Method and device for the creation, validation and modification of the geological models of the subsurface zones

 

The invention is intended to create, test and modify created using computer models of the subsurface area of the Earth. The claimed method and device allow for computer-implemented tools with which the user selectively accesses and displays the required geophysical, geographical, and historical data and/or generates hypotheses, controls the hypotheses and tests hypotheses related to the structures of the subsurface zones. Such tools allow us to estimate the geological reliability numerous alternative models, using knowledge of existing archives for new scenarios to create new archives, and simultaneously view the relevant part of the volume is a database containing geographical and geophysical data. Technical result: the possibility of forecasting with the direct distance from the object. 12 C. and 28 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill.

In this application claims priority to previously filed applications for U.S. patent 08/980956, 08/980958 and 08/989957, which were all filed December 1, 1997, and accordingly have the title "Method for creating, testing and modifying geological modelele geological models of the subsurface zones" (APPARATUS FOR CREATING TESTING, AND MODIFYING GEOLOGICAL SUBSURFACE MODELS) and Industrial products for the creation, validation and modification of the geological models of the subsurface zones" (ARTICLE OF MANUFACTURE FOR CREATING TESTING, AND MODIFYING GEOLOGICAL SUBSURFACE MODELS).

BACKGROUND of the INVENTION the technical Field to which the invention relates Aspects of the present invention derive from the fields of Geology, geography, Geophysics, applied mathematics, computer engineering, software development and ergonomics (as it relates to the design of computer interfaces). In particular, the present invention relates to based on the use of computers in ways that help geologists (or other specialists) in the development, modification and validation geologically satisfactory model (geologically satisfactory models) subsurface zones using geographical, drilling, seismic and geological data about the analogues, as well as the famous principles of Geology and Geophysics.

The level of engineering Geologists often forced to build a model to facilitate efficient production of hydrocarbons or minerals from a subsurface zone or for monitoring contaminants in subsurface formations. Praesentia when sampling subsurface geological formations by means of measurements in the wellbore or geophysical measurements on the surface. In addition, the measured properties are often not of direct concern to the person trying to build a model (for example, seismic measurements are responses to changes in acoustic impedance, then as a scientist, geologist, you may want to build a model of permeability within the subsurface zone). And although you need a lot of knowledge concerning the "interpretation" of data drilling log, seismic and other geophysical data (see, for example, O. Serra, "Data on the sedimentary rocks of the log of inspection of pulley ropes, publication M-081030/SMP-7008 company "Schlumberger technical services", 1985 (O. Serra, Sedimentary Environments from Wireline Logs, Schlumberger Technical Services Publication M-081030/SMP-7008 (1985)), the reality is these activities according to the "interpretation" is inevitably linked with the judgment of experienced geologists.

Thus, it is usually possible to combine measurements with the geological knowledge (i.e. knowledge, which usually have a geological "experts") to assess the distribution of interest parameters in the subsurface zone. However, this process, at least on modern practical level is difficult. For this reason, based on an the surface), people will make assumptions about the distribution of geophysical parameters of interesting geological formations. Cm. for example, T. Dreyer, "Geometry and facies of large-scale blocks flow in the fan sequences triangular fronts, dominant in river sediments" in the book "Advances in geological formations", edited by M. Ashton, special publication of the Geological society, 69, cc. 135-174 (1993) (T. Dreyer, Geometry and Facies of Large-Scale Flow Units in Fluvial-Dominated Fan-Delta - Front Sequences, in M. Ashton (Ed.), Advances in Reservoir Geology, Geological Society Special Publication, 69, 135-174 (1993)). When properly used, this method of reasoning by analogy" may allow the scientist to predict unknown interesting properties on the basis of available measurements (measurements) and assumptions about the nature of the geological formations (for example, if the profile is similar to some well-known geological formation).

However, in addition to costs, time and availability of suitable geological "experts", this matching method with similar geological formations suffers some problems. In particular, as noted in the literature, for example, I. D. Bryant and S. S. flint, "Quantitative elastic geological modeling of the Plaza is Nagini", edited by S. S. flint and I. D. Bryant, special publication of the International Association of sedimentologist, 15, cc.3-20 (1993) (I. D. Bryant and S. S. Flint, Quantitative Elastic Reservoir Geological Modeling: Problems and Perspectives, in S. S. Flint I. D. Bryant (Eds.), Geological Modeling of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Outcrop Analogues, International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication, 15, 3-20 (1993)), and j. Alexander, "a Discussion on the use of analogues for the geological layers" (J. Alexander, A Discussion on the Use of Analogues for Reservoir Geology) in the book "Advances in geological formations", edited by M. Ashton, special publication of the geological society, 69, cc.175-194 (1993), difficult (1) to ensure that the selected analogue suitable for this subsurface geological formations and 2) scale information about the analog to ensure better compliance with the required information.

There is currently no systematic, rigorous and effective ways of scaling the spatial statistics of similar" to ensure the best match with the statistics interesting geological formation or reservoir. And even after the initial "similar" model, there is no systematic, rigorous and effective method of verification (determining reliability) or test the model.

The overall theme geologicgeophysical facies" (METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING GEOLOGICAL FACIES) described a method for automatically determining the lithological facies according to the boring logs.

In U.S. patent 5012675 "multiple variables mapping for oil and gas exploration" (INTEGRATION MULTIPLE MAPPING VARIABLES FOR OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION) describes how to integrate geological survey data (e.g. topographic, bathymetric, free Aero-gravimetric method Bugera (Bouguer), magnetic, electromagnetic, geochemical, radioactive, temperature, biotic, geological and other (non-seismic and not based on data from the boring logs) filming) for the localization features of the subsurface zone, useful for mineral exploration.

In U.S. patent 4648268 "method for determining the homogeneous zones of the formation along the borehole based on the drilling logs" (METHOD OF DEFINING HOMOGENEOUS ROCK FORMATION ZONES ALONG A BOREHOLE ON THE BASIS OF LOGS) described a method of processing data logs to determine the boundaries of the geological formation of rocks along the wellbore.

