The way to detect the eyes of the people and animals

 

The invention relates to opto-electronic instrumentation, location of measurement and information technology, biology. The technical result is to ensure the probability of identification of objects, such as the eye of a human or animal, determining their exact location in the detected volume and dynamic correction in real-time images of detected objects. The method is carried out the irradiation of the detected amount of space scanning pulse radiation in the range 450-760 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum, the reception of the reflected scanning radiation, at least two measurements of the energy of the radiation reected from the volume space, each in a wavelength of 450-500 nm and 500-570 nm - qb1, qg1and qb2, qg2a, respectively, and detect people and animals in the detected amount of space is performed in the presence of rhodopsin by comparing the relationship to a1=qb1/qg1and K2= qb2/qg2between you and me when it2to1rhodopsin is present, when K2=K1rhodopsin is absent. During the relevant period destizhenija size mn pixels in the detected volume of space through digital color video camera, and the detection of people and animals in the detected amount of space on the presence of rhodopsin carried out by comparing the ratios of the brightness values of the blue and green bands of the same name of the pixels, respectively, the first K1m,nand second K2m,nvideo frames - when K1m,nK2m,nrhodopsin is present, when K1m,n= K2m,nrhodopsin is absent, and coordinate the eyes of the people and animals on the values of m and n pixels, for which K1m,nK2m,n. Radiation detected amount of space scanning the emission of visible electromagnetic wavelength range can make the shortest possible distance from the optical axis of reception of the reflected radiation, providing the opportunity to maximize the effect of "red eye". Radiation detected amount of space pulse of the scanning radiation can be done by using a color digital camera while photographing a color digital camera during the exposure the flash osushestvlyaem the invention relates to the field of opto-electronic instrumentation, location of measurement and information technology, military equipment, biology, in particular, Biophysics, medicine, psychology, animal husbandry, hunting, namely: security methods, in particular, to methods of remote detection, surveillance, tracking, detecting, identifying and obtaining images of people and animals through observation and search opto-electronic systems location of the visible electromagnetic wavelength range, using the active principle of detection of the object in the remote background by dynamic analysis of the frequency spectrum of the reflected radiation of the radar signal, and can be used for detecting, monitoring, tracking, detection, identification and imaging of the eye mostly living people and animals in low visibility conditions in mining and search and rescue operations, for the purposes of protection, hunting, military and anti-terrorism operations for remote monitoring, surveillance, detection, identification and obtaining images of the manpower in the area, particularly snipers, terrorists, observers, etc. leading counter-surveillance and aiming, as well as for automatic , military conflict in Iraq, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Israel, as well as when conducting anti-terrorist operations, especially acute problem of remote detection with a high degree of probability in the dark and in the presence of significant noise enemy forces, particularly plausible snipers, terrorists, observers, etc.

The basis of the proposed method for remote detection of the eye lies the biophysical properties of the eyes of people and animals. For clarification, it is appropriate to refer to practical photography.

It is known that the photographing person in low light requires a flash light, to avoid the exposure is insufficient. However, the use of flash light often leads to the fact that the human eye in the pictures look red, and, as a consequence, the image of the man in the photograph becomes unnatural. This phenomenon is known as the "red-eye".

Found two types of reflection from the eye. The first is caused by light radiation passing through the human eye and reflected back from the retina. The second, known as "glint" (sparkle, glitter), is formed by light radiation reflected from the surface of the cornea, AOI eyes and going back through the pupil of the eye, causes the red-eye effect".

Cause of red eye is the biophysical properties of the retina. So when shooting in low light conditions (in these conditions, the lamp uses the flash to illuminate the object) in the retina is dominated by rod mechanism of vision and physical mechanisms of perception of the optical signal is determined by the chemical substance "rhodopsin", part of the eye sticks.

The mechanism of the effect of "red eye" is related to the fact that the molecules of visual pigments included in the double lipid layer of the membrane disks of the outer segments of the retina in the form ordered structures. For this reason, along with the peculiarities of molecular absorption, the drug of the retina, extracted in the dark, and the solution of the visual pigment of rods (rhodopsin) are red, as rhodopsin especially strongly absorbs green and blue component of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. It is also known that in the process of forming an electrical signal (photocycle) chemical structure and properties of rhodopsin to absorb optical radiation during the cycle undergo a number of changes shown in Fig.1 (PHYSIOLOGICAL REVIEWS Vol. 81, 4, October 2001) (Rhodopsin: Structural Bas

All known technical solutions for detection, red-eye reduction" aims to eliminate or at least reduce the effect of "red eye" or its correction on the received video image.

