measurement of costs is outlined rashodovana (Fig.2A, right). It the depth interval L1-L2where there is a reduction in flow rate of 80 l/min up to 0, corresponds to the position designated her "care". This is the interval of intersection of the borehole with an area of disturbance (L1= 45 m, L2= 44,8 m). Thus, the area of disturbance is preconcentrates location intervals intersections wells consistently 6', 8 and 10 with zones of discontinuity. Installed the following position (Fig. 3A, 4A - in wells 8 and 10) of the boundaries of the intervals of intersections
well 6' - L1=45 m, L2=44,8 m;
in the well 8 - L1=45 m, L2=44,82 m;
in the well 10 - L1=32 m, L2=31,83 m

The sensor downhole flowmeter is lifted from the well.

In selected wells sequentially pump the compressed air are blowing.

The next operation - blowing observation wells with compressed air and subsequent measurement values established after this levels in wells - established fact messages well through the zone violations, extending to the surface of the dam, in contact with its surface environment (water, air) and the value of pressure in this environment.

Filling the well with water after blowing the air to a level that matches the level in the reservoir, allows to conclude that surveillance is the intersection with the stagnant zone violations, the boundary of which is located on the surface of the underwater part of the dam, i.e. the well through zone violations communicates with the reservoir.

Well and reservoir are communicating vessels. The process of selling the rd wells installed the mouth of the cylinder 14'. Air injection is performed with a constant flow. As discharge observe a gradual increase of the discharge pressure. Thus by increasing the pressure in the volume above the water level in the well, the fluid starts to be pushed into the zone violations, and out of the reservoir, and its level in the well is reduced. Upon reaching the boundary between the air - liquid roof zone violations 10 air begins to enter the area of the violation and later in the reservoir and rises to the surface. The increase in air pressure is terminated, the steady-state value equal to 0.39 MPa register. After that, the air in the well-off well pressure is reduced to zero, the estuarine cylinder 14' is removed from the wellhead.

After 15-20 min the measured static (recovered) the water level in the well. When measuring the static level in the well was 6 m, the same value as before purging wells. The equality of the static level in the well static level in the reservoir leads to the conclusion that cross-borehole zone violation is stagnant and pressure (communicates with the reservoir). Well and reservoir are connected through the zone level in the reservoir and the interval of intersection with the zone violations allows to conclude that surveillance is the intersection of the flow-through area of violation, one boundary of which is located on the surface of the underwater pressure surface of the dam (top of water) and the other border on the pressure surface downstream of the dam. When this plane zone violation is established, the flow of water from the reservoir into the lower reach.

The process of purging (Fig.2,b) is injected into the well 6 with a constant flow of compressed air with the use of the mouth of the head 14'. When the discharge air pressure is gradually increased, the water from the well 6 is displaced in the area of the violation. the level in the well is reduced. Upon reaching level zone violations 7 air flows in and around the area of disturbance 7 - to the surface of the dam and then into contact with the dam environment. The increase in air pressure is terminated, the steady-state pressure was 0,026 MPa. After a time of 15-20 min the measured water level in the well (recovered), which amounted to 12 m (the same meaning as the condition to purge the wells). The value of the static level less than the level in the reservoir. The difference of levels in the reservoir (6 m) and in the borehole (12 m), equal to 12 m-6 m=6 m, OPREDELENIYa to the wells 6. This hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure in the borehole and the hydrodynamic component of the pressure loss of the flow during its movement along the zone of disturbance on the interval from the reservoir to the well. The static level in the well is above the interval of intersection with the zone violations.

The presence of two signs - the value of the static level in the well is lower than in the reservoir, and position it above the interval of intersection of the well with the zone violations leads to the conclusion that cross-borehole zone violation is running.

By analogy after purging determined position of the level in the observation well 6' (Fig.1). When this steady-state static level was 32 m (a value similar condition to purge the wells). Similar to the previous case characteristics - static level in the well is lower than in the reservoir, and position it above the interval of intersection of the well with the zone violations leads to the conclusion that cross-borehole zone violation is running. Given the analogy, the sequence determination of zone violations not listed.

The position of the water level in this established when the discharge pressure of the air during the blowing, equal to zero, leads to the conclusion that surveillance is the intersection with the non-free-flow area of violation, the boundary of which is located on the non-pressure contact with the surrounding air and the surface of the dam. That is, the hole through the intersecting zone violations communicates with the atmosphere.

