A method of obtaining a combined extrusion products of meat and plant materials

 

The invention relates to food industry, mainly for the meat industry and the production of extruded food products. The method provides for the preparation of meat and plant materials. As plant materials used lentils and semolina. While the lentils pre-crushed to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, as raw meat use of the collagen mass, obtained by processing of secondary raw material containing collagen in the meat industry preparations of proteolytic enzymes, such as megaterium or protocontinent, and poultry meat mechanically separated. Raw meat dehydrated by the method of freeze-drying to a moisture content of 14-18% and crushed to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, Optionally combined use of food additives in the form of powdered milk and vegetable semi-finished products. All components are metered, mixed and spend the extrusion of the meat-vegetable mixture at a certain ratio of components, wt. %. After extrusion on the surface of products put kosovrasti (powdered sugar, salt, spices). The method allows to increase the biological value of the combined extrusion products of meat and the opportunities Malostranska for food grade collagen containing raw meat industry. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 tab., 1 Il.

The invention relates to food industry, mainly for the meat industry, namely to obtain ready-to-use combined meat-vegetable products extrusion technology.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is a method for combined extrusion products of meat and plant materials [Guest O. H. development of the technology of combined extrusion products of meat and plant materials: Avtoreferat Diss.... candidate of technical Sciences/ Odessa state Academy of food technologies of the Ministry of education of Ukraine. - Odessa, 1999, 17 S.].

The disadvantages of the known technical solutions are insufficiently balanced amino acid composition of protein combined extrusion products of meat and vegetable raw materials and limited biological value, an object of the invention is to increase the biological value of the combined extrusion products of meat and vegetable raw materials, the concentration of physiologically active biopolymers, as well as extending the functionality of malowist the second task is achieved by in the method of obtaining a combined extrusion products of meat and vegetable raw materials, involving the preparation of meat and vegetable raw materials, batching and mixing of components, the extrusion of the meat-vegetable mixture, what is new is that as the plant materials used lentils, pre-crushed to a particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and semolina, as raw meat - collagen mass, obtained by processing of secondary raw material containing collagen in the meat industry preparations of proteolytic enzymes, for example, megaterium GH, or protocontinent GH, or protocontinent GH, and poultry meat mechanically separated, when preparing raw meat dehydrated by the method of freeze-drying to a residual moisture content of 14-18% and pulverized until the particle size 0.5-1.0 mm, when the dosing of components additionally combined use of food additives in the form of powdered milk and vegetable semi-finished products, after extrusion on the surface of products put kosovrasti (powdered sugar, salt, spices), and combined extrusion products are obtained in the following ratio, wt.%: Collagen weight - 12-15 Meat p is (PMAP) - 5-9 Kosovrasti - 4-7 as a secondary raw material containing collagen use predvaritelno obezbashennye waste contouring skins, or the scrapings of the skins of cattle, or a mixture of veins and tendons, or intestinal raw materials and/or waste of raw intestines.

Waste of raw intestines are part of the gastrointestinal kit is not suitable for use as a natural sausage casing or production of natural surgical suture material (catgut) due to the presence of defects, ill-conditioned ulcers that do not meet the requirements of normative documents on diameter, length, mechanical properties, etc.,

The technical result is expressed not only in achieving this goal, but in the expansion of technological capabilities and rational use little or unclaimed for food secondary raw material containing collagen in the meat industry, as well as domestic sources of vegetable protein and savings from expensive primary raw meat.

The indispensable functions of proteins in food rations, lack of mechanisms of synthesis of a number of proteins in the human body pose the problem of good protein supply allows to mutually enrich their missing biologically active substances and can be the basis for the balanced main food and physiologically active substances combined extrusion products.

In the creation of new products based vocational regional age and dietary habits of consumers plays a big role in their targeted enrichment of ballast substances (BV), which are physiologically necessary components of diets. One of the species of BV - elements of connective tissues (collagen; glucosamine or mucopolysaccharides), which have a positive effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract, are a factor in the prevention of cardio-vascular and digestive systems.

The elements of connective tissue, having cation exchange properties, promote the excretion of various toxins, including toxic metabolites and anthropogenic pollution, involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. The connective tissue collagens are important components of diets and dieting, stimulating the secretion and peristaltic bowel function, having a positive impact on the status of beneficial microflora.

One of the most effective ways to use in recipes food connective tissue is getting collagen masses through their pre-the x drugs not having collagenolytic activity or characteristic of its minimum level. From mass-produced domestic microbiological industry proteolytic enzyme preparations to obtain a collagen mass can be used, it GH or it GH, megateen GH. Biochemical and physico-chemical characterization of the enzyme preparations are given in table. 1 and 2.