In U.S. patent 4937747 "Iterative processing of the feedback received on the basis of the drilling log, and other data education using NC cluster and discriminant functions" (ITERATIVE DISJOINT CLUSTER AND DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION PROCESSING OF FORMATION LOG RESPONSES AND OTHER DATA) is described based on the analysis of cluster data handling drill is And 4991095 "Method of three-dimensional mathematical modeling of underground volumes" (PROCESS FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNDERGROUND VOLUMES) described a method for modeling subsurface zones using a regular grid in the plane longitude-latitude and arbitrary resolution in the direction of depth.

In U.S. patent 5761136 "a Method of obtaining seismic images of the measurement and evaluation of three-dimensional underground objects having a common impedance" (PROCESS FOR SEISMIC IMAGING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SUBTERRANIAN COMMON-IMPEDANCE OBJECTS), 5475589 System for evaluation of lithology and seismic properties of the sequence and to assess the risk associated with forecasting the potential uglevodorodyonogo reservoir, seal, trap or source" (SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING SEISMIC SEQUENCE LITHOLOGY AND PROPERTY, AND FOR EVALUATING RISK ASSOCIATED WITH PREDICTING POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR, SEAL, TRAP OR SOURCE) "Method of seismic lithologic modeling" (METHOD FOR SEISMIC LITHOLOGIC MODELING) the methods of creating images and/or models of the subsurface zone from seismic data.

In U.S. patent 5671344 "Method and display the N-dimensional data in N-1-dimensional format (PROCESS FOR DISPLAYING N-DIMENSIONAL DATA IN AN N-1 DIMENSIONAL FORMAT) describes the method for displaying three-dimensional seismic data on the computer display.

None of these known approaches, both individually and in the aggregate, are not dedicated to the needs of the development of an online system, which gives qualified scientist, geologist the ability to create and evaluate multiple alternative models, consisting of geologically plausible space is s and geophysical data. The present invention described below addresses this and other needs.

SUMMARY of the INVENTION IN General terms and without any limitation one aspect of the invention relates to computer-implemented methods and/or devices based computers) create models of subsurface zones, for example, lies in the fact that choose the area of the world that you want to model, provide geophysical and geographical data corresponding to the selected area, provide an archive of known geographical structures, provide an interface that allows the user to create a model of a subsurface area of the identified region. The interface allows the user, for example, to selectively view a part of the geographical and/or geophysical data, to choose a certain structure of the archive, to convert the selected structure in accordance with geographical or geophysical data and to repeat any or all of these steps to create a model of the subsurface zone. The method may also include the control model of the subsurface zone to inconsistencies with geographical and/or geophysical data and report discrepancies, if any, is moreover, the model can be controlled by internal inconsistencies.

Again in General terms and without any limitation, another aspect of the present invention relates to computer-implemented methods and/or devices based computers) interactive creation of geological models of the subsurface zones, for example, lies in the fact that identify the area of the world, subsurface zone which is subject to modeling, create a variety of hypotheses related to the Geology of the identified area, check one or more hypotheses and modify one or more hypotheses. Any hypothesis can have one or more polypores, thereby creating a tree hierarchy. Hypothesis (and poggipolini) within the same tree preferably checked for internal consistency. Hypotheses can be verified on the basis of both induction and deduction. Each hypothesis preferably includes information identifying the portion of the subsurface zone, and information regarding at least one property associated with the identified part. The hypothesis can be proved by induction and comparison with seismic data, drilling data log and/or current data, iliopoulou other hypotheses.

Again in General terms and without any limitation, another aspect of the present invention relates to computer-implemented methods and/or devices based computers) Department of geological hypotheses, for example that provide the user interface for creating hypotheses, carry out hierarchical organization of hypotheses with getting together woody structures, implement reorganization of woody structures in accordance with the instructions of the user, and hierarchical internal correspondence between hypotheses. Each hypothesis is either root hypothesis (and in this case it has no generating hypotheses) or pidgeotto other hypotheses (generating hypotheses). Pidgeotto preferably contains information about generating her hypothesis, as well as additional information. The hypothesis can identify or characterize a system of deposits or stratigraphic sequence for a specified interval. Hypotheses can be excluded or to reorganize the hierarchy. Hierarchical internal consistency can be maintained by ensuring that for each pair generating hypotheses and poggipolini information is her hypothesis.

Again in General terms and without any limitation, another aspect of the present invention relates to computer-implemented methods (or devices based computers) provide information for the creation of geological models, for example consisting in the following.

For the selected area of the world selectively display under control of the user selected portion of the geographical data of the selected area, geophysical data from the selected area and archive data from other areas. The geographic data may include, for example, aerial photographs, two-dimensional photographs of the outcrop (output surface), three-dimensional texture outcrop, core photos, political boundaries, and thin sections. Geophysical data can include, for example, seismic data, texture chart, drilling logs, vertical seismic profiles and data penetrating radar scan of the soil. Archival data may include, for example, any of the above data, as well as information about the surfaces, the geometric characteristics and the bodies of closed forms, descriptions of facies, information from the field of biostratigraphy and palaeography. The present invention includes the tel data, on which is recorded a program that gives the computer user the ability to execute the above program for implementation in interaktivni mode and display the data obtained from the subsurface zone, b) select an object from many different three-dimensional objects, C) placing the selected three-dimensional object model of the subsurface zone, and d) converting the selected three-dimensional object to obtain agreement with the data obtained from the subsurface zone.

The advantages of the present invention include improved performance when creating geological models and improved accuracy of the models. In the excellent accuracy of the simulation improves the placement of wells and forecasting of production.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS the drawings depict one particular embodiment of the invention, and this kit is illustrative (but not exclusive or restrictive) character.

Fig.1 depicts the entire system "Cyberhero"; Fig.2-3 depict in more detail selected elements shown in Fig. 1; Fig.4-9 depict the possible different States of the user interface system "Cyberhero".

DETAIL is the first concrete option implementation "Cyberhero". "Cyberhero" is a computer-implemented system. It includes many of the commands listed on machine-readable media (including, but not limited to, a storage device with random access (NVR), a persistent storage device (ROM) or other solid-state devices and/or magnetic, magneto-optical or optical device) that causes a computer (of any type, including, but not limited to, miniature portable (pocket) of the computer device, the so-called personal digital assistants (PDB), personal computers (PCs), workstations developers, minicomputers, the main computers, data centers and supercomputers) to handle the data that displays geological and/or geophysical phenomena, in accordance with the invention.

