The method of operation of a combined electric vehicle (options)
The invention relates to the field of power supply electric drive vehicles. Charging of the batteries (AB) an auxiliary source of electric power and dynamic braking is reduced in size, when AB are in a state between partial and full charging, when the magnitude of the charge related to the relative state of charge of the battery. The deficit between the demand of the traction motor and the electric power available from the auxiliary source, provide from AB in the amount of state-dependent AB. The full amount of the deficit shall ensure that when AB is close to full charge. A small amount of energy provide, or not provide, when AB is close to a discharged state. When States between full charge and almost complete discharge of the Bank provide that amount of energy, which monotonically depends on the state of charge. Charging the battery from the auxiliary source is reduced during dynamic braking when the battery is close to full charge. Managing the amount of energy returned during dynamic braking may be carried out by controlling the conversion efficiency of the traction motor operating as a generator. work to that of a conventional vehicle with an internal combustion engine. 2 c.p. f-crystals, 10 ill. This invention relates to a device and method of education and performance simple and effective combined electric vehicles.Combined electric vehicles are commonly regarded as having the greatest practical use of vehicles with low pollution. Combined electric vehicle includes an electric "traction" battery, which provides power to an electric traction motor, which, in turn, drives the wheels of the vehicle. The aspect of "combined" combined electric vehicles is to use a secondary or auxiliary source of electrical energy for charging the battery during operation of the vehicle. This secondary power source may be a solar panel, fuel cell, generator, driven by an internal combustion engine, or, in General, any other source of electrical energy. As voicewriter small engine which uses a small amount of fuel and produces little pollution. A concomitant advantage is that such a small internal combustion engine can operate in a limited range of number of revolutions per minute, so you can optimize measures to combat pollution of the engine. The terms "primary" and "secondary" are used to describe sources of electrical energy, simply refer to the way energy distribution during operation and not essential for the invention. A simple vehicle with electric drive, powered only by electric batteries, has disadvantages, namely, that the battery may be exhausted at the time when the vehicle is far from the station battery charging and even when such vehicle successfully returns to his garage after using it during the day, the battery should then be charged. Combined electric vehicle has a significant advantage compared to a simple electrically powered vehicle, consisting in the fact that combined with electron, usually does not need any external charging of the battery. Thus, the combined electric vehicle can be used similarly to a conventional vehicle powered by internal combustion engines, requiring only replenish fuel. Another major advantage of the combined electric vehicles is a good characteristic of mileage in miles per gallon of fuel consumed (in kilometers per liter of fuel consumed). The advantage of the characteristic of mileage in kilometers per liter of fuel consumed is a result of the use of regenerative dynamic braking, which converts the kinetic energy of motion into electricity during at least part of the braking, and returns energy to the battery. Found that stopping loss to explain about half of all friction losses experienced by the vehicle when the regulation of travel in urban areas. Regeneration of these 50% energy and return them in a battery for future use allows the use of much smaller "secondary" working occured, lower secondary power source leads to a smaller amount of fuel used per unit time, or per kilometer. Another advantage of the combined electric vehicles is that under many conditions, the power available to accelerate the vehicle, is the sum of the maximum power that can provide a rechargeable battery, plus the maximum power that can generate secondary electric generator. When an electric generator is a diesel internal combustion engine, the combination of power batteries and power of a diesel engine may result in the total driving force, which is quite substantial, despite the good characteristics of the mileage in kilometers per liter of fuel consumed.Although combined electric vehicles is advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view, to achieve a wide distribution, they should be relatively "simple", i.e. they should be similar to conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines in their work and in their reactions to the input of the operator.In sauvette, which receives at least part of the thrust force from the electric battery, includes stage, when the operating conditions of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, providing power to the traction motor from the auxiliary source, and software battery, the difference between the required traction power provided from an auxiliary source, up to the maximum capability of the batteries when the batteries are charging status between the first state of charge and full charge. The first state of charge, of course, less than the state of full charge. In corresponding to this aspect of the invention a method of operating modes of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, the traction motor provides energy only from the auxiliary source when the rechargeable batteries are in the second state of charge, representing essentially discharged state of the battery. Operating modes of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, the energy for the traction motor is provided from an auxiliary source, and he obespechivaetsya batteries are charging status, located between the discharged state and the first state of charge.In a variant of this aspect of the invention, the method of operation of a combined electric vehicles, which receives at least part of the thrust force from the electric battery, includes stage, when the operating conditions of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, providing power to the traction motor from the auxiliary power source, as well as providing traction motor, batteries, and up to the maximum capability of the batteries, the difference between the required traction power provided from the auxiliary source when the batteries are charging status between full charge and the first state of charge is less than full charge. Other matching this regular aspect of the invention, the steps include: (a) when operating conditions