And the General approach of the known technical solution is to use multiple flashes in the camera so that the pupil of the eye was narrowed down to the moment when the final light flash will be used in order to make the shutter speed and "catch" the image.

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions is the need for a relatively large period of the preliminary light between the first light flash and when the photograph really made. This means that the photograph is made in a few seconds after the start of the process of photographing. In addition, during this time people can change the position before the image is captured, considering that the process of photographing has been completed.

Known technical solutions cannot completely solve the problem of "red-eye" for photography.

To solve the "red-eye" technology is used to obtain digital images and the ability Genie and the size of the red eye pupil, and reduce "red-eye" provides the change of each pixel of the red color in red pupil of the eye in the desired color.

A method of obtaining images of the living and dead biological objects in reflected and transmitted light in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet ranges. In these cases, the object light in a visible light and recorded on the photographic plate. To obtain a clear image of a biological object using focusing optics (ed. mon. THE USSR 512452, G 03 5/04, 1976).

The disadvantage of this method is the need for exposure to the object weak electric currents, which does not allow it to be applied without direct contact with the object.

There is a method of determining defects of the eye color of the object in the image due to flash lighting, including lighting light flash object, the object is photographed, the image of the object, the evaluation of the pair of defect candidates on the red-eye effect" on the light intensity, the shape of the light spot and its location on the retina and correction of defects of the eye color of the object (U.S. patent 6252976, G 06 K 9/00, 2001).

This method requires significant hardware resources and databases the population of the area in the photograph, requiring color correction. The method does not provide automatic correction of the image of the eye in all possible cases, and also requires for processing the prepared picture.

The closest technical solution (prototype) is a method of detection of the eye and determine the direction of gaze, including the irradiation of the detected amount of space the primary scanning radiation in the optical range, capturing the two-dimensional camera image detected amount of space, reception reflected from the retina of the observer in the presence of a scanning radiation in the form of a divergent beam, the definition of a vector passing through the center of the iris of the eye, stopping the irradiation of the detected amount of space the primary scanning radiation in the optical range, the lighting of the two divergent secondary sources of radiation detected amount of space, space, receive reflected from the surface of the cornea radiation of two secondary sources, the definition of the vectors from each of the secondary sources of radiation passing through the surface of the cornea and determining the direction of gaze on the specified victories, because in the study area can occur in a large number of glaring objects of different origin, such as rocks, drops of water, broken glass and so on

Identification is difficult, if the field of view there are several pairs of eyes.

New achievable technical result of the invention is to increase the probability of identification of objects, such as the eye of a human or animal, determining their exact location in the detected volume and dynamic correction in real-time images of detected objects.

A new technical result is achieved in that in the method of detecting eyes of people and animals, including exposure to the detected amount of space pulse emission of visible electromagnetic wavelength range, the reception of the reflected pulse, the detection of rhodopsin and, as a consequence, the detection of people and animals in the detected amount of space, unlike the prototype, the irradiation of the detected amount of space perform scanning pulse radiation in the range 450-760 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum, after the reception of the reflected scanning radiation is carried out for with the frame from the detected amount of space, each in a wavelength of 450-500 nm and 500-570 nm - qb1, qg1and qb2, qg2, respectively, and detect people and animals in the detected amount of space is performed in the presence of rhodopsin by comparing the relationship to a1=qb1/qg1and K2=qb2/qg2between you and me when it2to1rhodopsin is present, when K2= K1rhodopsin is absent.

During the relevant period of the radiation pulse is additionally consistently can produce at least two frames of the video image of size mn pixels in the detected volume of space through digital color video camera, the detection of people and animals in the detected amount of space on the presence of rhodopsin carried out by comparing the ratios of the brightness values of the blue and green bands of the same name of the pixels, respectively, the first K1m,nand second K2m,nvideo frames - when K1m,nK2m,nrhodopsin is present, when K1m,n=K2m,nrhodopsin is absent and coordinate the eyes of the people and animals on the values of m and n is nsta scanning the emission of visible electromagnetic wavelength range can make the shortest possible distance from the optical axis of reception of the reflected radiation, providing the opportunity to maximize the effect of "red eye".

Radiation detected amount of space pulse of the scanning radiation can be done by using a color digital camera while photographing a color digital camera during the exposure the flash will perform at least two photographs in the range of 450-570 nm and 520-760 nm.

The detection of optical and opto-electronic objects is as follows.

The detected area area is illuminated by a pulsed directional light, for example, the discharge lamp with a reflector in the wavelength range of electromagnetic radiation range from 450 to 760 nm.