In the process of purging (Fig.4,b) into the well 8 pump compressed air with a constant flow. The air pressure in volume well above the level rises, the water level moves down. When the position of the level in the interval of intersection with the zone violation, the air begins to move in the zone violations 11 to the surface. Set the flow area of violation, which is a mixture of air and water, to the surface of the dam. Thus water from the zone of disturbance is removed (transported) "mechanism of airlift" (Bagdasarov Century, Theory, calculation and practice of argatoff. - M-L., 1947).

The water in this area of violation is not connected with the source of its replenishment and purging deleted from the zone violations. As a purge volume of water in the zone of disturbance decreases, and balancing its hydrostatic pressure of the air pressure. When the blowdown water from the zone of disturbance is s zone violations. After reaching this level the removal of water stopped, and the pressure of the charge air has decreased to zero. Thus, from a stagnant, non-pressure zone violations during the blowdown water is removed. At this level in the well and zone violations is set at the depth of the soles of the interval of intersection of the well with the area of the violation.

Steady-state water levels in the injection hole corresponding to the position of the sole of the interval of intersection of the observation wells with an area of violation and zero steady air pressure for purging the wells are signs that the intersecting area of violation is non-gravity.

In the identified flow zones violations 6 and 6' determine the flow velocity of water in them. To do this, in the intervals of the intersection of wells 6 and 6' with the zones of discontinuity down on the cable sensor downhole flowmeter DAU-6 intended for determining the flow rate in the areas of acquisitions, cross-hole, and determine the flow velocity. The measured flow rate amounted to: in the interval of intersection of the bore 6 with zone violations - 0.9 m/s, and in the interval of intersection of the bore 6' zone violations - 0.85 m/s

The next operation Opredelitel pump indicator environment.

In the flowing zone 7 (Fig.2) intersecting the borehole 6, pump colored fluid, such as mud (low clay content). Tinted fluid injected into the well, and then goes into the zone violations 7, then in the reservoir and then the lower reach 5. The border of the through-flow area of violation 7 downstream (L-M, Fig.2,d) is determined visually after mud from the dam and carry out a scheme of its provisions. Similarly determine the position of the border of the through flow area of violation 7 on the pressure surface of the dam (And, Fig 2,e).

In the hole 6' pump mud that enters the area of the violation and later in the reservoir and downstream water. The zone boundaries on the pressure surface of the dam (M, Fig.2,e) and non-pressure surface in the downstream reach (L-M, Fig. 2, d) is determined visually at the expiration of the dam mud. Make a diagram of the position of the zone of disturbance on the surface of the dam, estimate its size.

As an indicator of the environment in the survey flow zones violations can be used with foam.

To determine the boundaries of the non-pressure zone violations 9 (Fig.1, figs. 3) in the borehole pump 8 colored liquid, such as clay pressure surface of the dam is determined visually, including using the remote, underwater television monitoring tools.

Perform the schema location of the violation on the pressure surface of the dam (P-C, Fig. 3,g), estimate its size. In Fig.3 is a diagram defining non-discharge zone violations longitudinal stretch.

For the case of slant, pressure, stagnant zone violations, one part of which is lower than the level in the reservoir, and the other part is above the level in the reservoir, the scheme of determining the area of disturbance is shown in Fig.5 and Fig.6. When an area level in the well was lowered and set at a depth of Hand= 6 m (the level in the borehole at the same level in the reservoir). In Fig.6,right, shows rashodovana bore 8'. According to the results of downhole flow metering installed that bore crosses the area of disturbance in the interval (16-16,2 m). Scavenging (Fig.6,b) found that after implementation level in the well was set at the same level Hand= 6 m, and the steady pressure when performing a purge - 1.6 MPa. With this background established signs - established after purging the static level in the well is equal to the level in the reservoir, and the established violations is stagnant, discharge.

To determine the underwater part of the border zone of disturbance on the surface of the dam in the well was pumped colored fluid, such as mud (which represents water, and the ink additive is a small amount of clay) (Fig.6), which comes from a well in an area of violation 9', and from there into the reservoir. The zone boundary violations (T'-f') on the pressure surface defined visually and executed a scheme of arrangement (Fig.6, g).

To determine the position of the boundaries of the zone of disturbance on the surface of the dam above the level in the reservoir into the well pump foam (Fig.6). Foam from the well enters the area of the violation and, having a lower density than the water in the zone violations, rises up area of violation and out of it on the surface of the dam above the level in the reservoir.

The zone boundary violations (f'-R') Fig.6,g and (With'-R') Fig.6,d (top view) determined visually, and made a diagram of its location. The estimated sizes of the zones of disturbance on the surface of the dam. Thus, for pressure, inclined areas of the violation when determining the boundaries of their position on the underwater part of the surface of the dam crossing her observation borehole pump colored liquid, and when the stagnant pressure-free zone violations 11 (Fig. 1, figs. 4) on the surface of the dam in the well # 10 pump foam (or tinted air), which comes from a well in an area of violation and then runs from the body of the dam. The position of the end zone violations on the pressure surface of the dam is determined visually. Perform the schema location of the gravity disturbance on the surface of the dam (H, Fig.4,d).