of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, providing power to the traction motor only from the auxiliary source when the rechargeable batteries are in the second state of charge, where the second state of charge before the estva, different from the braking mode, providing power to the traction motor from the auxiliary source, and providing power to the traction motor from the batteries on the value that is approximately in the same ratio to the full capabilities of the battery, as the amount of charge of the batteries corresponding to the full charge.Fig. 1 is a simplified block diagram corresponding to an aspect of the invention an electric vehicle that includes a command controller, which is in accordance with the invention manages, and also includes the controller power.Fig. 2 is a simplified block diagram illustrating some of the functionalities shown in Fig.1 controller power.Fig. 3A and 3b are simplified graphs of energy recovery in the traction battery depending on the state of charge of the traction batteries and traction due to recovery depending on the state of charge of the traction battery, respectively.Fig. 4 is a simplified graphical scheme of the program, illustrating the logical flow controller commands Fig.1 ing the filing of the pulling force of the traction motor of the vehicle of Fig.1 as a function of charging the traction battery.Fig. 6 is a simplified graphical scheme of the program, illustrating the logical flow in command of the controller of Fig.1 and 2 to ensure the operations illustrated in Fig.5.Fig.7a is a graph of engine power or generator depending on the number of revolutions and torque as a parameter, and Fig.7b is a representation of the method of controlling the power of the motor/generator.Fig.8 is a simplified block diagram illustrating some scheme or device to control the amount of power generated by the auxiliary energy source under the action of the state of charge of the traction battery.As shown in Fig.1, the electric vehicle 10 includes at least one driving wheel 12 connected to the traction motor 40 AC voltage, which in one embodiment of the invention is a three-phase AC motor. The engine 40 preferably is a well-known motor/generator, so that the kinetic energy of motion can be transformed into electrical energy during dynamic braking. The controller 14 power is connected to elochnoy position 20, and to the auxiliary source of electrical energy, shown as block 16. As shown in block 16, the auxiliary source may include an internal combustion engine type diesel engine 18, causing the electric generator 22, or it may include a fuel cell 24. The command controller, shown as block 50, is connected via a data channel controller 14 power, an auxiliary source 16 and the traction motor 40 to control the operation of the controller 14 power, auxiliary source 16 and the traction motor 40 in accordance with the relevant laws of control.One of the simplest and least expensive types of batteries that are capable of storing relatively high energy is a conventional lead/N2SO4a rechargeable battery. This type of battery is suitable for use in electric vehicle, if taken any measures to prevent the application of the charging current when the battery is fully charged, preventing the evolution of a gas electrolyte and unwanted heat, and if you can avoid sulfation.In Fig. 1 environments is an attached bidirectional information channel 31 to the block 50 command control, to apply the command actuation command to the controller 50, and this command, the controller 50 may then be converted to the appropriate commands to the various elements of power type of controller 14 power, auxiliary source 16 and the traction motor 40. The block 30 is also shown connected by a channel 32 to the friction brakes 36A and 36b for direct control of the friction brakes using a conventional hydraulic brake system that is connected with the brake pedal.Fig. 2 represents the interconnection of some of the elements of the controller 14 of the power Fig.1 with other elements of Fig.1. In particular, the controller 14 power includes the device 26 of the rectifier is connected to the auxiliary source 16, to convert (if necessary) output AC auxiliary source 16 into a DC voltage. The controller 14 power also includes bi-directional control system of the power plant, which additionally includes an inverter 28 for converting DC to AC, connected with energy ties to the battery 20, the device 26 of the rectifier and to the traction motor 40. Testimontials 50. It should be noted that in addition to the inverter 28 DC to AC, the control system of the power plant includes voltage sensors and current, to read the various operating parameters of the engine/generator, battery and auxiliary power source.When the main operation of the device of Fig.1 and 2 command controller (50) controls the individual switches (not shown) of the inverter 28 using modulated pulse width command, which generates, on the port 28m inverter 28, which is connected to the traction motor 40, the approximation of alternating voltage having a selected frequency and amplitude. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the inverter is a type of operator-oriented excitation (ALE), and the traction motor is, similarly, an induction motor ALE. Frequency and amplitude controlled AC drive for traction motor 40 is chosen so as to give effect to the selected engine traction current with the selected number of revolutions of the motor shaft. In General, the traction motor 40 produces a back electromotive force increases with the and 50) AC voltage, which increases in amplitude with increasing frequency alternating voltage to maintain the same current drive traction motor. The motor shaft rotates at a frequency corresponding to the controlled output frequency of the inverter. In addition, when the main electric vehicles, of the type shown in Fig.1 and 2, can be performed as a dynamic braking and friction braking. Dynamic braking is much preferable, because the (kinetic) energy inherent in the movement of the vehicle, again captured a traction engine, operating as an electric generator when the vehicle slows down. During those time intervals in which the dynamic braking, the inverter 28 DC to AC Fig.2, operating in the second, or recuperating direction, converts the AC voltage produced by the traction motor 40, a DC voltage charges the traction battery 20. In addition, when the electric vehicle is a combination of an electric vehicle, comprising an auxiliary source 16 elektrogeneratornye battery, and/or to provide some part of the traction, depending on the command controller 50.It should be noted that when the electric vehicle is in a normal mode using dynamic braking, and the batteries are fully charged, dynamic braking is committed to conduct a charging current through an already charged battery. Characteristics of lead batteries