Edible molding product in the form of a flat or tubular film

 

The invention relates to edible molding product in the form of a flat or tubular film based on plastificated biopolymers, products of their decomposition or derivatives and/or synthetic polymers from natural monomers, i.e., of thermoplastic starch. The latter are characterized by the fact that they are made by mixing biopolymers, their cleavage products or derivatives and/or synthetic polymers with at least one edible plasticizer, at least one softening agent and at least one means of stitching. Next melt thus obtained mixture into a thermoplastic mass, ekstragiruyut this mass and calendarbut and/or pull or pneumatically molded received during the extrusion process the product with the receipt of edible molding body. Edible molding body according to the invention are suitable for packaging food products such as sausage and cooked ham. In particular, they are suitable as seamless casings for sausages, which has environmental and safety made simple and cheap. 14 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tables.

The invention relates to edible Faure and/or synthetic polymers from natural monomers. They are mainly used as packaging films and casings for sausages.

As edible casings for sausages until today well established along with natural casings for sausages (primarily sheep intestine) only films and tubes of collagen (patent Germany V and application U.S. A). Edible shell on the basis of calcium alginate (patent Germany V) failed to achieve recognition.

Edible films and tubes of collagen produced using expensive and environmentally harmful way from the skins of cattle. The skins of cattle with acids (e.g. lactic acid) translate into soluble (convenient for processing) condition; highly viscous mass ekstragiruyut and with gaseous NH3or with NH4OH slowly and compact isolated in sediment and strengthen. Then when drying is binding (cure), which strengthens the products so much that they carry the cooking process without significant losses in part mechanical stability.

In contrast casings for sausages, made on the basis of alginate failed to give the required article is ü calcium gradually turns into a soluble sodium salt of alginic acid. As a result of this shell lose their strength.

Made up of descriptions of inventions to unaccepted European application A known tubular casings for sausages on the basis of thermoplastic starch. For their production primarily through plasticizer, such as, for example, water, butane-1,3-diol, glycerol, diglycerin, N, N-dimethylation, sorbitol or citrate, plastificator natural starch, in particular potato, corn or starch derived from cereal, then ekstragiruyut and milled to obtain granules. After plasticization almost completely preserved-gelectrode starch. Also for longer periods of granular amorphous state of the starch is retained. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is mixed then at the next stage of processing with a reinforcing fiber, protein, and also with means of blending, the mixture is heated, ekstragiruyut through an annular nozzle, and then subjected to molding using blast.

In lined with the description of the invention to unaccepted application Germany A described film and film tube from casein. For the manufacture of casein powder is mixed with a solution which contains will vorhaut the molding at a temperature of from 60 to 100oWith the establishment of the film or film tube. The hardening of the film or the film tube is then by treating the aqueous curing solution and, if necessary, by cold-smoked. Then from the product by drying should be removed is water.

The objective of the invention was to create edible molding bodies, in particular flat and tubular films that no longer possess the above disadvantages. In addition, they should be simple, cheap and environmentally friendly way of natural raw materials. In addition, for use as sausage casings film tube needs to have useful properties. In addition to mechanical properties, the swelling and shrinking properties, this includes, above all, sufficient thermal stability, resistance to boiling and hydrolysis resistance. This means that the films according to the invention must be sufficiently resistant to hot water or hot couple, used for boiling.

The problem is solved by making edible molding body in the form of a flat or tubular film based on plastificated biopolymers or products e is raised by the fact that the body is made according to the method having the following steps: a) Mixing of biopolymers, their cleavage products or derivatives and/or synthetic polymers with at least one edible plasticizer at least one softening agent and at least one means of stitching.

b) the Melt thus obtained mixture into a thermoplastic mass.

C) Extruding the mass.

d) Calendering and/or pulling or pneumatic molding blow received during the extrusion process of the product with the receipt of edible molding body.

In a preferred form of execution of biopolymers, their cleavage products and/or synthetic polymers are first of all mixed with a plasticizer and softening agent and processed in thermoplastic mass. And only after that this mass is mixed with the tool chain and ekstragiruyut.