The following stages are used to determine the position of the zones of the breach in the dam body. This revealed the extreme points of their borders on the surface of the dam and owned by intervals of intersection of observation wells mentally connect. The resulting contour (outline) forms a surface which matches the position of the designated zone violations.

So the position of the end-to-end, flow-zone violations 7 coincides with the surface bounded by the contour And-K-L-M (Fig. 1), formed by the identified boundary And To the area on the pressure surface boundary L-M zone on the pressure surface of the dam and boundaries, And-L and-M, formed by lines, mentally connecting the extreme points of the boundary And K and L-M Area owned and intervals crossingobservation wells 6 and 6' with the area and located on a given surface. Emeticheskogo power of its borders on the surface of the dam and power in intervals of intersection with wells.

The position of the non-pressure zone violations 9 coincides with the surface bounded by the contour R-8 (Fig.1), formed by the identified boundary of the P-C zone on the pressure surface and the point8, coinciding with the interval of intersection of the observation wells 8 with this area of the violation.

The position of the stagnant pressure zone violations 11 coincides with the surface bounded by the contour N10-Oh (Fig. 1), formed by the identified boundary of the N-O zone on the pressure surface and the point8, coinciding with the interval of intersection of the observation wells 8 with this area of the violation.

If the observation well has intersected two zones of disturbance (Fig. 7 and Fig.8), in the implementation of the proposed method first divide. During the lowering of the water level in the borehole of Fig.8,and (level Handin the well has reached a depth of 8 m). Performed downhole flow measurement wells, rashodovana which is shown in Fig.8,b. From rashodovany can be seen that the monitoring well has intersected two zones of disturbance, and the spacing of the intersections are L1-L2depth (12-12,1) m, and L3S2=Nin=6 m and coincides with the level of the reservoir. The static level in the column pipe having a message area 7, was established at around 12 PM

In the subsequent operation of the purge zone violations 8 and 9', respectively, by the estuary of the head 19 and 14 is determined that the steady-state levels of H1and HS2took position as before leaching 6 and 12 m, respectively. When this steady-state discharge pressure of the air in the process of purging exceeded a value of zero.

For zone violations 9' the presence of these features leads to the conclusion that it is pressure, stagnant. For zone violations 7 the presence of these features leads to the conclusion that it is flowing through.

In the subsequent determination of the location of boundaries of the areas of disturbance on the surface of the dam (Fig.7. I-K and L-M - zones 7 and P-C zone 9') is carried out at their dissociation by analogy, respectively, for the AOR is but Fig.2.

Next, determine the position of the zones of the breach in the dam body position surface bounded by contours And-K-L-M (zone 7) and P -From (zone 9').

It is established that the boundary of the P-C (Fig.7) pressure dead zone 9' on the pressure surface of the dam has a horizontal location and depth position of the boundary is 8 m, the length of the cracks 7 m, and its disclosure of 0.1 m As the depth position of intersection of the observation wells with an area of violation 9' is 12-12,1 m, it is a drop-down relative to the intersection with the pressure surface of the dam. To determine the volume of voids zone 9' it through the observation well was pumped indicator environment. For the drop-down area as it is selected clay slurry with a solids content, providing a density of 1.2 g/cm3. In the process of discharge weighted fluid through the well, having a higher density, it moves to the bottom of zone 9', forcing out the liquid in the reservoir. As the filling zone level injected into her mud rises, moving to the border zone on the pressure surface of the dam. Mud was pumped into the zone 9' through observation bore us to the second solution was determined by the beginning of the end of the border crossing with the pressure surface of the dam. Period of timet from the beginning of the discharge of drilling mud before the end of the zone boundaries on the pressure surface of the dam amounted to 34 minutes, the Volume of voids zone violations 9' is defined according to expression
V=Qt;
V=0.12 m3rpm34 min=4,08 m3.

Knowledge of the volume of voids zone violations (cracked) you need to solve technological problems, such as determining the volume of backfill material required for subsequent plugging zone violations.

In addition, knowledge of the volume of voids allows to estimate the area of the breach and its impact on the stability and strength characteristics of the dam.