is such that in this situation the sum of the charging current to a fully-charged rechargeable battery, the battery voltage tends to considerable improvement, both from the fully charged value in the absence of current 13 Volts at the battery with a nominal value of 12 Volts, up to values close to 16 Volts, resulting in providing an indication to controller commands that condition arose over-charge. If the controller commands unleashes the energy generated by dynamic braking, from the battery to protect the battery, the battery voltage immediately drops to its fully charged value in the absence of current. This, in turn, enables the controller CI is providing overvoltage. This leads to the periodic application of dynamic braking pulse frequency set in accordance with characteristics of the circuit controller commands, and produces tangible vibration braking, and strive to excessive charging of the battery during plots marempolskoho interval. As overcharging and unwanted vibration.Fig. 3A and 3b together illustrate the appropriate aspect of the invention, the control law, which provides complete recovery or return to the traction battery of energy from dynamic braking during those intervals in which the traction batteries are in a state of charge less than the specific value of the charging, and this particular value of the charging less than full charge, and which, at the levels of charge of the traction battery, located between a specific charge and a full charge, reduces the proportion of recuperated energy from dynamic braking means, which is sensitive or dependent on existing currently charging status relative difference between charging a predetermined charging and complete C the e line. In Fig.3A, a graph 310 represents, in accordance with an aspect of the invention, the amount of recovery as a function of state of charge of the traction battery in accordance with the control law. More specifically, graph 310 defines an area 312, which is constant in magnitude regenerative dynamic braking, representing 100% recovery, or as close to 100% as possible. When fully charged the amount of recovery of energy from dynamic braking, reduced to almost zero values, or as close to zero as it is convenient. Presents a graph 310, the control law further includes a second section 314, which monotonically decreases from 100% recovery at a predetermined level of charge of the traction battery, called the "first charge", to the zero recovery at full charging of the traction battery. The regenerative action of traction or braking of the vehicle as a function of state of charge of the traction battery shows a graph 320 of Fig.3b. In Fig.3b, a graph 320 includes a first section 322, which is held at a constant value, representing the maximum regenerative traction from arunachalam regenerative traction which monotonically decreases from 100% at the level of "first" charge to 0% when fully charged. Although parts 314 and 324 graphs 310 and 320, respectively, shown in the form of linear cuts, for management purposes, it is sufficient that the parts 314 and 324 were monotonous. This gradual reduction dynamic braking should not be visible to the driver of the car, because the state of charge of the traction battery is changed slowly, and, therefore, is slowly changing the magnitude of the regenerative braking. Since regenerative braking is changed slowly, the friction brakes gradually perceive any deficiency between the dynamic braking and the required braking force. This, in turn, reduces vibration, which is noticeable when the control law simply protects the traction battery from over-charge simple termination of the recovery, when the batteries are in a state of full charge.Fig. 4 is a simplified graphical scheme of the program, illustrating the portion 400 of the control laws, control processor 50 controls Fig. 1, which leads to the type of implementation shown in Fig.3A and 3b. In Fig.4, the logic circuitry is ccumulating battery (20 Fig.1), such as temperature, voltage and current, as well as a time stamp. The selection of these parameters can be carried out at frequent sampling intervals, for example at each iteration logic cycle Fig. 4. From a logical block 412, the logic proceeds to block 414, which represents the assessment of the state of charge of the traction battery, determining the amount of charge which was received on the battery, and subtracting the amount of charge that came out of the battery. Measure this charge is the ampere-hour. As soon as you perform the assessment of the state of charge of the traction battery, the logic proceeds to block 416 decision making, which compares the current or estimated at this time the state of charge of the traction battery with a predetermined amount of charge represented by the level of "first charge" of Fig.3A and 3b; as mentioned above, the charge level is less than full charge. If the block 416 decision finds that the resulting estimate the level of charge of the traction battery is below the level of the first charge, the logic exits block 416 decision making through the exit and proceeds to the next block 418, which represents the possibility of using p, regulirovanie excitation current in the traction motor operating in generator mode during braking, in order to maximize the electrical output signal of the traction engine. It should be noted that some types of motors/generators do not have a separate winding, but rather have multiple windings, in which one winding is required current, induced or induced by a controlled current in the other coil; for the purposes of the invention, a method, which generates the excitation current, is irrelevant, it is sufficient that it is generated with the required value. From block 418, the logic returns to block 412 to begin another iteration of the loop. When combined electric vehicle is driven in this state, the traction battery, it often becomes more fully charged thanks to the continuous input of energy (through the action of the auxiliary internal combustion engine/generator) in the system of energy storage, which includes a traction battery and the movement of the vehicle.Ultimately, the state of charge of the traction battery exceeds the level of the "first charge" shown in Fig.3A authorized logic, presents a logical loop 400 of Fig. 4, because the logical flow will no longer be sent from exit YES of block 416 decision making, and instead will go to NO way out. With NO exit block 416 decision logic moves to the next block 420, which represents a reduction in the regenerative power or energy available in the form of kinetic energy of the vehicle, inversely proportional, or inversely proportional to the number of available charge time about the difference between the full charge and the level of the first charge Fig. 3A and 3b. Thus, if the current charge status is 70% of the way between