Edible molding body may also have a different form than the form of a flat or tubular film. In place of stage d) or in addition to, it can be used, if necessary, other methods of formation, such as formation by molding or a method of deep drawing. The example is made that the public can follow each other. There is also the possibility of intermediate storage of extruded mass, for example, in the form of a granulate. If it is desirable or necessary for the relevant purpose, flat or tubular film according to the invention can be partially or completely thermostabilizers.

Depending on the shape of the nozzle ring-shaped or slit-like) during the process of extrusion of thermoplastic mixture formed plates or tubes, which are then by calendering and/or stretching in the longitudinal or transverse direction or by pneumatic blow molding can be converted into a flat film or seamless tubular film. If necessary, during pneumatic blow molding, calendering or extruding the material is heated. Edible flat or tubular film according to the invention have in General a wall thickness of from 20 to 120 μm, preferably from 30 to 60 μm. In the case of blown film wall thickness mainly increases with increasing inner diameter. By pulling or pneumatic molding molding the body becomes still and mechanical strength.

The molding body according to sabree environment without the use of special precipitation and wash or any of the other baths. In the method of manufacture can be used in traditional devices for mixing and extrusion, in particular mixers and single - or twin-screw extruders.

Preferred examples plastificated biopolymers, plastificated products splitting or derivatives plastificated and synthetic polymers are thermoplastic starch, starch derivatives (in particular, esters of starch, special acetates and propionate starch; along with them ethers, starch, simple special alkalemia esters of starch), extrudable gelatin and other natural proteins, such as proteins of maize, wheat and canola, casein and their derivatives, chitin and chitosan, alginic acid and alginates, carrageenan (one derived from marine algae polysaccharides from galactose), dextran, galactomannan (from flour, made from sweet horn carob, guar rubber), pectins (polygalacturonase acids and their methyl ester) and polylactic acid (polylactide). Thus, for molding bodies according to the invention in a wide variety of source materials of vegetable and animal origin. Collagen does not approach or derivatives and/or synthetic polymers is generally from 10 to 90 wt.%, the preferred way from 15 to 80 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding body.

The preferred way together employ two or more of the source material. They are suitable manner uniformly mixed and plastifitsirujushchih in a twin screw extruder with a softening agent, a plasticizing agent (a substance that imparts lubricity), hardener (by means of stitching), and optionally a filler at higher temperatures by a longer brewing time.

As the plasticizer may be talking about glycerin, diglycerin, sorbitol, complex ether of sorbitol, triglycol, carboxymethyl cellulose and other used in food products are acceptable, the preferred way already has approval of the relevant departments of the compounds. The proportion of plasticizer is generally from 0.5 to 50 wt.%, the preferred way is from 2 to 25 wt.%, respectively, relative to the total weight of the plastic body.

As softener or substance, which imparts lubricity suitable are primarily vegetable oils, especially sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and poppy oil. In addition, can be used used in their food as lecithins, complex tritely aired acetylamino acid, an ester of sucrose, lactones (such as, for example, the lactone 12-hydroxystearate acids, lactams and synthetic triglycerides. The proportion of the softening agent is generally from 2 to 30 wt.%, the preferred way is from 5 to 20 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding body.

As a curing agent or crosslinking can be used caramel (caramelized sugar, mylasa), the condensate of wood smoke, sugar aldehydes, dialdehyde (in particular, glyoxal and glutardialdehyde), dicarboxylic acids (in particular, aliphatic dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic acid, malonic acid, adipic acid and succinic acid), anhydrides of dicarboxylic acids (in particular, anhydrides, adipic acid, acetic acid = deacetylation), di - or triisocyanate (in particular, hexamethylenediisocyanate) and di - or trioxide, aldehydes polysaccharides (in particular, dialdehydes, valdecaballeros acid, Valdichiana acid, delegitimation and dialdehydes Arabica). In General, as a means of stitching are suitable such compounds, which contain at least two re what atom from 0.5 to 25 wt.%, particularly preferred manner from 1 to 10 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding body.