"Cyberhero" is an interactive system designed to help the scientist-geologist in interpretation (and other) data and to facilitate the construction of three-dimensional geological models based on such interpretation. Therefore, as shown in Fig.1, "Cyberhero includes an interface 210 of the user. The interface 210 of the user includes in salescompany display, projection device, or used with display (stereoscopic) glasses device that allows you to create virtual reality), an input device for a user (any type, including, but not limited to, a keyboard, mouse, other pointing device, voice recognition or other biometric device) and commands that make the system "Cyberhero" make a proper display (examples of which are shown in Fig.4-9), and respond in accordance with user commands.

"Cyberhero" embodies a fundamentally new approach to Geology. In essence, "Cyberhero" is a Toolkit for use by geologists in the process of making decisions about oil and gas. The user Cybergauge has the ability to make a forecast, while away from the wellbore. These predictions can be done, first, by using knowledge of Geology, and secondly, by using tools that allow geologists to enrich your experience with other data.

In natural conditions, the hydrocarbons deposited in sedimentary rocks, which are heterogeneous and are in separate deposits. That is why important Geology. If sedimentary rocks appeared in Podoroga) are formed by deposits of ancient rivers and shallow offshore banks, who, for example, plunged to the ground due lasted millions of years of sedimentation and deformed because of the mountains, as well as more or less isolated. Individual deposits can be created by faults. Seismic measurements often do not have sufficient resolution to obtain the contours of individual deposits; often boreholes are too few and they are very far from each other. The boundaries of these individual deposits control the behavior of liquids (and gases) during production. Geologist, a lifetime spent on the rivers and shallow sea shores and the most trained to determine the boundaries of individual deposits (for decision making), currently has no tool for this.

"Cyberhero" is a tool that helps the geologist in determining the boundaries and behavior, facilitating thus the effective placement of wells in complex formations.

Now let us turn to Fig.1, which displays all the system "Cyberhero". (Note. Although in Fig.1-3 show some arrows depicting the possible procedure of the entire system "Cyberhero", actually it does not demand the implementation of the various modules or functions in a particular order, nabor is. alsoas interface 210, the user selects the project with the help of the administrator 300 project. The project mainly covers a specific area of the surface and/or subsurface area of the Earth, along with a set of interpretations (or hypotheses) that are associated with the geological properties in this particular area. If before there existed any project, then the project may include a set of previously established hypotheses. In contrast, in the case of a new project there is empty space with geographic (e.g., aerial photographs of the surface and topological maps) and geophysical (e.g., seismic 820, debetowe 830 and drilling 840) data.

As shown in Fig.2, the initiation 310 project in the illustrated example includes the identification 311 user, assigning 312 of title to the project and the placing of 313 tasks. The system then generates a virtual real model of a subsurface area in accordance with which the user operates on the interpretation.

Generating 320 virtual subsurface zone in the illustrated example includes obtaining 321 geographic data from the database, convert 322 geographic data in a suitable form is powerhnostnoj zone, converting data 324 subsurface zone to use user interface and printing 325 data, including only those that the user wants to include in the printout. Typically, the next step involves a variety of user-defined goals for viewing 330 in the interface, and this stage in the depicted example includes setting 331 cameras and demonstration of Windows (and/or modification 332 cameras and demonstration of Windows).

As shown in Fig.3, the administrator 400 hypothesis provides the basis for interpretation (and hence simulation) subsurface world. Referring to the different objectives, the user creates (or justifies) hypothesis. "Cybergauge" hypotheses are created and managed in the tree-like structures. Thus, hypotheses naturally organized into subsets. Any hypothesis can have one or more polypores, each of which may also have one or more polypores, etc.

Hypothesis assigns interpretation (i.e., one or more properties) area area ("interval") in the virtual subsurface zone. Generating hypothesis begins with the initiation 410 hypothesis. As shown in Fig. 3, the initiation of the hypotheses in the depicted example, the switch is for placement of the hypothesis at the corresponding location in the hierarchy.

Then, the user typically specifies the interval, which will be owned by the hypothesis. At this stage, looking at 420 421 geophysical data, and the user selects 422 interval of interest for interpretation.

Interpretation 430 selected interval in the depicted example includes the identification 431 system deposits and/or interpretation of 432 stratigraphic sequence in the selected interval. Interpretation 430 operates in the interactive mode the user; he or she works with interface to display geographic or geophysical data appropriately to identify properties or characteristic on the basis of which is the interpretation.

Once a hypothesis is formulated, it is preferably subjected to immediate control 440 for compliance, the results of which are reported to the user. "Cybergauge control 440 for compliance in the depicted example includes a control 441 through deductive logic (for example, to guarantee smoooothly between the generating and generated hypotheses) or control 442 by induction (for example, applied to the geophysical data).

Generally speaking, the deduction is the transition from the General to the particular. A number of well E deposits of the same facies, as well as the total number of species zone different facies were formed one after another in space, and in cormorano profile we can see them lying on top of each other. The main condition of the importance of "far" approach is precisely that overlap each other may be primarily only those facies and facies that you can observe each other at the moment. " (O. Serra, 1985, S. 49). In addition, in connection with electroflame, rule apareciste correlations layers are deposited one on top of another, so that they can be squeezed out, but can not be crossed" (O. Serra, 1985, SS. 187-188) provides the basis for deductive control likelihood sequence electroface.

On the other hand, induction is, as a rule, the transition from private to General. For example, the user may be based on characteristics provided in the drilling logs, to conclude "by induction" that a given interval is a Sandstone, linking thus a particular case (for example, a particular characteristic, shown in the drill log) with the more General (e.g., sandstones). Other examples conclusions by induction described in the aforementioned patent 4646240 (cm. U.S. patent 4646240 with the line 34 in column 29 is. For example, suppose the user by induction concluded that the clay content in this area. Suppose also that regardless of the data considered by the user, the database contains data of gamma radiation, and that these gamma rays indicate the presence of a low-level plateau in a certain area. At this point, you can use deductive application of known rules of interpretation of gamma radiation (see, for example, U.S. patent 4646240, "Rule 008") to determine the validity of the hypothesis on the clay content.