the first charge and full charge, as shown by position CCin Fig. 3A and 3b, the magnitude of the energy of motion, which allowed for the recovery and supply of the battery is 30%. When the current charge level reaches 100%, the maximum recovery is 0%. As mentioned above, control of the flow of energy or power from the traction motor acting as a generator, can be accomplished simply by adjusting the control torque drive AC motor with a controlled oriented, the excitation is borochov to control the amount of energy produced by the engine acting as a generator, which returns to the traction battery.As described so far, the logic of Fig.4 controls the recovery in accordance with the state of charge of the traction battery. This means that the braking force acting on the vehicle with the assistance of the traction motor acts as a generator, is reduced during braking. One of the advantages of electric vehicles, which uses regenerative braking, is that the friction brakes are not needed to run all the braking, and therefore their structure and design may be such as to take advantage of low usage, for example, by making easier their design. As described so far with reference to the logic of Fig.4, dynamic braking is reduced under some conditions of charging of the traction battery. To provide additional braking during those periods of time when regenerative braking is reduced, according to another aspect of the invention, the logic proceeds from block 420 of Fig.4 to the next block 422, which represents a decrease of efficiency of teak generator, you can perform regulation or slippage, or the current in the excitation winding, or preferably both together. From block 422 of Fig.4, the logic returns to block 412 to start another repeat "cycle" or the logic circuit 400.As described so far, vibration or rough running was due to the protection of a fully charged battery from the additional charge. A similar effect occurs when the acceleration in the case of a nearly depleted battery. During acceleration of the vehicle 10 of Fig.1 and the traction battery 20, and an auxiliary or secondary source 16 of the electricity (internal combustion engine/generator) available as sources of electrical energy to the traction motor 40. Consequently, the traction motor 40 can provide power at a rate that is the sum of the maximum power that can be obtained from the traction battery 20, together with the maximum power, which can provide an auxiliary source 16. It is convenient to work in the city, where sudden acceleration may require significant power. However, under certain conditions controls protect thee is tarei, when the battery reaches a charging status, which is considered discharged condition also leads to some form of vibration. This form of vibration occurs, if the vehicle climb over an extended period of time, such as when crossing the continental section. If the rate of energy use in bridging the lifting of the vehicle on the road exceeds the rate of energy output auxiliary source 16, the battery is continuously discharged and eventually reach the level of charge that is considered "empty" level. If at this time the controller traction batteries just turned off the traction battery from the circuit of the traction motor, the amount of current available for the traction motor, suddenly would be reduced to the level provided by an auxiliary source 16, followed by a sharp change in tractive effort and vehicle would experience a sudden decrease in speed. However, the elimination of the discharge of the traction battery traction motor can dramatically increase the battery voltage to the level of the voltage with no load. If the controller interamente charging he can re-connect the traction battery to the traction motor, thanks again providing additional traction force from the traction battery, but causing the voltage of the traction battery. Specialists in the art will recognize this as the vibrational state, which can cause recurring "chug" or rocking of vehicle while climbing.Here it should be noted that "fully" discharged battery, in the context of the traction battery, in which the desired long service life, still contains a significant charge, because the lifetime of these batteries is sharply reduced, if the depth of discharge is too large; therefore, a discharged battery for the purposes of discussing the operation of vehicles with electric drive is that in which rechargeable batteries are charging status, which is considered fully discharged state, but which still contains a substantial charge. In the combined electric vehicle auxiliary energy source continuously provides energy that can be used for charging the control Laws allow, to the auxiliary energy source, and traction batteries provided the power for the traction motor. When you need traction motor exceeds the power output of the auxiliary source, the current flows from the traction battery, which leads to voltage drop. If the traction battery is close to full discharge, the voltage drop caused by this discharge current may be such that will cause the protection of rechargeable batteries by eliminating the diversion of current from the battery. Termination drain current in accordance with the laws of the management, in turn, causes the power supply for the vehicle solely from the auxiliary source and provides the possibility of increasing the voltage of the traction battery. When the voltage of the traction battery rises, the control laws are no longer recognize the battery as discharged, and from the traction battery again allowed to drain current. The process is repeated connecting and disconnecting the traction battery to the traction motor is the oscillation of the control system. This oscillation leads to the fact that the strength of the rods is DSTV.In accordance with another aspect of the invention, the controller 50 controls the amount of power that can be obtained from the traction battery under the action of the state of charge of the traction battery. This eliminates the above-described situation "pytania" and provides a smooth decrease the speed at which the vehicle can overcome uphill, when the reduced charging the battery. Fig.5 illustrates a graph 500 that represents the control in accordance with this aspect of the invention. In Fig. 5 available for vehicle traction presents the schedule depending on the state or level of charge of the traction battery. Graph 500 includes a section 510, which represents a continuous output signal auxiliary source of electrical energy or power, which is a relatively low level. Section 510 of the graph goes from a level lower than the nominal state of discharge, to the level of charging, indicated by point a low charge", which is the nominal discharged condition traction batteries. In the workspace, represented by a 512 graphics, availab the RNA-power rechargeable battery and