Fittings crest radial pneumatic tires

 

The invention relates to the automotive industry and is designed primarily to equip vehicles, medium, or large load. Pneumatic tyre with radial reinforcement frame includes a reinforcement ridge formed in at least two working layers of the ridge, formed of inextensible reinforcing elements, crossed from one ply to the other and forming with the circumferential direction angles, the value of which is in the range from 10 to 45o. And layers are the values of the axial width greater than the value of the axial width of the additional layer, formed of metal, inextensible and essentially radial reinforcing elements. The additional layer is located radially between the working layers and these layers on either side of the Equatorial plane and in the immediate axial continuation of the additional layer is connected to the axial length component of at least 3.5% of the maximum axial width, and then separated by means of profiled elements of rubber mix at least the remaining part of the total width of the two working layers. As a result, polychaets toadie invention relates to a pneumatic tire with a radial reinforcement frame, fixed in each Board on at least one side of the ring and containing a reinforcement ridge formed in at least two working layers, stacked on top of each other and formed of wire or cord yarns, parallel to each other in each layer and crossed from one layer to the next, forming with the circumferential direction of the pneumatic tire angles not exceeding 45oin absolute value.

More specifically the invention relates to pneumatic tires of the type "Poids-Lourds", for which the ratio of its height to the rim h of the maximum axial width of S does not exceed 0.80 and which is designed to equip vehicles medium or large-capacity type trucks, buses, truck trailers, etc.,

Some modern so-called road, pneumatic tires are designed for driving with high speed and longer and longer routes due to the improvement of roads and increasing the length of the road network in the world. The set of conditions that have to work this pneumatic tire, without any doubt helps to increase the number of passable she kilometers with less wear. However, with>In the French patent FR 2419185 indicated that the type of pneumatic tyre with a relatively small value of the ratio H/S, although it has numerous advantages, has several disadvantages, for example mediocre grip Equatorial zone of the tread or localization of high pressures in the region of the edges of the tread caused by narrowing of the contact surface with the road in the longitudinal direction of the pneumatic tire.

To eliminate these disadvantages in the above-mentioned French patent it is suggested to place between the valve frame and the inner radial direction of the working layer of reinforcement ridge in two areas remote from the Equatorial plane, two sets of constraints, each of which is formed by two stacked on top of other layers of inextensible cord yarns, crossed from one ply to the other and forming with the circumferential direction opposite corners that do not exceed the absolute value of half the smallest angle used in the working layers, and different from 0o.

With regard to the implementation of the above technical solution, its application to a pneumatic tire with the value of the shape factor H/S, not prtype "Poids-Lourds", cannot provide satisfactory resistance of the reinforcement ridge pneumatic tyres.

In this case, the lack of resistance applies to both the fatigue strength of the layers of the ridge, in particular the resistance to separation between the ends of the layers, and the fatigue strength of cord threads of the plot reinforcement frame, located under the valve of the ridge, and this lack of resistance of the first type are strongly influenced by temperature, which occurs at the edges of the working layers, whether straight movement or movement on the bends.

The aim of the French patent application FR 2728510 is to increase the armature resistance of the crest of the pneumatic tires of the type "Poids-Lourds", for which the value of the shape factor H/S does not exceed 0,60, and in this case, the valve includes at least two working layers of the ridge, formed of inextensible cord yarns, crossed from one ply to the other and forming with the circumferential direction angles in the range from 10 to 45o. Thus the width of the layers comprise at least 80% of the maximum axial width Sothe valve frame.

In the patent it is suggested to place between the valve frame and the working layer of the ridge, the bottom metal inextensible cord yarns, forming with the circumferential direction an angle at least equal to 60oaxial width which is at least equal to the axial width of the least wide (or the shortest) of the working layer of the ridge, and also be placed between the two working layers of crest extra layer formed of metallic elements oriented essentially parallel to the district direction, and the axial width of the additional layer is at least 0.7 and Soand its modulus of elasticity in tension at least equal to the modulus of elasticity for the most extensible working layer of the ridge.

If the problem is related to the division between the working layers of the ridge and fatigue strength cord yarns of the reinforcement cage shall be submitted solved in one case, and if the temperature of operation is significantly reduced in the other case, in terms of the continuous movement designed pneumatic tyres identified fatigue breaks cord yarns additional layer, more precisely, the edges of the layer, regardless of the presence or absence of triangulation layer.