As soon as the hypothesis goes through these stages on internal control compliance, the user usually goes to the gallery 500. Gallery 500 provides an interface to a database containing geological and geographical archival data, including, but not limited to, geographic data (such as aerial photographs), geological data (such as two-dimensional images outcrop (output surface), three-dimensional texture outcrop, photos of core and thin sections), geophysical data such as seismic data, texture chart, drilling logs, vertical seismic profiles and data penetrating radar scan of the soil) and archive Yes the La closed form or other geological data (such as descriptions of facies, information from the field of biostratigraphy and palaeography).

In the gallery there are two main tasks. The first is the model selection and the second selection of objects to be placed in a three-dimensional world of the subsurface zone. The user typically will be included in the gallery 500 with a certain amount of data and view 510 archive gallery in search of examples of objects that are appropriate to the data that with proper coordination can give a proper coincidence with the incoming data, or the user can enter data without and want to view all objects, generic or agreed upon, and to choose one. Gallery 500 preferably organized into subsets of related objects; thus, the viewing gallery may imply the selection 520 subset and display its contents. The user can then view 530 implementation of the selected object in the device that provides three-dimensional (three-dimensional) view. Immediately after selecting 540 template you can move to the instrumental package 600.

Instrumental pack 600 allows the user to work interactively with changing data types in three-dimensional space and in exact scale. This allows Poltava - this construction of the model.

The purpose of the Toolkit is to allow the user to work interactively with the scale and manipulate models in a homogeneous three-dimensional context. Data from the project can be displayed in connection with the three-dimensional image template. The user to selectively view the data in the scale, being in the range from centimeters to kilometers. The viewing device Toolkit allows the user to work interactively with the data of the project using the Toolkit. These tools perform the following functions: image processing seismic volume, select the type of data to be submitted for each well or each project, camera control, one-dimensional increase, and so on, Another set of tools allows the user to perform interpretive changes and deformation.

Using these tools, the user can attempt to negotiate 610 archive template with project data. Typically, this process will lead to several modifications or transformations 620 template to achieve an acceptable match.

Refer now to Fig.4, which image is TES box 211 allows the user to call functions of the project, Geology, archive, vault, Toolkit, and seeker of the way. A command window 213 shows the background 213A-1 commands issued in Cyberhero", and provides a field 213A-2-input, with which a trained user can operate the system in command line mode. Information window a displays the background diagnostic and/or response message that indicates the status of Cybergauge". Project window 214 provides a set menu and/or forms for project selection, initialization or control them. And the window 215 displays the selected visualization virtual subsurface zone.

In the window 215 illustrates the possible three-dimensional seismic volume I and many boreholes 215b. The list 213A-1 background command window shows that the user has selected cell from the project "Boswell", downloaded the data and set the position or direction of the camera view window 215. Status information displayed in the information window a, confirms the successful completion of "Cyberealm" this sequence of commands, select, download, and location.

Refer now to Fig. 5, which depicts another possible type of interface 210 "Cybergauge". Here the navigation but 211. The virtual image of the subsurface zone in the window 215 is now partially hidden behind other Windows. (Note: the user controls their location to each other in any desired configuration, for example, to simultaneously display the geographical, geophysical, drilling, archival data and/or information about the status of the project in any desired combination).

A command window 213b shows that the user has selected the bore 217 (i.e., well "18d") of the virtual subsurface zone displayed in the window 215, and an information window 212b confirms this choice. A command window 213b also reveals that the user called "geological" instrument Toolkit, and an information window 212b reiterates the call of the geological element and the parameters of the call.

Box 421 illustrates one aspect of the interface, geological tools. The depth is represented along the vertical dimension, and the slider (slider) a depth allows the user to select the depth for the display. Many other runners 423b-e provide control other display parameters.

Geological window 421 includes a number of disposable side-by-side possible after what about just an example).

Mark a indicates a possible plot UPMP image. (Device for receiving microimages geological layers (UPMG), representing trademark firms "Schlumberger", is a resistive device for acquiring images of all wells. Mark a may alternatively contain any type of data about the bore. The goal is to provide the user with the ability to effectively split the wells to focus on a small Subpart of the amount of information). Because UPMP images have azimuthal resolution, the slider 423b provides a means of selecting the orientation of the image track a.

General characteristic data of the well is such that at a considerable depth, it is often too much change to generate meaningful visual image based on contrasts. This phenomenon is evident in the track a, where between depths a and 422d image is essentially white. "Cyberhero" provides a tool to re-normalize, which plots the data, you can re-normalize and display with maximum contrast to support the task of interpretation. Mark 424b displays again normalisation of many improving and image processing tools in the Toolbox "Cybergauge". Provided also other operations, such as internal partitioning, the characteristic grain size and sequential stratigraphy).

As can be seen from Fig.5, re-normalized image 424b reveals several possibilities of interpretation. Using images and any other data that you want to take into account the user, the geologist can begin the process of hypotheses about the slope and other characteristics of the subsurface zone. Fig.5 depicts several hypotheses (for example, 425a-b) on slopes in facies geological formation.

Traces 424c-d are an illustration of additional hypotheses relating to the depicted plot hole. As you can see on the track s, the user hypothetically identified two areas a-b as elongated sandy spit (spit) in a winding river and identified the lithology spit 426b as Sandstone. The user can continue this process of creating hypotheses, by changing the data window (i.e., conducting a re-normalization, selection and display of other types of data, boring logs, if they are, find information about the cores, and so on ), generating alternative hypotheses, excluding implausible hypotheses, etc. as much time as you need. Then after the next stage - identify the appropriate analogue of (suitable analogues) for a region of interest (interest areas).

Refer now to Fig. 6, which depicts another possible type of interface 210 "Cybergauge". As shown in the command window s and confirmed information window s, the user has requested archive gallery 500 and caused the window 550 gallery to display the found data about the counterparts.

