The method of extraction of stone blocks

 

The invention relates to mining, in particular to methods for production of blocks of building stone, mainly on mountain slopes, and can be used in the formation of rocky ledges quarries and roads. The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of extraction of blocks of stone in the mountain slopes by reducing transportation and energy costs and reduce splitting of stone blocks during transport. The method of extraction of stone blocks includes the formation of the mining ledge, delineation block system holes, education in the bench bottom of the slit, forming therein a damping layer from a material having a low coefficient of sliding friction, separation of the block from the array by creating a tension in his path, the displacement of the block from the side surface of a slope on the damping layer, the transport and shipment to the consumer. The slit in the base of the ledge oriented at an angle to the horizon so that it together with the soles previously worked ledges within the developed layer formed sloping down the surface of the chamber connected with the mountain slope. For forming the damping layer using the anti-friction material in the form of MCA in the blade, where carry out its braking dampers prior to shipment to the consumer. The angle at which the guide slot can be determined from the above expression. Education in the bench bottom of the slit and forming therein a damping layer can be performed simultaneously with separation of the block from the array through injection boreholes lubricating fluid under high pressure. As absorbers can use lubricated ropes, strung from a place of intersection of the inclined surface and the mountain slope to the blade. When braking unit can additionally use the shock absorber filled with damping material of the container on the pendulum suspension. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The technical solution relates to mining, in particular to methods for production of blocks of building stone, mainly on mountain slopes, and can be used in the formation of rocky ledges quarries and roads.

Known way to move large blocks of soil (U.S. patent No. 4230368, E 21 41/04, publ. October 28, 1980), including the delineation and separation of the block at the sides by the formation of cracks and / or education transverse razormane so that the sides can ispolnenie these transverse separation gel pulp, density which for the main part of the movement exceeds 1600 kg/m3and which consists of water, solid particles of different grain size, clay, sand and sludge, and the implementation of a directional move the block up by feeding fluid under high pressure to the bottom surface of the block.

The disadvantage of this method is the separation, the separation and movement of rock blocks against the forces of gravity that requires a lot of energy in pumping the slurry under high pressure and reduces the effectiveness of the technology in General.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result for the proposed method is a production method of a monolithic blocks.with. The USSR № 1679033, E 21 47/10, 41/26, publ. in BI No. 35, 1991), including the formation of the mining ledge, the contouring of the detachable unit in the vertical, lateral and horizontal planes system holes, the formation at the base of the ledge compensation cracks and separation of the block from the array at that gap by creating an array of tensile load, and the side surface of the newly formed slope of the ledge is formed taking into account the slope 12-45° in the direction of the array, and at the bottom of the compensation of the slit forming the layer of granulated material to form pellets in the block in the direction from the side surface of the newly formed slope of the ledge.

The disadvantage of this method is the need of the use of forklifts and transport to move the blocks from the newly formed ledge and, especially, for shipment blocks to the consumer that the mountain slopes require special transport arrivals at different elevations. In addition, the relatively large amount of drilling and the use of expensive gap making machine for contouring blocks leads to high costs for the Department of blocks from the array and reduces the effectiveness of the technology in General.

Technical goal: increase the efficiency of extraction of blocks of stone in the mountain slopes by reducing transportation and energy costs and reduce splitting of stone blocks during transport.

The problem is solved in that in the method of production of stone blocks (hereinafter blocks), including the formation of the mining ledge, delineation block system holes, education in the bench bottom of the slit, forming therein a damping layer from a material having a low coefficient of sliding friction, separation of the block from the array by creating a tension in his path, the displacement of the block from the side surface of a slope on gimpfileentry angleto the horizon so that it together with the soles previously worked ledges within the developed layer formed sloping down the surface of the chamber connected with the mountain slope, and for the formation of the damping layer using the anti-friction material in the form of lubricating fluid and transport block on the said inclined surface under the action of gravitational forces in the dump, where they perform its braking dampers prior to shipment to the consumer.

This is achieved by improving the efficiency of production units in the mountainous slopes: reduced transportation costs by shipping blocks in the pile under the action of gravitational forces and unnecessary transport arrivals; decrease energy costs by reducing the volume of drilling; reduced loss from splitting blocks during transportation due to the gradual slip them on an inclined surface and damping inertia dampers.

It is advisable in this case the angleto determine the expression

wherethe absolute viscosity of the lubricating fluid at 20°C, Ns/m2;

V - safe - thickness of the damping layer, m;

h - height of the block, m;

- the proportion of species, N/m3.

When this is achieved the most efficient production units due to the additional increase of production output due to the decrease of the splitting blocks because of the possibility of reconciliation anglesafe speed V due to selection parameters: absolute viscositylubricating fluid,

the thickness n of the damping layer, the height h of the block and of a specific gravitybreeds, as well as taking into account the coefficient For the influence of weather conditions (temperature, humidity).

Appropriate education in the bench bottom of the slit and forming therein a damping layer simultaneously with the separation of the block from the array through injection boreholes lubricating fluid under high pressure.