For edible films, which, for example, should be used for wrapping cooked hams and thus not exposed to strong mechanical stress sufficient relatively poorly effective means of stitching, such as dicarboxylic acids, sugar aldehydes (mono - and disaccharides) or caramel. Casings for sausages, which are subject, in particular, when screwing a strong mechanical load and must withstand the cooking process, while remaining intact, should be the opposite of "custom made" significantly stronger, which can particularly well be achieved by adding multiple cross-linking means. This should attract additional dialdehyde, such as glyoxal or glutardialdehyde, di - or triisocyanate or di - or trioxide.

To enhance the molding bodies according to the invention, the mixture may contain, if necessary, the fiber, the preferred way fibers of wood pulp or cotton fluff, and/or pigments, in particular inorganic pigments such as calcium carbonate.

The wood cellulose fiber with a length of from 0.2 to 5 mm, preferred is from.%, the preferred way 5 and 20 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding body.

Short fiber pulp, used to gain, however, is not digested, but, being in ballast substances contribute to the digestion. They are the preferred way by using special nozzles in a compact middle layer, i.e., in two layers, not containing fibers, extruded layer of fibers containing polymer composition. However, we are able to distribute the fibers throughout the cross section, i.e., to ekstradiroval only polymer mixture containing fiber. Often it is preferable introduction along with the fibers still and fillers, such as cutting the skin.

As a source of polymeric material is especially preferred are mixtures of thermoplastic starch with extrudable protein, especially preferred are gelatin. The proportion of starch to protein is in General 95:5-5:95. To improve moisture resistance and thermal stability can be also used chitosan or pectin in an amount of from 3 to 30 wt.%, the preferred way is from 5 to 20 wt.%, however, in terms of the total weight of the polymer sesli partially acetate starch. By adding simultaneous mixing from 5 to 25 wt.%, the preferred way from 8 to 22 wt.%, glycerin (respectively in terms of total weight) and from 2 to 20 wt.%, preferred from 5 to 15 wt.%, natural vegetable oils, for example sunflower oil, the mixture becomes soft and does not stick together, which simplifies the process of extruding.

For curing in a preferred form of execution in the mixture injected from 0.8 to 5 weight. %, preferably from 1 to 3 wt.%, caramel and optionally from 0.5 to 10 wt.%, the preferred way is from 1 to 5 wt.%, dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic acid, malonic acid or succinic acid.

For edible shells used for sausages, adding from 1 to 10 wt.%, the preferred way is from 2 to 6 wt.% (based on the total weight of all components), dialdehyde, such as glyoxal or glutardialdehyde, diisocyanate, such as, for example, hexamethylenediisocyanate, diketene, diepoxide, lactam or lactone (for example,-lactone of gluconic acid) is favorable. Mix with prolonged mixing at a temperature of from 90 to 170oWith the preferred manner at a temperature of from 95 to 150oC, p is the promise to implement later processing.

Edible seamless tubular film in the zone of the gauge from 16 to 50, preferably from 18 to 30, it is advisable to produce by extrusion through an annular nozzle carried out before pneumatic molding. The ratio of elongation of the surface of the pneumatic molding is generally in the range from 1:5 to 1:20, preferably in the range from 1: 6 to 1:10, particularly preferred is a ratio of approximately 1:8.

Tubular film can then be prepariruetsya at a later stage of the method from the inside or from the inside and outside and thus be modified in their properties. In particular, it can happen again curing, which is provided with ionizing radiation, for example using x-ray radiation, and using the above curing funds or funds "stitching". They can be applied in the form of solutions or dispersions. Tubular film can be dried (as usual) between two pairs of flatting rolls in the pressurized state. This process follows the well-known process operation glues. Typically, sites tubular film are arranged in layers and formed of naploleon for sausages, in particular for sausages. The molding body according to the invention is also suitable for packaging other food products, such as cheese.

Wide base natural source of polymers, additives and substances stitching, in addition, makes possible a very wide range of options expected properties, which can have wrappers for food products, so that the molding body can be adapted exactly to the specific requirements, as demonstrated by the examples below. Interest should be considered weight percent, unless nothing else.