an auxiliary source. This maximum power level, represented by a 512 graphics, passes from the charging status, called "first charge", to the fully charged state. Between the state of "low charge" traction battery and the state of the "first charge" traction power depends on the state of charge of the traction battery, as represented by section 514 of the graph. The effect of this type of control is to ensure the full operation of the traction force during the period of time until the traction battery will not receive partial discharge up to the first level. When the voltage of the traction battery will decrease slightly below the first level, the capacity value of the battery, which is available for traction motor, slightly reduced, by an amount which is considered to be imperceptible. This is a small power reduction at the point just below the first charge level Fig.5 reduces the rate of discharge of the traction battery. If the hill is long, the traction battery can be discharged further. When the battery pack becomes additionally discharged in the area between "low" and "first" charge Fig.5, otda to a further deceleration of the vehicle. In the case of the longest hills traction battery will eventually reach the state of "low" charge, which is nominally flat. When you reach that level of traction battery energy is no longer returned, and, in General, the state of charge of the traction battery cannot pass below the "low" charge on plot graph 510, if there is any other way by pulling the battery type emergency lockout protection battery in conditions of imminent danger to the vehicle or passengers. When the management in accordance with the schedule of Fig. 5, at any point on the curve control there is no sharp transition in the traction force. When charging the battery is a little above the "low" charge, and forms the transition to work entirely from the auxiliary power source, the magnitude of the tractive efforts provided by the traction battery, already very small, and the transition for the driver of the vehicle will be invisible.Fig. 6 is a simplified graphical scheme of the program, which illustrates the portion 600 of the logical circuit of the controller 50 of Fig.1, which is the beginning" and proceeds to block 612, which represents the reading characteristics of the battery, almost as in block 412 of Fig.4. From block 612 of Fig.6, the logic proceeds to block 614, which represents the assessment of the status of charging, as described in General in accordance with Fig.4. Block 616 decision Fig.6 determines whether the current state of charge above the point of the "first" charge Fig.5, and directs the logic by output YES of block 616 decision, if the state of charge above the point of the "first" charge. Output YES of block 616 decision logic proceeds to block 618, which represents education full tractive effort available for the traction motor. This is done by moving capacity constraints, as described in connection with Fig.7a and 7b, in the software that controls the inverter, noting that the source is only a secondary source, while the battery and the motor/generator can be sources or consumers of energy, depending on the action of the inverter. From block 618, the logic proceeds back to block 612 to start another repetition logical cycle Fig.6. In General, when starting with an almost fully charged battery battery, logic will repeat the e exceeds the charging presented the level of the first charge in Fig.5.On the long ascent of the charging of the traction battery may eventually decline to the point of equal to or less than the first charging Fig.5, and at the next repetition of the logical cycle of Fig.6, logic 6 out of block 616 decision-making through the release of NO and proceeds to block 620. Block 620 represents a decrease available for traction motor power values from the traction battery by an amount which depends on the value of the current charging the traction battery regarding the difference between "first" and "low" charge Fig.5. For example, if the level of charge of the traction battery at the moment falls below the status of "first" charge Fig.5 up to the level shown in Fig.5 as "current charge", which is 9/10 of magnitude between charge levels, represented by the levels "low" and "first" charging, the controller 50 controls the amount available for traction motor power from the traction battery to provide 90% of the supplied rechargeable battery component of the total power is represented by a 512 graphics. In other words, because the current state of charge, the show is teamasia to the battery, the capacity of a battery provided to the traction motor is reduced to 90% capacity of the battery. Of course, you do not want the section 514 of the graph of Fig. 5 had a linear slope, as shown, but the control system is simplified if the parcel 514 schedule at least monotonous. From block 620 of Fig.6, the logical cycle proceeds to block 622 decision, which compares the consumption power of the traction motor with power from the auxiliary electric power source. If the need for traction power exceeds the power from the auxiliary source of electricity, batteries are discharged, and the logic exits block 622 decision-making through out YES. From exit YES of block 622 decision logic cycle proceeds to block 624, which represents an increase in available from the auxiliary source of power to its maximum value. From block 624, the logic proceeds to block 626 decision. Block 626 decision compares the current state of charge of the traction battery point "low" charge Fig.5. If the state of charge is below the "low" charge, showing that the battery pack has not Dol is and 626 decision-making through the exit and goes to a logical block 628. Block 628 is the power limit of the traction engine by controlling the DAE to a certain amount of the power available from the auxiliary source of electrical energy, easily identifiable as a product of voltage multiplied by current. From block 628 logical loop to move through a logical channel 630 back to block 612 to start another repetition of the logical cycle of Fig.6. If you study the state of charge of the traction battery unit 626 decision the current state of charge is greater than the point "low" charge Fig.5, the logic exits block 626 decision-making through the release of NO and goes through a logical channel 630 back to block 612, without passing through the block 628. Thus, when the traction battery has a significant applicable charge, the logic of Fig.6 permits its use. If during the passage of logic cycle Fig.6 block 622 decision finds that the pulling force of not more than by auxiliary source 16 power, the logic exits block 622 decision-making through the release of NO and passes through a logical channel 630 to block 612 to start another repetition; this channel bypasses the higher power vspomogateljnye