Box 550 gallery provides depicting a means for passing through the archive of geological data counterparts. In box 550 shows a lot selectable icon-based images (e.g., 551a-d), each of which preferably corresponds to the three-dimensional archival object. These archival objects may include, as examples from nature (for example, 551a-d) and geometric models (e.g., a).

Box 550 gallery also provides a visual interface to search the archive to find interesting structures. In the mode of turning and/or search each of the icons (for example, a-e) box 550 gallery allows the user to access relevant (e.g., geographically or geologically similar) structures from archive, which is then displayed in the form of icons, allowing the e or to look through it, entering search queries in the command window C, which again results are displayed in the window 550 gallery.

After a search in the archive and/or turning it using the window 550 gallery the user can choose a specific structure (for example, the icon 552) for a more detailed scan. Refer now to Fig. 7, which depicts an optional interface 210 "Cybergauge", in which the user has selected the icon 552 (see Fig.6) for further review. As shown in the command window s (and confirmed in the information window 212d), the user has selected an archive object (labeled "Rio Puerco") for detailed verification in box 553.

Box 553 provides a complete set of visual controls, thus allowing the user to consider any aspect of the existing three-dimensional image details. Among depicts management tools are a set of tools a management graphical editor (which control the location, scale and so on) and a set of tools 554b-d control the rotation. Using the box 553, geologist can examine the selected object to identify specific traits that this object can contain (e.g., rivers, gentle sea coast.5 in the window 421).

Refer now to Fig.8, which depicts an optional interface 210 "Cybergauge", in which geometric vaulted object 556a (along with several of his transformations 556b-C) appears in the box 555 instrument package. As shown in the command window a and information window a, the user has selected "kosohorny object 556a for display and manipulation in the tool package.

The Toolkit provides a set of tools selection, manipulation and deformation (e.g., stretching, outcrops, coordination with lines and/or surfaces, and so on) three-dimensional geometric objects. Using the Toolkit, geologist creates and reforming the geometric object to achieve compliance with the observed characteristics of geological formations in the subsurface zones. Fig.8 depicts two possible conversion 556b-kolobrzegu object 556a.

Refer now to Fig.9, which depicts an optional interface 210 "Cybergauge". Here an additional box 561 Toolkit (see command window 213f and information window 212f) to display the selected seismic horizon of podpoverkhnostnogo object 562 and strain it to be consistent with the observed seismic contours.

Now, after "placement" kolobrzegu object in the subsurface zone one possible passage on the working algorithm of Cybergauge completed. Quick reminder that the process began by choosing a region of interest of a subsurface zone, continued detailed observation, re-normalization and interpretation of the available data on subsurface zone, then went to the viewing and searching of archived data to identify possible sources of data about the analogues, continued selecting a geometry of the arch and the deformation of the selected object to match the contours of the geological formations and ended with the approval of the selected and/or deformed object to achieve compliance with the seismic contours of the geological formation. Repeating this process, the geologist can create very accurate, geologically meaningful models of geological formations in the subsurface zones.

And finally, "Cyberhero" preferably is associated with the interface of the supporting girder 810 (see Fig.1) to help the scientist-geologist in the confirmation of the created models (simulations). The confirmation may include one or more of the following actions: (i) comparison with data 820 Tasmania data 840 boring logs (which can be done using mathematical or artificial intelligence methods (i.e., deduction and induction)); and/or (iii) comparison with debetowe data 840 (see, for example, U.S. patent 5548563 "images for monitoring wells (WELL TEST IMAGING). Alternatively or as an additional final stage, the user can request detailed geological modelling 900, contributing to decisions about 100 acceptance, rejection or modification of a promising model of the subsurface zone.

Although we have described above and confirmed by examples of various specific aspects of embodiments of the present invention, specialists in the art will understand that described here, the specific ways and means of implementation, it is possible to replace or Supplement combinations or permutations of the elements described here, and methods. Therefore, it is preferable to assume that the present invention is not described here, the specific devices, methods and industrial products, and the claims.


Claims

1. A computer-implemented method of creating models of subsurface zones, namely, that (i) choose an area of the world that you want to model, (ii) provide geophysical and geograficheskih structures, (iv) provide an interface that allows the user to create a model of a subsurface area of the identified region by (a) selective view of part of the geographical and/or geophysical data, (b) selecting patterns from the archive, suitable for applicants geophysical and geographical data, (b) convert the selected structure in accordance with geographical or geophysical data, and (g) repeating steps (a), (b) and/or (C) to create a model of the subsurface zone.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein step (iv) further includes step (d), which control the model of the subsurface zone to inconsistencies with geographical and/or geophysical data.

3. The method according to p. 2, wherein step (iv) further includes step (e), on which the user report discrepancies, if any.

4. A computer-implemented method for interactively creating geological models of the subsurface zones with graphic display and input device for a user, namely, that identify the area of the world, subsurface zone which is subject to modeling, reflect geophysical and geographical data corresponding to said identitites create a lot of hypotheses, related to the Geology of the identified area using the input device for a user, check one or more of the above-mentioned hypotheses and modify one or more of these hypotheses.

5. The method according to p. 4, namely, that additionally organize the above-mentioned hypothesis of obtaining a tree hierarchy so that any hypothesis can have one or more polypores.

6. The method according to p. 5, namely, that additionally control for internal inconsistencies, if any, between hypotheses and poggipolini in the same tree.

7. The method according to p. 4, in which each hypothesis includes information identifying the portion of the subsurface zone, and information regarding at least one property associated with said identified part.

8. The method according to p. 4, which additionally confirms at least one of the mentioned hypotheses.

9. The method according to p. 8, wherein the confirmation includes at least one of the following: comparison with seismic data, comparison with data logs, compared with debetowe data or geophysical modeling.

podpoverkhnostnaya model namely, that provide the user interface for creating hypotheses, carry out hierarchical organization of hypotheses with many woody structures, implement reorganization mentioned woody structures in accordance with the instructions of the user and hierarchical internal consistency between these hypotheses.

11. The method according to p. 10, wherein the hierarchical organization of hypotheses with many woody structures include the organization of the hypotheses in such a way that each hypothesis is either root hypothesis, or pidgeotto another hypothesis - generating hypotheses.