EXAMPLE 1 (a) Obtaining a thermoplastic starch: 100 kg of potato starch were dried in vacuum until the water content less than 0.3% and with 50 kg of glycerol (99%) melted and well mixed at a temperature of from 160 to 190oWith in a kneading machine; to eliminate the helix structure of the starch melt 2 hours was maintained at a temperature of 170oWith; after that, the mass was extruded and granulated. During the final storage of starch granules remained in the amorphous state.

b) Mixing and production of film: 50 kg of the granules obtained in subparagraph (a) (33,3 kg starch + 16,7 kg of glycerol) were mixed with: 25 kuchnogo oil and
1 kg of caramel.

The mixture is melted in the extruder at 160oWith uniformly distributed and extrudible through slotted head having a size of 40 cm, was subjected to drawing (stretching ratio in the machine direction is 1:4, in the transverse direction is 1:10), cooled, kondicionirovanie until the moisture content is 8%, and wound into a roll. Properties of the thus obtained film can be drawn from the following table 1.

Meat products, in particular boiled ham, were wrapped in the foil and covered with mesh. After boiling, the grid was removed without any problems. Boiled ham sliced after that together with a film cover. The film was available for the penetration of oxygen and smoke, but little is available for liquid and fat.

EXAMPLE 2
40 kg of partially acetylated starch with a degree of substitution equal to 2.2,
25 kg processed gelatin,
5 kg of chitosan,
20 kg of glycerin,
3 kg of caramel,
2 kg of hexamethylenediisocyanate and
5 kg of sunflower oil
were well mixed. The mixture was melted at a temperature between 170 and 180oC, and then maintained at a temperature of 175oC for 30 min, then XtraDrive as the film through the slit head, izinarolan (humidity, equal to 10%) and wound into a roll. Properties of the thus obtained film can be drawn from the following table 2.

The film is suitable for wrapping a variety of meat products and can be consumed along with them.

EXAMPLE 3
a) Obtaining a thermoplastic starch:
75 kg of potato starch were dried in vacuum until the water content less than 0.3%, mixed with 25 kg of glycerol (99%) and melted and well mixed at a temperature of from 160 to 190oWith two-shaft kneading machine. The melt is then kept for 2 hours at a temperature of 175oWith, extrudible and was granulated.

b) Mixing and manufacture of tubular film:
51 kg of the granules obtained in subparagraph (a), were mixed with:
20 kg processed gelatin,
10 kg of chitosan,
10 kg of sunflower oil,
5 kg of malonic acid,
2 kg of glyoxal and
2 kg of caramel.

This mixture was melted in the extruder at a temperature of 175oWith, promaseal and extrudible through an annular nozzle having a diameter of 20 mm between the nozzle and the first deflecting roller by inflating the length and breadth ratio of 1:8 (for the area) has pulled the bag foil, cooled, flat kladivo elongation at 21 kPa, equal to 23 mm wall Thickness was 30 μm, a weight of 40 g/m2. Automatic filling machine corrugated sleeve filled with ground meat for sausage, cooked, smoked and Packed.

EXAMPLE 4
The mixture of
30 kg processed gelatin,
20 kg of the granular starch of subparagraph (3b),
20 kg of partially acetylated starch (Sconacell S),
10 kg of glycerin,
10 kg of sunflower oil,
5 kg of glyoxal and
5 kg caramel
was melted. One third of this melt was then mixed in a separate extruder with fibers from wood pulp in length from 0.5 to 1.5 mm using a special nozzle with a diameter of 18 mm by co-extrusion was made of three-layer sleeve, outer and inner layer of which had no fibers, while the Central layer had a fiber. Rocalobras shell contained 12% of the fibers in relation to its total weight.

Between the nozzle and the sleeve roller by inflating the sleeve stretched, cooled, kondicionirovanie (10 wt.% moisture content) was wound into a roll and put. In soaked condition sleeve had a burst pressure equal to 36 kPa, static elongation at 21 kPa, equal to 22 mm, wall thickness equal to 32 µm list, cooked and smoked.