This reduces energy consumption by reducing the required amount of drilling, because it facilitates the separation of the block from the array under the action of gravitational forces due to the decrease of the clutch unit with the sole of the ledge when the feed has a low coefficient of sliding friction of lubricating fluid under high pressure generated during odalys is from the place of intersection of the inclined surface and the mountain slope to the dump.

This is achieved by improving the efficiency of production units by reducing their cracking during transportation on the steep parts of the mountain slope.

It is advisable when braking unit additional use of the shock absorber filled with damping material of the container on the pendulum suspension.

This is achieved further increases the efficiency of production units by reducing their splitting when braking due to prevent hard impacts on other blocks in the dump.

The essence of the technical solutions let us consider the extraction of blocks of rock massif granites (next, array) on a mountain slope. The example illustrated by the drawings, in which: Fig. 1 shows an array having a mountain slope in the beginning of the work; Fig. 2 - the principle of separation of the block from the array with the use of anti-friction material in the form of lubricating fluid supplied to the bore-holes under high pressure; Fig. 3 - implementation of the method of production units at the time of full development of mining operations.

The proposed method is implemented as follows.

Array 1 (Fig. 1) along a mountain slope 2 is divided into 3 layers with a height h (Fig. 2) based on the required dimensions of the block 4. Unit 4 framing system sprosty soles 8 newly formed ledge 9. Angleslope plane slope 7, based on the security requirements, in practice for rock (Shevyakov L. D. Development of mineral deposits. M: Gosgortekhnadzor, 1964, ed. 4, S. 640-643, Fig. 458) usually take within the= 50-70°. Newly formed ledge 9 is formed so that its sole 8 had a cornerwith the horizon, and together with previously worked ledges 9 of this layer 3 formed inclined downward surface 10 facing mountain slope 2 (Fig. 1). Usually in granite massifs there are extensive natural cracks separately (not shown) that facilitate the formation of the slit 11 in the base 8 of the ledge 9. The formation of the slit 11 in the base 8 of the ledge 9 can be produced by any known method (such as drilling). However, it is advisable, education slit 11 in the base 8 of the ledge 9 and the formation of the slit 11 of the damping layer 12 (thickness n) anti-friction material in the form of lubricating fluid 13 in the above example is produced simultaneously with the separation unit 4 from the array 1 by the pressure in the bore-holes 5 a lubricating fluid 13 under high pressure (for example, through the packers 14, Fig. 2). Packers 14 in the holes 5 Leah on the circuit block 4, what enhances its separation from array 1 by gravitational forces. This allows to reduce the required number of holes 5 and, consequently, to reduce energy costs.

As the inclined surface 10 includes a damping layer 12 anti-friction material in the form of lubricating fluid 13 from previously worked ledges 9, block 4 is moved in the direction of the blade 15 under the action of gravitational forces (Fig. 1-3). To compensate for unevenness of the steepness of the mountain slopes 2 and ensure a smooth braking unit 4 are the shock absorbers 16 (Fig. 3). Under normal conditions of production units 4 it is advisable to apply the damper 16 in the form of lubricated ropes stretched from the place of intersection of the inclined surface 10 and the mountain slope 2 to the blade 15 (Fig. 3). For full warranty braking unit 4 and prevent hard impacts on other blocks 4 blade 15 in addition use the shock absorber 16 in the form of filled with damping material (e.g. rubber) cylinder on the pendulum suspension (Fig. 3). This can further increase the production output by reducing the splitting of the blocks 4. Anglethe inclination of the surface 10, is determined by the formula= 0,065 Ns/m2; K = 1; n = 0,00001 m; h = 1 m;= 27000 N/m3. Match the value of the angleand safe value V of the speed of the transporting unit 4 is achieved by increasing production output by reducing the splitting of blocks 4 during transport to the dumping area 15, where the shipment blocks 4 consumer produce specialized equipment 17.

Implementation of the technical solution allows to increase efficiency of production units 4 by reducing transport, energy costs and increase production output.

Claims

1. The method of extraction of stone blocks, including the formation of the mining ledge, delineation block system holes, education in the bench bottom of the slit, forming therein a damping layer from a material having a low coefficient of sliding friction, separation of the block from the array by creating a tension in his path, the displacement of the block from the side surface of a slope on the damping layer, the transport and shipment to the consumer,differentthe fact that the slit in the base of the ledge oriented at an angle b to the horizontal thus, h is Yu down the surface, chamber connected with the mountain slope, and for the formation of the damping layer using the anti-friction material in the form of lubricating fluid and transport block on the said inclined surface under the action of gravitational forces in the dump, where they perform its braking dampers prior to shipment to the consumer.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the angle b is determined from the expression

wherethe absolute viscosity of the lubricating fluid at 20°C, N with/m2;

V - safe transport speed unit m/s;

K - coefficient taking into account the influence of temperature and humidity;

n is the thickness of the damping layer, m;

h - height of the block, m;

- the proportion of species, N/m3.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the education in the bench bottom of the slit and forming therein a damping layer are performed simultaneously with separation of the block from the array through injection boreholes lubricating fluid under high pressure.

4. The method according to one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that as shock absorbers use lubricated ropes, strung from a place of intersection of the inclined surface and the mountain slope to the form filled with damping material of the container on the pendulum suspension.

 

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