There is always the possibility to replace the reinforcing elements, in particular to choose cord thread the other design is always about expensive.

To eliminate the above-noted disadvantages and enhance the armature resistance of the crest of the pneumatic tire described here type in the application for French patent FR 97/14011 proposed a pneumatic tire with a radial valve frame having the maximum axial width Socontaining reinforcement ridge formed in at least two working layers of the ridge, formed of inextensible reinforcing elements, crossed from one ply to the other and forming with the circumferential direction angles in the range from 10 to 45oand mentioned layers have an axial width which constitutes at least 80% of the width Soand located in the radial direction between the working layers of crest extra layer formed of reinforcing elements that are essentially parallel to the district.

Mentioned layers have widths greater than the width of the additional layer by at least 16% of the width Soand on either side of the Equatorial plane and in the immediate axial continuation of the additional layer they are connected on the axial distance of at least 3.5% of the width of Soand then resedimented operational layers of the ridge.

The choice of the constituency of the reinforcing elements of the additional layer of inextensible elements, for which the modulus of elasticity under the force of stretching the additional layer preferably will not exceed the elastic modulus in tension for the most extensible working layer and preferably will be small relative to elongation in the range from 0 to 0.4% and will not exceed the highest modulus of elasticity in tension for the most extensible working layer with a relative movements in excess of 0.4%, it is not possible to provide the best ratio price/quality moreover, the optimum fatigue strength of the district of elements requires a minimum density of elements on the edges of the layer and a minimum tensile strength of these elements.

The task of the invention is to increase the resistance of the armature ridge pneumatic tyres without compromising the fatigue strength of the reinforcing elements. For the connection of the two working layers on either side in the radial direction from an additional layer of reinforcing elements of the technical solution, consisting in the choice of the above elements, which by the district, is not the best solution the CA with a maximum axial width Soand containing the valve crest formed of at least two working layers of the ridge, formed of inextensible reinforcing elements, crossed from one ply to the other and forming with the circumferential direction angles in the range from 10 to 45oand the layers have values of axial width L32, L34constituting at least 80% of the width Soand exceeding by at least 16% of this width Sothe width of the L33an additional layer of reinforcing elements located in the radial direction between the working layers on either side of the Equatorial plane and in the immediate axial continuation of the additional layer are interconnected in axial length l, a component of at least 3.5% of the width of theoand then separated by means of profiled elements made of rubber mixture, at least the remaining part of the total for these two working layers width. This pneumatic tire is characterized by the fact that the reinforcing elements of the additional layer are inextensible and is essentially radial.

The thickness of the profiled elements of separation between the working layers, measured against the will exceed 2.5 mm

Under the United layers in this case it is necessary to understand the layers corresponding reinforcing elements which are separated from each other in the radial direction by a distance not exceeding 1.5 mm, and the thickness of the rubber is measured in the radial direction respectively between the upper and lower forming reinforcing elements.

Under inextensible element should be understood that cord thread or monofilament, which has an elongation of less than 0.2% in the case when it is applied tensile force equal to 10% of failure strength. For pneumatic tyres of this type of inextensible reinforcing elements in the preferred embodiment, is a metal inextensible cord thread, made of steel.

Essentially radial reinforcing elements, wire or cord thread are the elements, which form with the circumferential direction angles in the range from +85 to -85orelative to the 0o.

Layers of comb usually have different axial widths. Most outside in the radial direction of the working layer can be less wide in the axial direction than the work slubna was added to the outside in the radial direction of the auxiliary protective layer, formed from elastic reinforcing elements oriented in relation to the district direction at an angle whose magnitude is in the range from 10 to 45oand whose direction coincides with the direction of the angle formed by the inextensible reinforcing elements of the least wide working layer.

The specified protective layer may have an axial width less than the axial width of the least wide working layer, but in the preferred embodiment, the sufficient to completely block the connection zone between the two working layers of the ridge. This solution is especially preferred that the treadmill tread pneumatic tires includes a district or quasicriminal in the axial direction of the groove, located in the radial direction on the connection zone between the two working layers of the ridge.