For zone 9' established that the average disclosure it presents the crack is 0.1 m (by visual observation on the pressure surface of the dam and the results of downhole flow metering). Spreading, presumably, is the disclosure of 0.1 m, the entire area of disturbance may be determined by the area of the stretch zone of the breach in the dam body on the well-known expression
S=V/d,
where S is the square of the stretch zone of the breach in the dam body,2;
V is the volume of pouce research steeply dipping zones of violations for example, timed to the contacts of the dam shoreline abutting the observation wells are drilled inclined or directed. It is advisable mouth such wells be placed on the surface of coastal adjacency, because often in the body of the dam installed equipment or utilities. The example illustrated in Fig. 9 and 10.

Observation wells (Fig.9) 6, 8, 10 diameter 59 mm, the mouth of which are located on the surface side abutment 1, drilled inclined, the depth of wells such that they pelaburan (crossed) contact zone of the dam 3 with the landfall 1. This zone coincides with a plane indicated by a-b-d-E. In this example, the vertical plane, which match the trajectory of wells perpendicular to the plane of contact of the dam 3 with the landfall 1. In Fig.10A, b, the sections of the environs of contacts with monitoring wells, respectively, 6, 8, 10 on these planes and their corresponding rashodovany. Wells 6, 8, 10 are angles1= 50,2= 34,3=peresechenia corresponding vertical plane with the plane of contact of the dam with the landfall. In this example, the azimuth observation wells conditional, the initial direction taken a direction coinciding with a vertical plane (in General cases, the azimuth can be true or magnetic), and azimuthal angles equal to zero.

Originally observation wells 6, 8, 10 (Fig.9, 10) filled with water, static water level is at the mouth. During the next inspection found that the levels in wells decreased, their measurements found that the levels in the wells are located at depths of l1=15,7 m; l2=10.7 m; l3= 16,24 m, the corresponding calculated taking into account the inclination of the wells (Nand= lcos) distance vertically H1=12 m; HS2=6 m; HS3=10 m

Performed downhole flow measurements in wells 6, 8, 10, the results of which established the position of the boundary zones of discontinuity, respectively (56,1) m, (16,1), (16,25) feet vertically, taking into account the angles of the wells, these distances was based on the ratio OZ =Zsin; OZ1=43 m; OZ2=9 m; OZ3= 10 m

Equal distances from the mouths of the wells 6, 8, 10 to contact the dam with coastal primiceri is,8 m, measured on the surface calculated from the apparent correlationo =cosallows to assert that the identified zone violations are located in the vicinity of the contact of the dam with the landfall.

Performed purging of the wells, after which defines the position of the level in wells, which accounted for wells 6, 8, 10, respectively 15,7 m, 10.7 m; 16,24 m Steady-state discharge pressure air for purging the wells 6 and 8 had more zero values, and the well 10 is equal to zero. Taking the above into account when considering examples with longitudinal stretch zones violations identified in wells 6, 8, 10 signs allow us to conclude that the intervals that have intersection with the bore 6 belongs flowing through the area, with well 8 belongs stagnant pressure zone, with well # 10 - non-free-flow area.

In the interval of intersection of the bore 6 with zone violations 7' using downhole flowmeter DAU-6 defined the flow velocity in the plane of the zone violations, which amounted to 0.9 m/s

The borders of zones of disturbance on the surface of the dam in wells 6 and 8 forced glansectomy areas of disturbance on the surface. Border (Fig.9) And a-K and L-M belong to the through-flow area 7', the boundary of P From the stagnant pressure zone 9 and the border of the O-C=H - stagnant pressure zone 11'.

The position of the boundary zones of disturbance on the surface of the dam and its intersections with the appropriate wells determine the position of the surfaces and their boundaries, and which matches the position of the zones of the violation.

By analogy with the considered scheme to identify areas of disturbance with a longitudinal stretch to define voids in rising or falling stagnant pressure zone violations with the horizontal position of the boundaries of its intersection with the pressure surface of the dam through the observation wells in this zone violations pump indicator environment, and rising well pump colored medium with a density less than the density of water, such as a lightweight mud, and in the drop-down zone - colored environment with a density greater than the density of water, for example weighted mud. Record the time from the beginning of the discharge indicator environment prior to its visually observe the expiration of the border zone violations on the pressure surface of the dam and the volume of voids zone violation is determined from the trail or drop zone violations m3;
Q - capacity of the pump, which pumped indicator environment in the area of the violation through a hole, m3/min;
t is the period of time from the start of discharge of the indicator medium in the zone of disturbance through the hole before it expires from the border zone on the pressure surface of the dam, minutes

To clarify the position of the boundaries of the breach in the dam body can be drilled additional observation wells. When the position of the contour zone boundary violations determined position at wells that overlap with the area of the violation.