Detection of humans and animals is carried out by scanning axis of sight of the surveillance system selected volume of space (sector surrounding area) in the azimuthal plane (including the manual).

Synchronously with the emitted pulses of light with photometer perform at least two measurements of the energy of the radiation reected from the amount of space (sector surrounding area), each wavelength of 450-500 nm (at the beginning of photocycle rhodopsin) and 500-570 nm (sub is estoodeeva validity period of the radiation pulse of directional light.

The reflection coefficient and, consequently, the power of the reflected signal for the first and the second measurement will be in accordance with the spectral characteristics of photocycle rhodopsin depend on the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. Comparative analysis of these measurements allows us to make an objective conclusion about the presence or absence of rhodopsin, and thus the eye of a human or animal.

Biophysical characteristics of photocycle rhodopsin allow you to choose the best for each measurement frequency-time characteristics of the exposure. The frequency of the radiation source should contain the characteristic frequencies of the absorption spectrum of rhodopsin from 450 to 570 nm, and the temporal characteristics are selected from the conditions of the manifestation of non-stationary features of the absorption spectrum of rhodopsin, see Fig. 1. The pulse repetition frequency of the directional light can vary widely from mode monopulse to a few Hertz. The determining factor here is the saturation of the absorption of light by rhodopsin, when expressed as saturation is not possible to identify the nonstationarity of the process of absorption of light by rhodopsin in different parts of the spectrum. It is possible to work with more tion is determined not sticks, and cones of the retina, while the absorption of radiation by the retina of the eye expands in the red area (up to 760 nm).

On the basis of measurements of the energy of the radiation reected from the amount of space (sector surrounding area) during the corresponding period of the radiation pulse directional lights compare attitudes towards1=qb1/qg1and K2=qb2/qg2between a and detect the presence of people and animals in the detected amount of space (sector surrounding area) by the presence of rhodopsin - when K2to1rhodopsin is present (as a result of the presence of rhodopsin - humans or/and animals), when K2= K1rhodopsin is absent (as a consequence of the absence of rhodopsin object has no eyes, that is, the object is not dangerous).

Determining whether humans or/and animals in the detected amount of space (sector surrounding area) by the presence of rhodopsin can produce, if necessary, as follows.

Consistently produce through a digital color video camera during the relevant period of the radiation pulse source nairbingo volume of space (sector surrounding area).

Then, by scanning of the brightness values of blue-green and red region of the spectrum ranges both video frames at the same pixel calculate the coefficients: K1m,n=b1m,n/g1m,nwhere b1m,n, g1m,nvalues of brightness blue-green and red ranges of the same pixels, respectively, the first frame; K2m,n=b2m,n/g2m,nwhere b2m,n, g2m,nvalues of brightness blue-green and red ranges of the same pixels, respectively, of the second frame.

Then detect the presence of people and animals in the detected amount of space (sector surrounding area) by the presence of rhodopsin by comparing the ratios of the brightness values of blue-green and red ranges of the same pixels, respectively, the first K1m,nand second K2m,nvideo frames - when K1m,nK2m,nrhodopsin is present (as a result of the presence of rhodopsin is present and people and/or animals), when K1m,n=K2m,nrhodopsin is absent (as a consequence of the absence of rhodopsin object has no eyes, that is, the object is not dangerous).

Besides the fact of detection of the human eye or giftcorporate eyes of people or animals by the values of m and n pixels, for which K1m,nK2m,n. The schema definition of the desired coordinates is standard.

The optical axis of the readout image scans lazarony amount of recording data into an array of pixels of a video image. The optical scheme uniquely identifies the correspondence between the numbers of pixels of the image and the real coordinates. The method used allows to identify the position of the search objects in the video image, i.e. the number of pixels. The resulting digital image processing (array of pixels) determined by the angular coordinates of the sought objects relative to the optical axis of the readout image.

The proposed method for the detection of the eyes of humans and animals is based on the use of the dynamic properties of the visual pigment of the retina, namely the dynamic characteristics of the absorption spectrum derived rhodopsin (visual pigment) (Fig. 2), i.e. the use of "red-eye". In other words, if all the known technical solutions aims to eliminate or at least reduce the effect of "red eye" or its correction on the received video image, the proposed rezultata - to strengthen the effect of "red eye".

In turn, the effect of "red eye" depends on the distance of the radiation source from the optical axis of the lens and the radiation source is placed closer to the optical axis of reception of the reflected radiation, the more pronounced the effect of "red eye".

Therefore, for more effective implementation of the achieved technical result, the radiation source is placed at the closest distance from the optical axis of reception of the reflected radiation.