The protective layer may also have an axial width greater than the axial width of the least wide working layer so that it overlaps the edges of the least wide working layer and that he was connected in the axial continuation of an additional layer with the widest working layer of the ridge axial length comprising at least 2% of the width S

This protective layer formed of the elastic reinforcing elements may be separated, if necessary, with the edges of the least wide working layer with profiled elements having a thickness essentially smaller than the thickness of the profiled elements, separating the edges of the two working layers of the ridge, and may have an axial width less than or greater than the axial width of the widest working layer of the ridge.

In any case, the armature of the ridge can be supplemented from the inside in the radial direction between the valve frame and the inner radial direction of the working layer, closest to the valve frame triangulation layer, formed of inextensible reinforcing elements forming with the circumferential direction an angle exceeding 60oand having the same direction as the angle formed by the reinforcing elements of the working layer, closest to the valve frame.

Triangulation layer may have an axial width less than the width of the widest working layer, in which the valve of the ridge is the closest in the radial direction of the valve frame. However, this triangulation should preferably to the outside in the radial direction of the protective layer, coupled with the widest working layer, was also connected in the immediate axial continuation of the widest working layer triangulation layer on the axial length comprising at least the width of 0.02 Sothe valve frame, and then disconnected from the outside in the axial direction with the edges of the triangulation layer with profiled elements, the thickness is at least 2 mm

A protective layer formed of the elastic reinforcing elements may be disconnected from the edges of the least wide working layer, as in the previous case, with profiled elements, the thickness of which is essentially less than the thickness of the profiled elements, separating the edges of the two working layers. The protective layer may also be wider or less wide than the triangulation layer.

Most outside in the radial direction of the working layer can be wider in the axial direction than the working layer, located inside in the radial direction. In this case, it is preferable that the valve crest was added to the inside in the radial direction triangulation layer formed from the s same direction, as the orientation angle of the reinforcing elements of the least wide of the layer.

Triangulation layer may have an axial width less than the axial width of the least wide working layer, i.e. the layer that is closest in the radial direction of the valve frame. In a preferred embodiment, the implementation of the triangulation layer will have an axial width greater than the axial width of the least wide working layer, and such width that this triangulation layer was connected in the axial continuation of the least wide working layer with the widest working layer on the axial length comprising at least the width of 0.02 Soand then disconnected with the edges of the working layers by means of profiled elements of rubber mix having a thickness at least equal to 2 mm, and that it is this triangulation layer or that of the widest working layer would have the largest width.

The above-described construction of the valve crest pneumatic tire using the most remote from the valve frame of the working layer as a layer having the largest width in the axial direction, can be supplemented from the outside in the radial direction from the widest working Shinobu direction at an angle having a value in the range from 10 to 45oand the same direction as the orientation angle of the reinforcing elements of the working layer, the most extensive in the axial direction.

Mentioned protective layer may have an axial width less than the axial width of the least wide working layer, and in this case can completely block the connection zone between the two working layers of the ridge.

This protective layer may also be wider than the least wide working layer, and less wide than the widest working layer, but in the preferred embodiment, the implementation of this layer will have the same axial width that it overlaps in the radial direction of the edge of the widest working layer, being, if necessary, separated from the edges using profiled elements, the thickness of which may be less than the thickness of the profiled element separating region of the least wide working layer and the edge of the widest working layer, thus then in the axial continuation of the least wide working layer to be connected with the inner radial triangulation layer formed from a highly inclined inextensible reinforcing elements, EfE is injecting layer using a profiled rubber element, having a thickness comprising at least 3 mm, regardless of which of the two mentioned layers, triangulation or defensive, will be wider.

Other characteristics and advantages of the invention will be better understood from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 depicts a first preferred embodiment of the valve of the ridge pneumatic tyres (meridional section) according to the invention; Fig.2 - the second preferred embodiment of the valve of the ridge pneumatic tyres (meridional section), according to the invention; Fig. 3 - the third embodiment of the valve of the crest of the pneumatic tires according to the invention; Pneumatic tyre RAnd(Fig.1) size 495/45 R 22.5 X is a shape factor H/S, equal to 0.45, where H represents the height of the pneumatic tires RAndon its mounting rim and S represents the maximum axial width of this bus.

