The invention relates to the field of construction area foundations-shells and can be used in industrial and civil construction. The Foundation, including shell, laid on the subgrade, characterized in that the shell is made of thin-walled reinforced concrete zero or positive Gaussian curvature ratio boom lift spanand the ratio of section height to spanand limited reference circuit in the form of a ring or cross-beams, the reinforcement shell is made of single-layer steel or synthetic valves, connected by an anchor in the body of the concrete support contour. The technical result of the invention is to create effective designs areal foundations with regard to the reduction of the total consumption of materials and the cost of their erection. 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of construction area foundations-shells and can be used in industrial and civil construction.Known areal foundations-shell, used in industrial and civil construction . A quirk of the tov-shells primarily in compression. The disadvantage of such designs is the difficulty of forming the Foundation of foundations and the introduction of additional elements for perception spacer efforts, as well as significant additional costs on the flooring.The closest to the essence and the achieved technical result is a Foundation that includes absolutely flexible concave shell of high-strength fabric laid on the subgrade . The ends of the shell are attached to the supports.The disadvantage of this design is a significant deformation of the membrane due to the low modulus of elasticity of high-strength fabric, which leads to excess precipitation buildings and complicates the construction of floors. It is assumed that the thrust from the shell perceived by friction forces at the contact bearing - ground.The purpose of the invention is the creation of an effective area of the foundations of compliance with specified reliability advancements design.The solution of the stated technical problem is achieved by the fact that the Foundation, including shell, laid on the subgrade, according to the invention, the shell is made of thin-walled reinforced concrete zero or positive Gaussian curvature atand limited reference circuit in the form of a ring or cross-beams, the reinforcement shell is made of single-layer steel or synthetic valves, connected by an anchor in the body of the concrete reference path.The invention is illustrated graphically where:in Fig.1 shows a General view of the basement membrane of zero Gaussian curvature;in Fig.2 - General view of the basement membrane of positive Gaussian curvature;in Fig.3 - General view of the basement membrane, made in the form of a system of cross-beams;in Fig.4 is a fragment of the basement-membrane, made in the form of the reference path.This Foundation is presented in the form of gentle shell 1, limited ring 2 or the cross-beams 3. In this constructive form the shell on soil Foundation 4 works predominantly in tension. The shell 1 is of thin-walled reinforced concrete zero or positive Gaussian curvature ratio boom lift spanand the ratio of section height to spanand limited reference circuit 2, 3 in the form of a ring or cross-beams. As a supporting shell element 1 used in the definition of the fiber (not shown) with a high modulus of elasticity. Raspor in the design is reduced due to its final hardness. The perception of spreading at the expense of joint implementation of the frictional forces on the contact sheath - ground, bending rigidity of the support loop 2, 3 in the horizontal plane and the resistance of the soil along the reference path 2, 3. Santriani valve (not shown) of the shell 1 is made in the body of the concrete reference contours. Reinforcement membrane is a single layer.Sources of information1. Terior A. N. Design and construction of economical designs of foundations. Kiev, Budivelnik, 1975, 200 S.2. A. C. 715722 M CL E 02 D 27/01. Foundation. O. C. Snezhko No. 2598229/29-33. Appl. 10.03.78, publ. 25.02.80.
ClaimsThe Foundation, including shell, laid on the subgrade, characterized in that the shell is made of thin-walled reinforced concrete zero or positive Gaussian curvature ratio boom lift spanand the ratio of section height to spanand limited reference circuit in the form of a ring or cross-beams, the reinforcement shell is made of single-layer steel or synthetic arm is
FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.
SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.
FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.
EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.
SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.
EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.
SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.
FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.
EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.
EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.
EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.
8 cl, 8 dwg