motor (or generator) depending on speed. In Fig. 7a graphics a, 710b, s,..., 710N have a common inclined section 712. Power for the motor or generator is the product of torque multiplied by speed. Therefore, at zero speed, the power is equal to zero, regardless of torque. When the speed increases at a constant torque capacity is increased, as shown by section 712 of the graphs of Fig.7a, to the number of revolutionscore. When frequencies abovecorethe design of the motor/generator is that you can no longer manipulate power, heat or other reasons. Therefore, when the maximum torque of the engine/generator is limited in accordance with the laws of the inverter control to position on the chart a. If torque is slightly less than the maximum torque, maximum power is achieved at a somewhat lower engine speed thancoresubmitted schedule 710b. Schedule s is even lower torque and lower graph 710N is the lowest torque, which can podderjivayuschei value depending on the number of turns to prevent operation of the engine with a capacity exceeding the required maximum power limits. Limit torque moment limit is determined simply by dividing the maximum power on the current number of revolutions of the engine torque momentory=Pmax/speed and the derived limit for torque causes the constraint graph of the power value not exceeding shown in Fig.7a schedule a and section 712 of the chart value. If power should be limited to a value less than Pmaxgraph power, which should be the engine that corresponds to one of the graphs 710b, s, . . ., 710N Fig.7a. Fig.7b is a simplified block diagram illustrating the communication commands for the torque and power limiter. In Fig.7b torque momentmag served in block 714 limiter that regulates the amount of commands for the torque (limited torque momentmag), which arrives at the inverter 28 control oriented excitation (ALE) method, which limits the power so that it was below the curve 716. Curve 716 is a graph of torque depending on the number of Oboroceanu, the inverter ALE can control the power of the engine by controlling the controlled torque, given the number of revolutions of the engine. Discuss torque can be traction torque or torque on the control shaft, or it can be slow or brake torque. When it is desirable control power entering the battery from the motor acting as a generator, the appropriate commands ALE lead to the imposition of restrictions.In Fig.8, the desired torque or command to the torque gain from electric accelerator (not shown) and is served by a channel 810 to the first input port of the multiplier 812, which takes the measured speed of the vehicle (or the number of revolutions of the traction motor, if the vehicle is equipped with gearbox) with sensors (not shown) at the second input port 814. The multiplier 812 produces a multiplication of the number of revolutions of the motor shaft and controlled torque with the aim of creating a signal representing the managed power to be fed to the traction motor. Block 816 scales, if necessary, controlled power with constant k for the converted is bringing agile power, in watts, served from block 816 in the next block 818, which represents the division managed power in watts by the voltage of the traction battery to receive the signal representing the controlled current traction motor (Ic=P/E). Voltage traction battery is acceptable voltage traction motor, because all voltages in the system tend to battery voltage. The signal representing the controlled current Iwithwill be transmitted over the signal channel 819 in the plot command controller 50 of Fig.1 to control the inverter 28 00 A.M. and traction motor 40 in a manner that produces the desired motor current. The signal representing the controlled current Iwithalso transmitted from the output of block 818 by the scaling circuit shown in block 820, the generator 822 of the error signal. The purpose of the scaling circuit 820 is explained below, but it converts the controlled current Iwiththe engine in the controlled current IGgenerator. Generator 822 of the error signal generates the error signal by subtracting the feedback signal from the signal channel 824 representing vos is ub> generator. the error signal produced by the generator 822 of the error signal, is fed to the correction filter circuit, which can be a simple integrator, for the formation of a signal representing a controlled number of revolutions of the auxiliary source 16 of electrical energy, specifically, diesel engine 18. Diesel motor 18 causes the electrical generator 22 to generate the AC output voltage supply via power conductors 832 on the inverter 28 Fig.1. The device of the current sensor shown in the form of a circle 834, connected to the output conductors 832 to read current generator. Blocks 822, 826, 18, 22 and 824 of Fig. 8 together form a closed loop feedback, which tends to make the output current of the generator 22 is equal to the value of the managed control signal Icsupplied to the generator errors. The correcting device 826 contour is chosen to prevent too rapid changes in the number of revolutions of the diesel engine, which may not be desirable to cause an increase in pollution.As described so far, is shown in Fig.8, the device produces a signal Icto control the current of the traction motor the auxiliary generator 22. In Fig.8 signal representing the desired state of charge (Sz) of the traction battery shall be reinvestiruet input port of summing circuit 850. The signal representing the current state of charge, are taken to the inverting input port of summing circuit 850 block 852 determine the state of charge (Sz) of the battery. Block 852 NW receives signals representing battery voltage, battery temperature and battery current of the battery. In General, the state of charge of the battery is simply the integral over time of the resulting values of the input and output currents. Block 852 NW integrates result amps of current to produce ampere-hours of charge. Summing circuit 850 generates, in the signal channel 854, the error signal that represents the difference between the desired or controlled by the state of charge of the traction battery and the actual charging status, to identify thereby the instantaneous excess or lack of charge. the error signal is fed to the correction filter 856 circuit, which integrates the error signal, generating the integrated signal rasf the bath the error signal acts to block 820 through the limiter 858. More specifically, the integrated signal of the error, when served in block 820 scaling selects the scaling factor which scales the controlled current Icengine to convert it to a controlled current generator. The limiter 858 simply restricts the integrated signal of the error from the block 856 so that the range of scale factors of block 820 scaling is limited to the range between zero and 1 (one). Thus, the