This pneumatic tyre RAndcontains radial reinforcement of the frame 1, are fixed in each Board on at least one side of the ring, forming therein a turnover, and formed a single layer of metal cord threads. This valve frame 1 TFR is arujo contains: first triangulation layer 31, formed of inextensible metal cord yarns oriented in relation to the district under the direction angleconstituting 65o; overlapping triangulation layer and located in the radial direction on top of this layer of the first working layer of the ridge 32 formed of inextensible metal cord threads oriented at an anglewhich in the present case, 18oand having the same direction as the anglethe orientation of the reinforcing elements of the triangulation layer; located on top of the first working layer 32 extra layer 33 formed of inextensible metal cord threads, made of steel and oriented at an angle of 90oin relation to the district direction, and the outer axial edges of the additional layer 33 is separated from the working layer of the ridge 32 is small in the thickness of the layers of rubber; the second working layer of the ridge 34 formed of a metal cord threads, identical cord threads, which formed the first working layer 32, and forming with the circumferential direction an angleopposite narusasu 18o(anglemay differ from the value of the angle); and finally, the last layer, formed of a metallic elastic cord yarns oriented in relation to the district under the direction anglethe same direction as the angleand equal in magnitude corner(but can have a value different from the value of this angle), and this last layer is a protective layer.

The axial width L32the first working layer 32 is 0,87 of the maximum axial width Saboutthe middle line of the valve frame 1 or 416 mm for pneumatic tires of the usual form is a value that is significantly smaller than the width Liof the tread, which is 430 mm

The axial width L34the second working layer 34 of the ridge is 0.83 from the axial width Soor equal to 400 mm Triangulation layer 31 has an axial width L31, which is intermediate between the values of width, respectively, of the two working layers 32, 34 and component 408 mm

With regard to the axial width L33an additional layer 33, it is 320 mm In sosho layer, while maintaining a width sufficient to effectively contribute to the reduction of the temperature of operation of the pneumatic tire in the vicinity of the ends of the working layers of the ridge, which represent the areas most exposed to adverse effects of heating and separation between layers. The last protective layer 35 of the ridge has a width of L35essentially equal to 370 mm

Two working layers 32 and 34 on each side of the Equatorial plane and in the continuation of the additional layer 33 in the axial direction is connected to the axial width l, part 17 mm When this cord thread of the first working layer 32 and cord threads of the second working layer 34 at the axial width l of the junction of two layers separated in the radial direction by a layer of rubber, the thickness of which is minimal and corresponds to a double thickness rubber calendering layer or cladding layer tightened metal cord threads 27.23 that makes up each working layer 32, 34, and is 0.8 mm

For the remaining part of the total width of the two working layers, i.e. the length of about 20 mm on each side of the two working layers 32 and 34 are separated by means of a rubber profiled e from the axial end of the connection zone to the end of the least wide working layer and reaches the end value of 4 mm

Profiled element 4 has a width sufficient to overlap in the radial direction of the end of the widest working layer 32, which in this case represents the working layer, which is located radially closer to the valve frame.

Comb pneumatic tyres supplemented treadmill tread 5, connected to the sides of the tyre by means of two sidewalls 6, and triangulation layer adjacent in the radial direction of the armature frame 1 on either side of the Equatorial plane, is removed from it, passing to the outer sides of the tire in the axial direction, and this layer is connected to the fitting frame 1 by means of the profiled element 7 made of rubber and has a triangular shape.

Pneumatic tyre Rinthat is schematically shown in Fig. 2 and corresponding to the size 315/80 R 22.5 X, has the aspect ratio H/S, equal to 0.8, where H is the height of the pneumatic tire Pinon its mounting rim, a S is the maximum axial width of the pneumatic tire.

Design of reinforcement ridge 3 pneumatic tyres Rindiffers from the above described construction the lack is greater least one side of the ring, forming on it turnover, and formed a single layer of metal cord threads, bonded reinforcement ridge 3 formed in the radial direction, when seen from the inside outwards, the following elements:
the first working layer 32 of the ridge, formed of inextensible metal cord threads, made of steel and oriented at an anglecomprising 18oand adjacent in the radial direction and parallel to the valve frame 1 in its middle part, the edges of which are separated from the valve frame with profiled elements 7 out of rubber, with the increasing outward in the axial direction of the thickness;
located on top of the first working layer 32 of crest extra layer 33 formed of inextensible metal cord threads, made of steel, and these cord thread is oriented at an angle of 90oin relation to the district direction, and the outer axial edges of the additional layer 33 of the radial elements is separated from the first working layer 32 of the ridge using a rubber layers of small thickness;
then the second working layer 34 of the ridge, formed from the metal to the direction anglein the opposite direction of the cornerand with this case, an amount equal to the angleand component 18o(anglemay differ from the value of the angle);
and finally, the last layer 35 formed of an elastic metal cord yarns oriented in relation to the district under the direction anglethe same direction as the angleand equal in magnitude to this corner(but can have a value different from the value of this angle), and the last layer is a protective layer.