Obtained by enzymatic processing of secondary raw material containing collagen in the meat industry collagen masses are almost from the same collagen proteins with a characteristic amino acid composition (table. 3), weakly amenable to the action of digestive enzymes, so they conveniently dosed to enter in the formulation of food products as a source of BV.

The biological value of the proteins of poultry meat mechanically separated approaches the biological value of meat manual deboning, the difference arises due to the elements of connective tissue made mostly with skin. Mass fraction specific for collagen amino acids hydroxyproline in mechanically separated meat (IMO) carcasses with the skin can more than 1.5 times the corresponding figure for IMO carcasses, oanie fat-soluble vitamins a, E and D. the Difference is most noticeable for vitamin C, which is associated with the presence of components of the bone marrow. IMO characterized by a high content of calcium, the content of which increases approximately 4-fold compared with muscle tissue.

As plant materials used lentils and semolina. In favor of these components, says the following.

Lentils contains all the essential amino acids, rich in free amino acids, vitamins, and therefore can be successfully used to obtain biologically complete combined meat and vegetable products. The composition of lentil seeds (about 14% moisture, 22-36% protein and 44-60% of the carbohydrate fraction, mainly starch and oligosaccharides) with complete exclusion of inhibition of chymotrypsin and other negative consequences for the functioning of the digestive system creates preconditions for its processing into edible protein products of original technological forms, ready-to-eat, using extrusion technology as the most important technological parameter that affects the production of composite extrusion products with high consumer is the use of single screw extruder ensures the presence of starch in the extrudable mixture mass fraction of not less than 40-45% with a ratio of protein:starch is 1:2.

It is advisable to grind the lentils until the particle size 0.5-1.0 mm, since the use of lentil flour is more finely ground leads to sintering of the mixture in the working channel of the extruder, while the larger particle size is less intense destruction.

An important role in the destruction of the cell structure of the raw material in the extrusion thermodynamic process is water, which, being in the processing of raw materials in the zone of direct extrusion in the liquid phase, after passing zones forming and unloading in terms of decompression explosion passes into the vapor state, which is accompanied by an increase in the linear dimensions of the obtained porous products. Effective destruction of cellular structure upon receipt of the combined extrusion products of meat and plant materials provides mass fraction of moisture in the extrudable mixture 14-18%. Increase or decrease the mass fraction of moisture in the extrudable mixture causes a decrease in the degree of ekspandirovaniya finished product that is associated with the effect of this factor on the transformation of starch during the extrusion process and the deterioration of the rheological characteristics of the melt food mixture reduced viscosity and voltage change mixtures up to 14-18%.

Use semolina allows you to balance the amino acid composition of the total protein food mixtures, and also improves the rheological properties of their melt in the working zones of the extruder, providing products of the porous structure with effect ekspandirovaniya level 250-300%.

The use of food additives in the form of powdered milk and vegetable semi-finished products (PMOP), produced by JSC "Confectioner", , Voronezh (TU 9164-001-2068102-94), as components of formulations can further enrich combined extrusion products in dietary fibre, vitamins, micro - and macroelements. The vegetable dietary fiber 0,7-1,0% together with connective tissue proteins provides radioprotective properties of products, helps cleanse the body by releasing toxins and toxicants.

The choice of the optimal ingredients and design recipes basic recipe compositions combined extrusion products of meat and plant materials was carried out by mathematical modeling on the PC IBM PC/AT using well-known methodological approaches proposed by academics RAAS I. A. horn and N. N. Lipatov (ml), and the origin is arctonoe technological Academy.

Based on the basic prescription of compositions designed for prescription options combined extrusion meat-vegetable products different range of tastes: sweet, salty; savory with spices (PL. 4). To obtain a variety of organoleptic characteristics and increase the nutritional value on the surface of products put kosovrasti, which use powdered sugar and vanilla (sweet products), salt and spices in different proportions (salt products and savoury with herbs).

The method is as follows.

To obtain the collagen mass secondary collagen containing raw materials, for example, a mixture of veins and tendons released during the trimming beef, sorted, washed in running water for 5-10 minutes, milled on the top with the holes of the lattice 2-3 mm, is mixed with water in a vessel with stirrer and jacket in the ratio 1:2, is heated to a temperature of 37-40oTo make the enzyme preparation at a rate of 1% of the total proteolytic activity of 1 g of material, which corresponds to: for protocolin GH, protocolin GH and megateen GH to 0.44; 0,25; 0,14% by weight of raw materials in the standard activity 230; 400; 700 units/g, respectively, and conduct farm is the situation, collagen mass is washed with running water, which removes the products of hydrolysis of albumen and globulin protein fractions and enzymes, and therefore there is no need for additional inactivation.