controlled current IGgenerator can never be greater than the controlled current Ictraction motor, and may be less in accordance with the scaling factor, managed limited integrated signal from the limiter 858, and a controlled current IGthe generator can be reduced to zero current.The desired state of charge of the traction battery is charging level that is less than full charge, so that regenerative braking can be applied without danger of damaging the traction battery due to excessive charge. Thus, the installation point of the desired Sz is a charge which is less than full charge. Doctruyen filter 856 contour is 0.5 Volts, halfway between the maximum of 1.0 Volts and a minimum of 0.0 Volts, allowed by the limiter 858. The integrated value of the error signal (limited by the limiter 858) can be considered as a multiplier to which the scaling circuit 820 multiplies controlled current traction motor, so that the integrated signal of the error, with the value of 1.0 causes a transfer of the controlled current Iwithtraction motor with a full size generator 822 of the error signal, while a value of 0.5 gives the value of the controlled current IGthe generator is equal to exactly half the value of the controlled current Iwithtraction motor. When operating the vehicle under the control of the device of Fig.8, when the state of charge of the traction battery exceeds the desired value, the generator 850 subtracts the error signal large signal value representing a high state of charge, from a value point of installation, as a result producing a signal difference or disagreement with a negative polarity. The integrator in a correction filter 856 circuit integrates the signal with a negative polarity, which tends to "mind the ith filter 856 circuit from its "normal" value of 0.5 Volts, it is possible, for example, down to 0.3 Volts. Since the amount of 0.3 Volts integrated of the error signal is within an acceptable range limiter 858, the integrated signal of the error simply passes through the limiter 858 to control the scaling circuit 820 in such a way as to make the controlled current Iwithtraction motor be multiplied by 0.3, but not on the "normal" ratio of 0.5, producing a controlled current IGgenerator. Thus, the state of charge of the battery, more desired installation point, leads to a decrease in the average output of the signal generator. Similarly, if the state of charge of the traction battery is below the desired point of installation, the signal coming from block 852 Fig. 8 to the inverting input port of the generator 850 of the error signal becomes smaller than the signal representing the desired Sz, which leads to the positive value of the error signal generator output 850 of the error signal. The integrator associated with the filter 856 circuit integrates its positive input, and produces an integrated output signal, which tends to increase in the Affairs of values, valid for limiter 858, the integrated signal of the error of 0.8 Volts is supplied to the scaling circuit 820 without changes. The integrated voltage of the error of 0.8 Volts causes the scaling circuit 820 to multiply the signal representing the controlled current Iwithtraction engine, 0.8, so that the controlled current IGgenerator becomes greater than before. The net effect of decrease of charge of the traction battery to a value below the set point is to increase the average power output of the generator 22, which tends to increase the level of charge of the traction battery. Specialists in the art will understand that the above-mentioned "normal" integrated value of the error signal does not actually exist, and is only used to help understand the operation of the control system.In accordance with an aspect of the invention, the method (Fig.5 and 6) operation of a combined electric vehicle (10), which receives at least part of the thrust force from the electric rechargeable battery (20), includes the stage for operating modes (acceleration or motion at a constant I (40) from an auxiliary source (16), as well as providing, from the batteries (20), the difference between the required traction power provided from an auxiliary source (16), to the maximum possible battery (20), when the rechargeable battery (20) are in a state of charge between the first state of charge (first charge in Fig.5) and a full charge. The first state of charge, of course, less than the state of full charge. In corresponding to this aspect of the invention a method of operating modes (acceleration or movement at constant speed) of the vehicle (10), which differs from the mode of braking, the traction motor (40) is provided with energy (510) only from an auxiliary source (16), when the batteries are in the second state of charge (not to exceed "low point charge" in Fig.5), which is essentially discharged state of the battery (20). Operating modes of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, the energy for the traction motor (40) is provided from an auxiliary source (16) and the traction motor (40) is provided with energy from the batteries (20) at less than full capability of the battery is Xia between the discharged state (point a low charge") and the first state of charge.In a variant of this aspect of the invention, the method (514, 618) the functioning of the combined electric vehicle (10), which receives at least part of the thrust force from the electric rechargeable battery (20) includes a step (618), operating modes (acceleration or movement at constant speed) of the vehicle (10), which differs from the braking mode, providing power to the traction motor (40) from an auxiliary source (16) of electricity, as well as providing traction motor (40), from the batteries (20), and up to the maximum capability of the batteries (20), the difference ("full opportunity of pulling power" minus "power generator") between the required traction power provided from an auxiliary source (16), when the rechargeable battery (20) are in a state of charge between the state of full charge and the first state of charge that is less than the above-mentioned state of full charge. Other relevant to this variant aspect of the invention, steps (628) include (a) operating modes (acceleration or movement at constant speed) of the vehicle (10), which differs from the braking mode, ensure the power is on the second state of charge (not to exceed "low point charge" in Fig.5), where the second state of charge is essentially discharged state of the battery (20) and (b) when the operating conditions of the vehicle, different from the braking mode, providing power to the traction motor (40) from an auxiliary source, and providing power to the traction motor (40) from the batteries (20) to a value that is approximately in the same ratio to the full capabilities of the battery, as the amount of charge of the batteries corresponding to the full charge.