12. The method according to p. 10, in which one of the hypotheses can identify the deposits in the specified interval or to interpret the stratigraphic sequence within the given interval.

13. The method according to p. 11, in which the reorganization includes one or more of the following actions: eliminate one or more hypotheses and/or re-assigning one or more relationships between hypotheses and poggipolini.

14. The method according to p. 11, wherein maintaining the hierarchical internal compliance includes ensuring that each pariii, contained in the hypothesis.

15. A computer-implemented method of providing information to create a geological model of the selected area, namely, that selectively displays geographic data corresponding to the selected area, geophysical data corresponding to the selected area, and archival data corresponding to the other area (other areas), and then convert the selected mentioned archived data based on the selected mentioned geographical or geophysical data to provide information for the creation of a geological model of the selected area.

16. The method according to p. 15, wherein the geographic data includes one or more of the following: aerial photography, two-dimensional photographs of outcrops (output surface), photos of Kern, thin plots, three-dimensional texture outcrops and/or boundaries of cultures or political boundaries.

17. The method according to p. 15 or 16, wherein the geophysical data include one or more of the following: seismic data, texture chart, drilling logs, vertical seismic profiles, and/or data penetrating radar scan of the ground.

18. The method according to p. 15, 16 or 17, wherein the historical data including ASDI, description facies, information from the field of biostratigraphy and palaeography, photos outcrops, geometric characteristics and/or body closed form.

19. Computer-implemented device for creating models of a subsurface zone containing a graphical display, an input device for a user, (i) computer commands listed on machine-readable media for selecting the area of the world, subject to modeling, (ii) computer commands listed on machine-readable media for providing geophysical and geographical data corresponding to the aforementioned selected area of the world, (iii) computer commands listed on machine-readable media for providing archive known geographical structures, (iv) computer commands listed on machine-readable media for providing interface which is made with the possibility of creating a model of a subsurface area of the identified region by (a) selective view of part of the geographical and/or geophysical data using the graphic display, (b) selecting patterns from the archive, suitable for applicants geophysical and geographic data, with assistance from who and the world, subject to modeling, and convert the selected structure in accordance with geographical or geophysical data, and (d) display the selected patterns using the graphic display.

20. The device according to p. 19, in which the computer commands listed on machine-readable media for providing the interface implemented with the possibility of creating a model of a subsurface area of the identified region, optionally containing computer commands (d), recorded on a machine-readable medium, for controlling a subsurface zone in inconsistencies with geographical and/or geophysical data.

21. The device according to p. 19, in which the computer commands listed on machine-readable media, for providing the interface implemented with the possibility of creating a model of a subsurface area of the identified region, optionally containing computer team (f), recorded on a machine-readable carrier, for messages to the user about the discrepancies, if any.

22. Computer-implemented device for interactive creation of a geological model of a subsurface zone containing graficas chestna area which is subject to modeling, computer commands for viewing geophysical and/or geographical data corresponding to the selected intervals of interest within mentioned the identified area of the world, using the graphic display and said input device for a user, computer commands to create a variety of hypotheses related to Geology mentioned selected intervals of interest within the identified area, using the input device for a user, computer command to test one or more hypotheses and computer program for modifying one or more hypotheses, and computer program recorded on a medium readable by a computer.

23. The device according to p. 22, further containing computer commands listed on machine-readable media, for the organization of the above-mentioned hypotheses, producing one or more trees so that any hypothesis can have one or more polypores.

24. The device according to p. 23, further containing a means for control of internal inconsistencies, if any, between hypotheses and poggipolini in the same tree.

25. The device according to p. 22, in which each hypothesis is Nisha least one property associated with said identified part.

26. The device according to p. 22, further containing computer commands listed on machine-readable media, to confirm at least one of the mentioned hypotheses.

27. The device according to p. 26, in which the confirmation includes at least one of the following: comparison with seismic data, comparison with data logs, compared with debetowe data or geophysical modeling.

28. Computer-implemented device management geological hypotheses, containing a graphical display for viewing geophysical and/or geographical data corresponding to the area of the world, the user interface for creating geological hypotheses related to the mentioned area of the world, computer programs for hierarchical organization of hypotheses with many woody structures, computer commands, recorded on machine-readable media, for the reorganization mentioned woody structures in accordance with the instructions of the user, and the computer commands listed on the machine-readable medium, for maintaining ierarhicheskoj the computer commands recorded on machine-readable media, for the hierarchical organization of hypotheses with many tree-like structures made from hypotheses in such a way that each hypothesis is either root hypothesis, or pidgeotto another hypothesis - generating hypotheses.

30. The device according to p. 28, in which the interface is configured to display a geographic or geophysical data, on the basis of which is identified by a system of sediment or interpreted stratigraphic sequence for a specified interval.

31. The device according to p. 28 in which the said means for reorganization includes one or more of the following: means for excluding one or more hypotheses and/or means for re-assigning one or more relationships between hypotheses and poggipolini.

32. The device according to p. 29, in which the mentioned computer commands listed on the machine-readable medium, for maintaining a hierarchical internal compliance contains computer commands listed on machine-readable media, to ensure that for each pair of hypotheses and poggipolini, information, stereomaterialov device to provide information to create a geological model of the selected area, containing means for selective display of geophysical data corresponding to the selected area, and archival data corresponding to the other area (other areas), and a means for converting the selected mentioned archived data based on the selected mentioned geophysical data to provide information for the creation of a geological model of the selected area, and means for displaying the above-mentioned converted archival data.

34. The device according to p. 33, further comprising means for selective display of geographic data, with geographical data includes one or more of the following: aerial photography, two-dimensional photographs of outcrops (output surface), photos of Kern, thin plots, three-dimensional texture outcrops and/or boundaries of cultures or political boundaries.

35. The device under item 33 or 34, in which geophysical data include one or more of the following: seismic data, texture chart, drilling logs, vertical seismic profiles, and/or data penetrating radar scan of the ground.

36. The device according to p. 33, or 34, or 35, wherein the historical data includes one or b is, information from the field of biostratigraphy and palaeography, photos outcrops, geometric characteristics and/or body closed form.