The achievement of a new technical result - the probability of identification of objects, such as the eye of a human or animal, determining their exact location in the detected volume and dynamic correction in real-time images of detected objects, the proposed method of detection of the eyes of humans and animals is provided with at least two measurements of the energy of radiation and video frames. More measurements of the energy of radiation and video frames also ensures the achievement of a new technical result, but increases the cost and make it more long-term the proposed method without increasing the quality and efficiency achieved through tehnicheskaya animals for example, dogs, horses, etc. and also wild animals such as foxes, jackals, crocodiles and others, including to hunt.

In addition, the detection of the eyes of people and animals, the proposed method provides and if people and animals are dead for some time after their death.

The proposed method for the detection of the eyes of people and animals can also be used to automatically correct red-eye" when shooting digital cameras, for example, when photographing the detected amount of space, color digital camera, exposure time, flash, carrying out the irradiation pulse of the scanning radiation, produce at least two photographs in the range of 450-570 nm and 520-760 nm by correction in real time of images in photography, including: 1. Automatic identification of the site, where there is an area of abnormal reflection.

2. Use in this area (pixels) standard correction image (reduce the proportion of red color) at the hardware level.

Based on the above new achievable technical rez is and end range with a priori unknown remote background including in combat conditions, by increasing his detecting abilities as a result of increasing the probability of detecting humans or/and animals that were deleted on the target range with a priori unknown remote background.

2. Increase the probability of detecting humans or/and animals, the remote on the target range with a priori unknown remote background, due to the dynamic analysis of real-time spectral characteristics of the reflected radiation and the time and frequency characteristics of reflection of radiation from the derivatives of rhodopsin, defining the vision of humans and animals.

3. Ensuring allocation reflected from the eyes of humans or/and animals of the signal emitter of the visible electromagnetic wavelength range on the background noise: headlights cars, lamps, illuminated Windows of the apartments, with bright sun, flash rockets, flames, etc.

4. Provides the ability to effectively eliminate red-eye when shooting with a digital camera through a correction in real time of images in photography.

Currently JSC NPAO "Apolar issued the instruction on the method of discovery CH the above technical solution, on the basis of which issued the test report.

Claims

1. The method of detecting eyes of people and animals, including exposure to the detected amount of space scanning the emission of visible electromagnetic wavelength range, the reception of the reflected scanning radiation and detect people and animals in the detected amount of space, characterized in that the irradiation of the detected amount of space perform scanning pulse radiation in the range 450-760 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum, after the reception of the reflected scanning radiation is carried out for the corresponding period of the radiation pulse at least two measurements of the energy of the radiation reected from the volume space, each in a wavelength of 450-500 nm and 500-570 nm - qb1, qg1and qb2, qg2, respectively, and detect people and animals in the detected amount of space is performed in the presence of rhodopsin by comparing the relationandbetween you and me when it2to1rhodopsin is present, when K2=K1Rodopi the radiation is additionally consistently produce at least two frames of the video image of size m x n pixels in the detected volume of space through digital color video camera, detect people and animals in the detected amount of space on the presence of rhodopsin carried out by comparing the ratios of the brightness values of the blue and green bands of the same name of the pixels, respectively, the first K1m,nand second K2m,nvideo frames - when K1m,nK2m,nrhodopsin is present, when K1m,n=K2m,nrhodopsin is absent, and coordinate the eyes of the people and animals on the values of m and n pixels, for which K1m,nK2m,n.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the irradiation of the detected amount of space scanning the emission of visible electromagnetic wavelengths provide the shortest possible distance from the optical axis of reception of the reflected radiation, providing the opportunity to maximize the effect of “red eye”.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the irradiation of the detected amount of space pulse of the scanning radiation is carried out by means of a colour digital camera while photographing a color digital camera during the exposure the flash will perform at the

 

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FIELD: automatic equipment and computing machinery, applicable as an indicator device for detection of sources of laser radiation with a subsequent counteraction to their receiving devices.

SUBSTANCE: the device has a frequency-pulse laser with an objective lens secured on platforms rotating about the vertical axis, detection unit consisting of two detection sensors, and a control unit having k-flip-flops of the first and second detection sensors, k-AND gates of the first and second detection sensors, two NO gates two OR gates, two coding units, two permanent storage units, master oscillator, two arithmetic-logical devices, initial data input unit, azimuth computing unit, elevation angle computing unit and a laser radiation source height computing unit.

EFFECT: detection of sources of laser radiation with a subsequent suppression of them with a receiving device.

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