Claims1. The method of operation of a combined electric vehicles, which receive at least part of the thrust force from the electric battery, wherein the operating modes mentioned vehicles, non-braking mode, supply power to the traction motor from the auxiliary source, and shall provide the difference between the required traction power supply from the auxiliary source from the battery to the maximum the possibilities mentioned batteries, when the said battery batutah operating modes mentioned vehicle, non-braking mode, provide energy mentioned traction engine only from the auxiliary source, these batteries are in the second state of charge, representing a discharged condition mentioned batteries, and in these operating modes mentioned vehicles, non-braking mode, provide energy mentioned traction motor of said auxiliary source, and also serves the energy at the said traction motor of said rechargeable battery in amount less than the full capability of the batteries, when the said batteries are charging status between the aforementioned discharged condition and said first state of charge.2. The method of operation of a combined electric vehicles, which receive at least part of the thrust force from the electric battery, wherein the operating modes mentioned vehicles, non-braking mode, supply power to the traction motor from the auxiliary source of electrical energy shall pass from the auxiliary source to the maximum the possibilities mentioned batteries, when mentioned batteries are charging status between full charge and the first state of charge that is less than fully charged, when the aforementioned operating modes mentioned vehicles, non-braking mode, provide energy mentioned traction engine only from the auxiliary source when the said batteries are in the second state of charge, representing a discharged condition mentioned batteries, and in these operating modes mentioned vehicles, non-braking mode, carry out the provision of energy referred to the traction motor from the auxiliary source, and also serves energy on said traction motor from the batteries to the amount that is in the same relation to the full capabilities of the mentioned batteries, as the amount of charge in these batteries is referred to full charge.
a motor, mechanically associated with the specified sprocket wheel;
rechargeable battery power;
the internal combustion engine;
electricity generator, mechanically associated with the specified internal combustion engine;
the means of transmission, electrically associated with the specified motor, with the specified generator and with the specified battery to transmit the first stream of electricity between the battery and the motor, the second flow of electricity between the generator and the electric motor and the third flow of electricity between the generator and the battery;
means for generating a first measuring signal reflecting the amount of electricity in the battery
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant contains heat engine contains and reversible electric machine, conversion unit, power accumulation unit and transmission. Transmission includes receiving-and-distributing device for distributing separate or summed up power flows of heat engine and reversible electric machine between driving axles of vehicle. Receiving-and-distributing device contains housing, rear axle drive shaft and front axle drive shaft and front axle drive shaft arranged in housing on different axles, and transfer mechanism. Said receiving-and-distributing device is made for changing gear ratio of transmission and it is provided with shafts to receive power flows from heat engine and reversible electric machine. Shafts of axle drive are independent from power flow receiving shafts. All shafts are furnished with connecting members to provide coupling of shafts either directly or through transfer mechanism.
EFFECT: simplified design of system transmitting power heat engine and/or reversible electric machine to drive axles (one of drive axles), increased efficiency of transmission.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering, possible use in autonomous objects, in particular, automobiles, for generation of electric energy and launching driving motor.
SUBSTANCE: energy plant with asynchronous starter-generator contains asynchronous machine, primary engine, main and additional accumulators of electric energy, current indicator of main electric energy accumulator, gate transformers. Direct current outputs of first gate transformer are directly connected to consumers of direct current of first voltage level. Additional electric energy accumulator is connected to consumers of direct current of second voltage level and through third gate transformer of direct current to direct current is connected to unipolar clamps of first gate transformer.
EFFECT: possible generation of two levels of voltage for consumers of direct current and increase of efficiency in generator mode.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to transport systems, particularly, to a vehicle that can be used in both an independent transport system and on motor roads. The vehicle is furnished with a frame accommodating a set of wheels attached thereto and an upper part containing, at least, two circular arc-curved rods. A rail mover, a current collector, is attached to every aforesaid rod. The current collectors can move on both the supporting conducting rail and on over the circular arc-curved rod.
EFFECT: vehicle higher maneuverability.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power accumulation system designed to drive a vehicle. The power accumulator incorporates a two-winding stator and, at least, one rotor with a magnetic flux generator. The rotors is coupled with the flywheel designed to accumulate power. The stator one winding is rated to high voltage and the other one to low voltage. The said power accumulator can transfer the power to the electric unit and from it and serves to accumulate power transferred from the said electric unit in the flywheel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, fast operation.
17 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrically driven vehicles and can be used in designing electric motor cars. Proposed car comprises body, chassis with suspension elements, drive and driven wheels, storage battery compartment, traction motors with reduction gears and control mechanisms. Electric motor car incorporates additionally torque amplifier, DC generator and braking rheostats. Torque amplifier comprises housing with front and rear covers. Said housing accommodates drive and driven shafts linked up by coupling linked with control rod lever. It accommodates also several amplifying elements coupled with drive shaft, each comprising rectangular-bar permanent magnet and electromagnetic linear motor, its brushes being connected to storage batteries. It houses also gear wheel fitted on drive shaft and accommodated inside round case. The latter is filled with steel balls. Torque amplifier driven shaft is coupled with DC generator shaft. Generator output is connected, via control mechanisms, with traction motors and storage batteries. Braking rheostats are connected in traction motor circuits in generation mode.
EFFECT: electric power saving, longer run between charging.
1 cl, 10 dwg