37. Industrial product for use in connection with a computer containing machine-readable storage medium on which is recorded a program that gives the computer user the ability to execute the above program for implementation in the interactive mode and display the data obtained from the subsurface zone, b) select an object from many different three-dimensional objects, placement of the selected three-dimensional object model of the subsurface zone and g) converting the selected three-dimensional object to align better with the data obtained from the subsurface zone.

38. The interactive way of creating a model of the subsurface zone, namely, that (a) display the data obtained from the subsurface zone, b) choose an object from many different three-dimensional objects) place the selected three-dimensional object model of the subsurface zone and d) transforming the selected three-dimensional object to align better with the data obtained from the subsurface zone.

39. Way interactive model creation ptpower the desired interval in the subsurface zone, C) interpret geological parameter associated with the chosen interval, g) select the object corresponding to the aforementioned selected geological setting, from a variety of different three-dimensional objects, d) place the selected three-dimensional object model of the subsurface zone and (e) convert the selected three-dimensional object to align better with the data obtained from the subsurface zone.

40. The interactive way of creating a model of the subsurface zone, namely, that (a) display of geophysical data obtained from the subsurface zone and including seismic data and drilling data, b) we choose the interval in the subsurface zone, in) interpret geological parameter associated with the chosen interval, g) compare the above interpretation with the data archive about the geological analogues and choose a three-dimensional object from a variety of different three-dimensional objects closed form by selecting data geological counterpart associated with the above-mentioned object, d) place the selected object in the model subsurface zone, and (e) convert selected object to align better with the data obtained from the subsurface zone, by compression, about the formations in the subsurface zone.

 

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The invention relates to petroleum Geology and can be used for optimal placement of new wells on the examined object on complex data land seismic exploration, geophysical research wells (GIS), seismic logging, study of the core and well test

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing three-dimensional seismic prospecting operations, drilling wells with taking of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells. On basis of drilling data and geophysical well research standard modeling seismic and well spectral-time images of oil-productive deposits and their spectral-time attributes are determined. On basis of data of surface three-dimensional seismic prospecting in area of wells standard experimental spectral-time images of oil and gas productive porous collectors and their volumetric spectral seismic attributes are determined on basis of use of spectral-time analysis of seismic prospecting data in goal range of recording and numeric estimation of its results. Following mutual correlation of values of hydraulic conductivity and capacity is performed on basis of drilling geophysical well research data with standard modeling seismic, well time-spectral attributes and volumetric spectral time attributes on basis of seismic prospecting data from area of wells. Optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes are selected with greatest mutual correlation coefficients. Regression dependencies of optimal spectral seismic attribute are built, or same for complex attribute, with values of hydraulic conductivity and oil and gas productive porous collectors capacity according to drilling and geophysical well research data. Along all tracks of seismic time cube spectral-time analysis is performed and its numeric spectral-time parameterization on basis of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attribute, or complex attribute, with construction of attribute cubes and their following recalculation according to regression dependencies to hydraulic conductivity cubes and capacity cubes.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing three-dimensional seismic prospecting operations, drilling wells with taking of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells. In inter-well space seismic prospecting operations are performed by three-dimensional longitudinal waves according to deep point method. On basis of drilling data and geophysical well research standard modeling seismic and well spectral-time images of oil-productive deposits and their spectral-time attributes are determined. On basis of data of surface three-dimensional seismic prospecting in area of wells standard experimental spectral-time images and their volumetric spectral seismic attributes are determined on basis of use of spectral-time analysis of seismic prospecting data in goal range of recording and numeric estimation of its results. Following mutual correlation of values of hydraulic conductivity and coefficients of oil productiveness is performed on basis of drilling geophysical well research data with standard modeling seismic, well time-spectral attributes and volumetric spectral time attributes on basis of seismic prospecting data. Optimal volumetric spectral seismic attribute is selected with greatest mutual correlation coefficient. Regression dependencies of optimal spectral seismic attribute are built, or same for complex attribute, with value s of hydraulic conductivity and oil-productiveness coefficient of porous collectors according to drilling and geophysical well research data. Along all tracks of seismic time cube spectral-time analysis is performed and its numeric spectral-time parameterization on basis of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attribute, or complex attribute, with construction of attribute cube and its following recalculation according to regression dependencies to hydraulic conductivity cubes and oil productiveness cubes.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing three-dimensional seismic-prospecting operations, drilling wells with taking of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells. In inter-well space seismic-prospecting operations are performed in longitudinal waves according to deep point method. On basis of drilling and geophysical research data standard modeling seismic and well spectral-time samples of oil-productive cracked carbonate collectors and their spectral-time attributes are determined. On basis of three-dimensional seismic prospecting data in area of wells, standard experimental spectral-time images of oil-productive cracked carbonate collectors are determined as well as their volumetric spectral seismic attributes on basis of use of spectral-time analysis of three-dimensional seismic prospecting data in goal recording range and numeric estimation of its results. Mutual correlation of specific integral capacity of cracked carbonate collectors, hydraulic conductivity and oil productiveness is performed on basis of drilling data and geophysical researches of wells with standard modeling seismic, well spectral-time and volumetric spectral seismic attributes in zone of well. Optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes are selected with greatest value of mutual correlation coefficients. Regression dependencies of optimal standard volumetric spectral seismic attributes are built, or complex attribute, with depth-specific integral capacity of cracked carbonate collectors, their hydraulic conductivity and oil productiveness on basis of drilling and geophysical well research data are built. Along all tracks of seismic time cube in goal range of recording spectral-time analysis is performed and its numeric spectral-time parameterization on basis of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes and their following recalculation on basis of set regression dependencies to cubes of integral depth-specific capacity, hydraulic conductivity and oil productiveness is performed as well.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision, higher efficiency.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing three-dimensional seismic operations, drilling wells with extracting of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells. According to data from drilling and geophysical well research type of geological cross-section of target oil-gas productive deposits is determined. According to data from acoustic, seismic and radioactive logging, laboratory research of core, rigidity models of target deposits are set, synthetic seismic routes are calculated, which are used to perform spectral-temporal analysis and standard model seismic spectral-temporal images of oil-gas deposits are also determined. On basis of data of geophysical wells research - acoustic, electric, radioactive logging - well (vertical) standard spectral-temporal images of target range are determined by spectral-temporal analysis of well geophysical research curves. According to three-dimensional seismic operations data in well zone standard experimental spectral-temporal images are determined for oil-gas productive and other types of geological cross-section on basis of use of spectral-temporal analysis of seismic operations data in target recording range. Numeric estimation of model, well and experimental spectral-temporal images is performed. Model, well and spectral-temporal attributes and experimental volumetric spectral seismic attributes should correlate mutually with mutual correlation coefficient more than 0.75. Greatest mutual correlation coefficients are used to select optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes. Along all routes of seismic temporal cube in target range of recording spectral-temporal analysis is performed and its numeric spectral-energetic parameterization by frequency and time with construction of cubes for optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes or complex volumetric spectral seismic attribute. Results are compared to standard optimal volumetric seismic spectral attributes and different types of geological cross-section are determined numerically in any point of three-dimensional inter-well space with detection of position of oil-gas productive types of geological cross-section.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing three-dimensional seismic operations, drilling wells with taking of core, electrical, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells. Seismic operations are performed in three-dimensional inter-well space by longitudinal waves on basis of common deep point method. According to data from drilling and geophysical well research standard model seismic and well spectral-temporal images of cracked argillaceous collectors are determined as well as their spectral-temporal attributes. According to data from three-dimensional seismic operations in zone of wells standard experimental seismic attributes are determined and their volumetric spectral seismic attributes on basis of use of spectral-temporal three-dimensional seismic data analysis in target recording interval and numeric estimation of its results. Following mutual correlation of values of coefficients of capacity differentiation and oil productiveness is performed on basis of data from drilling and geophysical wells research with standard model seismic, well spectral-temporal attributes and volumetric spectral-temporal seismic attributes according to three-dimensional seismic data. Optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes are selected with greatest mutual correlation coefficients and regressive dependencies of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes are built, or of a complex attribute, with values of coefficients of capacity differentiation and oil-productiveness of cracked argillaceous collectors according to drilling data and geophysical well research. Along al routes of seismic temporal cube spectral-temporal analysis is performed and its numeric spectral-temporal parameterization on basis of optimal volumetric spectral seismic attributes, or a complex attribute, with construction of attributes cubes and following recalculation thereof according to regressive dependencies to cubes of coefficients for capacity differentiation and oil productiveness.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing surface three-dimensional seismic operations using 3D longitudinal waves according to common-depth-point method, drilling wells with extraction of core, electric, radioactive, acoustic and seismic logging, testing of wells, research of core. On basis of total data from drilling and geophysical research of wells, and known criteria, presence of collectors, their capacity, penetrability, hydro-conductivity, oil productiveness, level of water-oil contact, position of oil fields, and also presence of correlative connection between capacity, hydro-conductivity and oil productiveness, are detected and/or estimated. According to data from acoustic, seismic and radioactive logging, and laboratory research of core, liquid models of target deposits are constructed, synthetic seismic trajectories are calculated, along which spectral-temporal analysis is performed and model seismic spectral-temporal and acoustic samples of oil-productive collectors are determined, which together form an oil bed. According to data from surface three-dimensional seismic 3D operations and results of common-depth-point method in area of wells experimental seismic spectral-temporal and pseudo-acoustic images of oil bed are determined. Acoustic and pseudo-acoustic images are estimated using bed-average acoustic and pseudo-acoustic speeds within target range of depths and times. Model seismic, well spectral-temporal analysis results and standard optimal specific results, acoustic and pseudo-acoustic speeds are correlated to capacity, hydro-conductivity, oil productiveness of collectors, regressive dependencies are set as well as mutual correlation coefficient. Along all trajectories of seismic temporal cube within target range of seismic record spectral-temporal analysis is performed and pseudo-acoustic conversions with determining of optimal specific results, pseudo-acoustic speeds and construction of cubes of spectral-speed attributes, which are recalculated to cubes of third powers of capacity, hydro-conductivity and oil productiveness of collectors.