EXAMPLE 5
The melt produced from
30 kg processed gelatin,
20 kg of partially acetylated starch,
10 kg of pectin,
20 kg of glycerin,
10 kg of olive oil,
5 kg of glutardialdehyde and
5 kg caso3
and extrudible before receiving sleeve 20 gauge, as described in example 3. He had the same quality as the sleeve according to example 3.

EXAMPLE 6
50 kg of potato starch (not dried) was mixed with 10 kg of water and 10 kg of glycerol for 2 hours at a temperature of from 100 to 120oC. thus evaporate most of the water. The resulting mass was mixed with 10 kg of glycerol and 1 kg of glyoxal and extraditables at a temperature of 140oSince, as described above, through an annular nozzle with a diameter of 20 mm, and then subjected to pneumatic molding (the ratio of in-plane stretching is 1:6). Properties of the thus obtained film can be drawn from the following table 3.

Example 7
Received the melt from the
50 kg processed gelatin,
21 kg carrageenan,
10 kg of chitosan,
10 kg of sunflower oil,
5 kg of malonic acid,
2 kg of glyoxal and
2 kg of caramel
and extrudible in the form of a sleeve with a diameter of 20 mm, as described in example 3. T /> 50 kg processed gelatin,
10 kg of pectin,
20 kg of glycerin,
10 kg of olive oil,
5 kg glutaric dialdehyde and
5 kg caso3
and extrudible in the form of a sleeve with a diameter of 20 mm, as described in example 3. Properties of the product were similar to the sleeve of example 3.


Claims

1. Edible molding product in the form of a flat or tubular film for packaging food products, having a thickness of 20 to 60 μm and is made of plastificated biopolymer, its derivative and/or plastificated a synthetic polymer made from natural monomers, in which plastificated biopolymer, its derivative and/or plastificated synthetic polymer made from natural monomers chosen from thermoplastic starch, a derivative of starch, extrudable natural protein, casein derivatives casein, chitin, chitosan, alginic acid, alginate, carrageenan, dextran, galactomannan, pectin or polylactic acid or mixtures thereof and mixed with at least one edible plasticizer, at least one softening agent and at least one crosslinking agent.

2. Forming the product under item 1 that distinguish the suits is 10 - 90 wt.%, the preferred way of 15 to 80 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding product.

3. Forming the product under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the plasticizer is glycerin, diglycerin, sorbitol, esters of sorbitol, triglycol or carboxymethylcellulose.

4. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-3, characterized in that the proportion of plasticizer (plasticizer) is 0.5 to 50 wt.%, the preferred way 2 - 25 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding product.

5. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-4, characterized in that the softening agent is a vegetable oil, preferably are sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and poppy oil or lecithin, complex tritely aired acetylamino acid ester of sucrose, lactone, lactam or synthetic triglyceride.

6. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-5, characterized in that the proportion of the softening agent (softeners) is 2 to 30 wt.%, the preferred way 5 - 20 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding product.

7. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-6, characterized in that the means for joining is caramel, wood smoke condensate, chatrapati or aldehyde polysaccharides.

8. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-7, characterized in that the proportion of funds (funds) knitting is 0.2 - 30 wt.%, the preferred manner of 0.5 - 25 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding product.

9. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-8, characterized in that it contains fiber, the preferred way fibers of wood pulp or cotton fluff.

10. Forming the product under item 9, characterized in that the fibers of wood pulp have a length of 0.2 to 5 mm, the preferred manner of 0.5 - 2 mm

11. Forming the product under item 9 or 10, characterized in that the proportion of fibers is 2 to 30 wt.%, the preferred way 5 - 20 wt.%, accordingly, calculated on the total weight of the molding product.

12. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-11, characterized in that it contains pigments.

13. Molding a product by one of the PP.9-11, characterized in that it consists of three layers, and only the Central layer contains fibers.

14. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-13, characterized in that it again utverjdayut.

15. Molding a product by one of the PP.1-14, characterized in that it is a packaging for meat and sausage products, preferably seamless shell is

 

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