In Fig. 1 and 9, the spacing of intersections additional observation wells that define the contours of the zones of disturbance, indicated by the following symbols:
- non-pressurized areas of the violation;
- end-to-end, flow-through areas of the violation;
- non-free-flow zone violations.

The symbol o in Fig.1 and 9 denote not committed the alleged crossing zones violations of additional monitoring wells.

During the drilling of additional wells perform monitoring flushing (number secutive is peresechenii zones violations pre-determine the occurrence of an unbalance injected into the well fluid in and out of her, magnitude, and stabilization of the unbalance. Nature zone violations further confirmed by the state of fracture of the core corresponding to the spacing of intersections with violations.

Observation wells after the execution of the studies used as channels for injection of the cement compositions in the intervals zones violations for their elimination. After performing plugging plugged intervals pereboryut and wells filled with water up to their mouth.

The proposed method identified in the process to identify areas of disturbance information - location, boundaries, area and nature of the stretch; the volume of voids; crack opening; filled environment and its pressure are more complete information to assess changes in the strength characteristics of the dam associated with the presence of timely identified areas of disturbance, and also allow you to choose the most efficient technology to address the areas of violations.


Claims

1. The way to identify areas of compromising the integrity of concrete dams, including the observation position is omenta level lowering in the well or group of wells, which corresponds to the appearance of zones of integrity, characterized by the permeability and crossed by an observation well or group of wells and extends to the surface of the dam, the location of the intersection zone violations with the selected wells, for example, by a method of downhole flow metering, determination of water level in wells low level, characterized in that the through bore at the intersection of these zones violations alternately with a constant flow pump air to the steady-state pressure, which is determined, after which the injection of air is terminated and the pressure is reduced to zero, measure the steady-state level in wells and evaluate the nature of the stretch zones breaches in the dam body, view and options to fill them with the environment, however, belonging to the interval of intersection with a non-pressurized area of violation to determine if the steady-state level in the borehole at the same level in the reservoir, and established the discharge pressure of the air in this zone is greater than zero, the identity of the interval intersection with stagnant water zone violations to determine if the steady-state level in the well coincides with the sole interval PE indigesti interval intersection with through-flow area of violation define if the steady-state level in the borehole is located between the level in the reservoir and the interval of intersection with the zone violations, and established the discharge pressure of the air is greater than zero, the interval of intersection with the through flow area of violation determines the flow velocity in the plane of the zone violations, through wells in the spacing of intersections with violations pump indicator environment and the expiration of the dam body visually determine the position of the boundary zones of disturbance on the surface of the dam, as an indicator of the environment in determining undrained pressure and flow through zones violations use colored liquid and additionally foam to define their boundaries on surface gravity dam, if this is the case, and when determining undrained pressure zone violations use foam, the spatial position of the zones of disturbance is determined by the position of the surface, which belong to the intervals of the intersection zones of violations by wells and their corresponding boundaries on the surface of the dam.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in an observation well in rising or falling stagnant pressure zone violations with horizontal laid the increased area as an indicator of the environment of the use of colored liquid with a density less than the density of water, such as a lightweight mud, and in the case of drop zone - colored liquid with a density greater than the density of water, such as heavy clay solution, record the time from the beginning of the discharge indicator environment prior to its visually observe the expiration of the border zone violations on the pressure surface of the dam and the volume of voids zone violation is determined from the following expression:

V=Qt,

where V is the volume of voids in rising or falling zone violations, m3;

Q - capacity of the pump, which pumped indicator environment in the area of the violation through a hole, m3/min;

t is the period of time from the start of discharge indicator environment through the borehole in the zone violations prior to the expiry of the period of the zone boundaries on the pressure surface of the dam, minutes

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the case of intersection bore two zones violations before its implementation zones divide the packer with the column pipe to the wellhead.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 and 3, characterized in that the monitoring wells are drilled inclined or vertically e.g. the surface of coastal adjacency.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1, 3-5, characterized in that the network of observation wells is thickened by drilling additional wells, and position in the body of the dam is determined by the crossing or no intersections of their zone violations.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the drilling of additional boreholes carried out with the selection and documentation of core, as well as the organization monitor the washing process, the boundaries consistently perevarivaemy intervals intersections with violations of the pre-determined by the occurrence of unbalance injected into the well fluid in and out of her, magnitude, and stabilization of the unbalance, and the nature of the violations of the condition of the fracture and the output of the core corresponding to the spacing of intersections with violations.

8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1, 3-7, characterized in that the monitoring wells after the execution of the research are used as channels for injection of the grouting material in the spacing zone violations to eliminate them.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a colored liquid used, for example, mud or lime water to determine the boundaries of the zones of disturbance on

 

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