On top of the protective layer 35 in the radial direction is located treadmill tread 5 bus, which contains four main circumferential grooves, and the outside in the axial direction of these grooves localized in the axial direction and in radial direction over a width l of the connection zone between the two working layers 32 and 34 of the ridge.

The axial width L32the first working layer 32 is equal to 235 mm, which for the considered pneumatic tyres slightly less than the width of the racing € value less than the width of the L32and component 210 mm Axial width L33an additional layer 33 is 176 mm

Layers 32 and 34 on each side of the Equatorial plane and on either side of it, in the continuation of the additional layer 33 is connected to the width l equal to 9 mm, which is a value slightly less than 0.03 of the maximum axial width of the reinforcement frame 1, and a minimum thickness between the cord threads, which is 1 mm

For the remaining part of the total width of the two working layers, i.e. the length of about 6 mm on each side, two working layers 32 and 34 is divided by a triangular rubber profiled element 4 having a thickness of 3.5 mm, measured at the end of the least wide working layer 34, and the thickness of the profiled element increases in the direction from the axial end of the connection zone to the end of the least wide working layer.

Described this way valves ridge complemented by a layer 35 formed of elastic steel cord yarns oriented in relation to the district under the direction anglethat has the same direction as the angleand equal in magnitude to that in the St and elastic cord thread, as in the first example described above, the represent cord thread having at break elongation, of at least 4%.

The axial width L35layer 35 on the merits is 198 mm so as to cover the zone of connection between the two working layers 32 and 34.

Described above and shown in Fig.1 and 2, the examples focus on only one area of connection between the layers. Pneumatic tyre Rwiththat is schematically shown in Fig. 3 and having the same size, and that the pneumatic tire described above in the first example, contains two zones of connection between layers. The design of the reinforcement of the ridge 3 of this pneumatic tyres Rwithdiffers from the design of the reinforcement ridge pneumatic tyres RAon the one hand, by reversing the ratio of the values of the axial width of the two working layers 32 and 34, and on the other hand, the modification of the values of the axial width of the two working layers 32 and 34 and triangulation layer 31, and an extra layer 33 in this case retains the same width, component 320 mm

The width of the L32interior in the radial direction of the working layer 32 becomes equal to 380 mm and the width of the L34outside in the radial direction is 31 mm, was connected to each side of the Equatorial plane with the second working layer 34 in the axial continuation of the first working layer 32 and the width of the l2essentially component 10 mm, with the edges of this triangulation layer 31 is then disconnected from the widest working layer 34 by means of profiled elements 4 thickness of 3.5 mm

The preferred embodiment allows, in particular, to increase the resistance to separation between the edges of the working layers at the level of the least wide of the layer 32.


Claims

1. Pneumatic tyre R with radial reinforcement frame (1) with the maximum axial width S0and containing the valve crest (3), formed of at least two working layers (32, 34) of the ridge, formed of inextensible reinforcing elements, crossed from one ply to the other and forming with the circumferential direction angles in the range from 10 to 45and mentioned layers have values of axial width L32, L34constituting at least 80% of the width S0and exceeding by at least 16% of this width S0the width of the L33an additional layer (33) of the reinforcing elements, close to the Equatorial plane and in the immediate axial continuation of the additional layer (33) are connected to the axial length l, component of at least 3.5% of the width of S0and then disconnected with profiled elements of rubber mix, at least for the remaining part common to the two working layers (32, 34) width, wherein the reinforcing elements of the additional layer (33) are metal, inextensible and essentially radial.