EFFECT: higher reliability, higher precision, higher trustworthiness, higher efficiency.

FIELD: prospecting.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises exciting seismic vibration by means of a seismic source, generating simultaneously electric field by means of at least two electrodes, recording seismic vibration at least once when current is supplied to the electrodes and at least once when electric power is not supplied to them, producing the difference of seismic records obtained in the presence and absence of electric field, and detecting anomalous phenomena from the variation of the amplitude of reflected waves of seismic and seismic-electric fields.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reduced cost of prospecting.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil geology, particularly to determine occurrence depths and relief structure of prospective geological horizons.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing seismic exploration; drilling wells; determining reflection horizon seam depth on the base of drilling data; obtaining dependence of above seam depth as a function of relief altitude and determining interval velocity of upper non-uniform layer for following subsurface geologic imaging.

EFFECT: increased accuracy.

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method by transformation of excited and registered wave fields, amplitude-frequency and transfer characteristics of deposits of hydrocarbon resources are formed along lateral line and below face of control well, which are used to determine position and depth of oil-gas deposits. After transformation and comparison of frequency characteristics of longitudinal and transverse resilient oscillations, character of saturation and filtering-capacity properties of oil-gas deposits are determined.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher trustworthiness.

2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: geology, particularly to predict aerial extent and localization of metal, non-metal and fuel deposits of any genesis and age.

SUBSTANCE: method involves discovering geological structures and determining perspective zones for further deposit prospecting. In the case of ore deposit prediction above perspective zones are determined in low-order dome and composite type structures allied with crystal magma chambers and located over faults of different orders or in areas in which faults of one or several classes intersect. In the case of gravel deposit prediction the zones are determined in area located near ore deposits in neighboring low-order depression structures. In the case of oil and gas reservoir prediction the zones are prospected in all medium-order structures along radial, ring or oval fault areas and along super-deep ring or oval fault areas in zones in which crystal magma chambers are absent.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of aerial deposit extend and age prediction.

2 dwg

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