Collagen mass, and poultry meat mechanically separated dehydrated by the method of freeze-drying to a residual moisture content of 14-18% and ground in a mill or other equipment similar functional to a particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm

Beans lentils are separated from the shells and crushed to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm

Prepared components of the extrudable mixture is weighed in accordance with the formulations shown in table. 4, manually or automatically dosed into the mixer or other mixing device, mix to a uniform distribution of the mixture components and serves on thermalguard in the extruder under the following conditions: a temperature of 150-180oC, humidity extrusion mixture 14-16%; duration of extrusion process 40-60 C.

When you exit holes of the matrix mass under the pressure of the steam produced from hot moisture, swells to form a porous crispy harness, and a rotating knife cutting mechanism cuts off individual pieces satanicreds corresponds to the configuration matrix of the extruder. When using matrices of different configurations products can have different shapes, rods, hollow cylinders, etc.

The products are cooled, the surface put kosovrasti (powdered sugar, vanilla, dried garlic, red pepper powder, allspice, pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg) in accordance with the formulations for products required range of tastes, manually or automatically Packed and Packed.

The method is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. When receiving the meat-vegetable mixture for the production of combined extrusion products of meat and vegetable raw materials for the basis used prescription composition products sweet example 1 table. 4. When this was previously prepared and mixed raw materials according to the description (see above): collagen weight - 12 kg (12%), poultry meat fur. boning - 11 kg (11%), lentil - 48 kg (48%), semolina - 15 kg (15%), powdered milk and vegetable semi-finished products - 7 kg (7%). The mixture humidity 14-16% ekstragiruyut in the extruder at a temperature of 150-180oWith the length of the extrusion process 40-60 C.

Products are then subjected to cutting, cooled and the surface cause kosovrasti: sugar - 6,95 kg (6,95%), vanillin - 0,03 to other samples (2-6) RX compositions combined extrusion meat-vegetable products are summarized and presented in table. 4 for three types of products of different range of tastes: I - sweet (example 2), II - salt (examples 3-4), III - spicy with herbs (examples 5-6).

Biological value obtained by the proposed method combined extrusion products was determined using a complex calculation of indicators and criteria to assess the degree of balance of amino acid composition of multicomponent protein food mixtures compared to the ideal protein on a scale FAO/who: ratio of amino acid differences Skoura (KRAS), biological value (BC), the ratio of the utility of amino acid composition of the protein (COAS), metric comparable redundancy (PSI). Chemical composition and indices of biological value of the products obtained by the proposed method are given in table. 5.

The drawing shows the results of comparative assessment of biological value of the products obtained by the proposed method (examples 1, 3, 5) and the prototype (for the respective rooms variants of recipes). The data confirm an increase in 16-20% of the biological values obtained by the proposed method products in comparison with the prototype, allowing for more use 1/5-1/6 catproduct of meat and plant materials balanced amino acid composition, have high nutritional and biological value, good organoleptic characteristics, a diverse range of tastes and can be used in the feeding of various social and physiological groups, including cooked breakfasts for schoolchildren and students, without additional cooking.

Compared with the prototype of the proposed solution has the following advantages: - increase biological and nutritional value of food through a better balance of amino acid composition;
- enrichment products high quality protein (average 16%), and components that have physiological activity: connective tissue analogues of dietary fiber, vegetable dietary fibre, vitamins, micro - and macro-elements in the composition of the powdered milk and vegetable semi-finished products;
- expand the functionality of the secondary low - or unclaimed for nutritional purposes collagen containing raw meat industry;
- saving the main raw meat.


Claims

1. A method of obtaining a combined extrusion products of meat and vegetable raw materials, providing training is characterized in that as plant materials used lentils, pre-crushed to a particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and semolina, as raw meat - collagen mass, obtained by processing of secondary raw material containing collagen in the meat industry preparations of proteolytic enzymes, for example, megaterium GH, or protocontinent GH, or protocontinent GH, and poultry meat mechanically separated, when preparing raw meat dehydrated by the method of freeze-drying to a residual moisture content of 14-18% and pulverized until the particle size 0.5-1.0 mm, by dosing the components additionally combined use of food additives in the form of powdered milk and vegetable semi-finished products, after extrusion on the surface of products put kosovrasti (powdered sugar, salt, spices), and combined extrusion products are obtained in the following ratio, wt.%:

Collagen weight of 12 - 15

Poultry mechanically deboned 10 - 14

Lentils 44 - 49

Semolina 14 - 17

Powdered milk

vegetable semi-finished

(PMOP) 5 - 9

Kosovrasti 4 - 7

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a secondary collegeside cattle, or a mixture of veins and tendons, or intestinal raw materials and/or waste of raw intestines.

 

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