2. Pneumatic tyre under item 1, characterized in that the shaped elements (4) are at the level of the ends of the least wide working layer (32, 34) thickness, which is at least 2 mm

3. Pneumatic tyre under item 2, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3), layers (32, 34) have different values of the axial width, and the outside in the radial direction of the working layer (34) is less wide in the axial direction than located inside in the radial direction of the functional layer (32), contains also the outside in the radial direction of the layer (35) formed of an elastic reinforcing elements oriented in relation to the district direction at an angle whose magnitude is in the range from 10 to 45and whose direction coincides with the direction of the angle formed by the inextensible reinforcing the Yu, than the axial width L34the least wide working layer (34).

4. Pneumatic tyre under item 2, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3), layers (32, 34) which have different values of the axial width, and the outside in the radial direction of the working layer (34) is less wide in the axial direction than the inside in the radial direction of the functional layer (32), also contains, on the outside in the radial direction, the layer (35) formed of an elastic reinforcing elements oriented in relation to the district under the direction angle, the value of which is in the range from 10 to 45and whose direction coincides with the direction of the angle formed by the inextensible reinforcing elements of the least wide working layer (34) and the layer (35) is of such axial width L35that overlaps in the radial direction of the edge of the least wide working layer (34) and then in the axial continuation of the additional layer is connected with the widest working layer (32) on the axial distance constituting at least 2% of the width Soand then outside in the axial direction separated from the widest working layer (32) with profiled element (4), the thickness of the Ko's), formed from elastic reinforcing elements, separated from the edges of the least wide working layer (32) by means of profiled elements, the thickness of which is essentially less than the thickness of the profiled element (4) separating the edges of the two working layers (32, 34).

6. Pneumatic tire according to any one of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3) further comprises the inside in the radial direction and between the reinforcement frame (1) and inside in the radial direction of the working layer (32) layer (31) formed of inextensible reinforcing elements forming with the circumferential direction an angle exceeding 60and having the same direction as the angle formed by the reinforcing elements of the working layer (32), and having an axial width L31smaller than the axial width L32the widest working layer (32).

7. Pneumatic tyre on p. 5, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3) further comprises the inside in the radial direction and between the reinforcement frame (1) and inside in the radial direction of the working layer (32) layer (31) formed of inextensible reinforcing elements forming with the circumferential direction an angle exceeding 60

8. Pneumatic tyre under item 2, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3), layers (32, 34) which have different values of the axial width, and the outer in the radial direction of the working layer (34) is wider in the axial direction than the inner radial direction of the functional layer (32), also contains a layer (31) formed of inextensible reinforcing elements forming with the circumferential direction an angle exceeding 60and having the same direction as the angle of the reinforcing elements of the least wide working layer (32), and the axial width L31less than the axial width L32least Shiro(32, 34) which have different values of the axial width, and the outer in the radial direction of the working layer (34) is wider in the axial direction than the inner radial direction of the functional layer (32), also contains a triangulation layer (31) formed of inextensible reinforcing elements forming with the circumferential direction an angle exceeding 60and having the same direction as the angle of the reinforcing elements of the least wide working layer (32), and the axial width L31exceeds the axial width L32the least wide working layer (32), and a working layer (34) having the greatest width of the L34in direct continuation of the working layer (32) is connected with the triangulation layer (31) on the axial length l1that part at least of the width of 0.02 S0the valve frame (1), and then disconnected from the edges of the triangulation layer (31) by means of profiled elements of rubber mix, the thickness is at least 2 mm

10. Pneumatic tire according to any one of paragraphs.8 and 9, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3) contains the outside in the radial direction from the widest working layer (34) a protective layer of at an angle, the value of which is in the range from 10 to 45and that has the same direction as the angle formed by the inextensible reinforcing elements of the widest working layer (34).

11. Pneumatic tire according to p. 10, characterized in that the reinforcement ridge (3) contains the outside in the radial direction from the widest working layer (34) a protective layer (35) formed of an elastic reinforcing elements oriented in relation to the district direction at an angle whose magnitude is in the range from 10 to 45and that has the same direction as the angle formed by the inextensible reinforcing elements of the widest working layer (34), and a protective layer (35) is of such axial width L35that overlaps in the radial direction, the ends of the widest working layer (34) and in direct continuation of the least wide working layer (32) is connected with the inner radial direction of the layer (31) formed from highly inclined inextensible reinforcing elements, the axial length l2constituting at least 2% of the width Soand then disconnected from the edges of the triangulation layer using

 

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