A method of manufacturing a high-pressure cylinders
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in the manufacture of pressure vessels, in particular for steel cylinders for fire extinguishers. Of the steel disk of the rolled billet cap with a convex bottom, stamp the bottom of the cap, giving it a support surface stable form. Of the cap form the cylindrical body of the container by drawing with thinning of its walls, and then form the neck of the bottle cold or hot crimping the edge of the case. The container is made from mild steel. Hood with thinning of the wall is carried out in 2-6 operations with intermediate recrystallization by annealing. Cold crimping the edge of the case is carried out in 2-6 operations by recrystallization annealing after 1 or 2 operation, and the hot crimping the edge of the case is carried out in 1-2 operation. The invention can simplify the manufacturing process of the container, to reduce the metal content of the container, to give the balloon convenient in operation stable form and to reduce the cost of the container. The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used in the manufacture of vessels to contain a gas under high pressure, high pressure steel pipe, manufactured in accordance with GOST standard 949-73 "steel Cylinders for low and medium capacity for gases at Pp20 MPa (200 kgf/cm2), for example, Pervouralsk metallurgical plant. The essence of the method lies in the manufacture of the container has a cylindrical shape of a segment of steel pipe of the desired size and wall thickness. The pipe ends are heated and rolled to the bottom and neck. The bottom is additionally sealed by welding. As a material used alloy or carbon steel.This tank has a welded rounded bottom, its bottom and Golovina part of the hull. The container has a large mass and high cost. This method is complex, inefficient, requires special equipment for rolling pipe and sealing the bottom and the neckline and conducting pneumatic tests for quality control of welded bottom.A known method of manufacturing a steel high-pressure cylinders, allowing to eliminate the problem connected with the necessity of sealing the bottom and pneumatic tests. This method of manufacturing a high-pressure cylinders of sheet blanks (abstracts of the "problems of development of technology and advanced equipment for production of steel, Chu is x cylinders made of sheet metal, S. 126). The cylinders are made of stainless steel. The sheet unevenly heated and pull out of her sleeve(cap) on forging equipment. Because alloy steel weakly amenable drawing, forming a body of the container required length shall conduct additional rolling or press the lug sleeve.This method is also complicated, inefficient, requires special equipment for rolling.The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method - prototype - is a method of manufacturing a high-pressure cylinders of sheet blanks, implemented by the Italian firm Faber (E. Grigoriev, and other Gas powered vehicles. M. : Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 100-102). The essence of the method consists in the following. Of the steel sheet of the desired thickness, cut down the disk (circle) of the desired size, punched him, i.e., the fold of his hood with a continuous convex bottom, from which then, by deformation of its walls form a cylindrical body of the container and the neck. In this way, the deformation of the cap is carried out by cold rolling roller, and the neck performed by means of hot sealing: heat the end of the housing and the roll neck of the rollers. Bali method has the following disadvantages. For the manufacture of cylinders required rolled and rolling mills specifically designed for this operation. They are expensive and require skilled care. The container has a thickness in Golovino part that is determined by the operation of the seaming cap, i.e. it is metal. Balloon uncomfortable to use, because it has a convex bottom that is determined by the complexity of the processing of alloy steel. The method is complex, inefficient. The cylinder is made in this way has a high cost.The objective of the invention is to simplify the method of manufacturing a high-pressure cylinders, the sustainability of the tank, reducing its metal and reducing the cost of the container.The problem is solved as follows: in the method lies in the fact that steel round billets (drive) roll (stamp) cap with a rounded bottom, which form a cylindrical housing with an orifice, unlike the prototype after convolution cap additionally stamp the bottom of the container with a resistant outer support surface, the body of the container is formed by extrusion with the thinning of its walls, and the neck is cold or hot crimping from tensile strain and compressive deformation, above which there are cracks, tears, folds. With the aim of preserving the integrity of the material cylinders hood with thinning of the walls is carried out in several (2-6) operations, and these operations are conducted recrystallization (high temperature) annealing to restore the ductility of steel. Cold crimping the edge of the case also hold in 2-6 operations. Between operations crimping or pairs of crimping operations conduct recrystallization annealing. The number of operations for drawing and crimping is determined by plastic material properties and the amount of its deformation, i.e. the ratio of the maximum allowable deformation of the material and the size of the original piece and cylinder (thickness of the workpiece and the thickness of the walls of the container, the diameter of the workpiece and cylinder) (B. N. Romanovsky. Handbook of cold stamping. - L.: engineering, 1971, S. 103-267).The proposed method is implemented as follows. From a sheet of mild steel cut billet round shape (disk) and put her cold forging: turn it into a cap with a continuous convex bottom. Convex bottom cap additionally stamp, ensuring efficient distribution of metal in the bottom part of the cylinder and giving ellzey ledge around the periphery of the bottom. Then form the body of the container with cold steel hood with thinning of its walls. The extraction may be carried out on a hydraulic press, punch through the matrix. With the aim of preserving the integrity of the material the extraction procedure with the thinning is carried out in 4 operations. After each drawing with thinning spend annealing (heating in a furnace for the purpose of recrystallization - restore ductility steel) with subsequent removal of scale, for example by etching or mechanical cleaning, and applying the lubricant, for example a phosphate coating with soap and water.The formed cylindrical housing cylinder next, form the neck by cold crimping the open edge of the case using hydraulic presses. The crimping is carried out in 6 operations for cylinders with a diameter of 140 mm and 5 operations for cylinders with a diameter of 110 mm every 2 crimping operation is conducted recrystallization annealing. After the last operation of the crimping relieve tension in the steel its low-temperature annealing. The execution of the neck can also be carried out by hot crimping, i.e., crimping the pre-heated edge of the case. In this case, the number of crimping operations reduce to 1-2, and recrystallization annealing is not carried out.
2and I made a cylinder - 65 to 70 kgf/mm2that makes these cylinders are suitable for fire extinguishers. Due to their high ductility low carbon steel becomes possible formation of a housing cylinder hood, and cap - crimping using well-known universal equipment. Such a process is impossible with stainless steel, because it defies the hood, and when crimping cracks. Compared with the sealing cap in the formation of the neck clamped with a reduced thickness Golovino part. The use of low-carbon steel helps to form the bottom of the container sustainable forms of cold stamping. Method of cold forming is a high-performance and high-tech. Used to implement this method, the equipment is much cheaper and easier to maintain than rolled and rolling mills in the method prototype and low-carbon steel is cheaper alloy.Taken universal equipment, does not require skilled care. The method allows to reduce the intensity of the tank, to make the container easy operation stable form and to reduce the cost of the container. A method of manufacturing a high-pressure cylinders, including roll-up hood with a convex bottom of the steel disk of the workpiece, forming a housing with an orifice, wherein the bottom cap stamp to make the surface resistant form, the body of the container form a hood with thinning of its walls, the neck is cold or hot crimping the edge of the case, the hood with thinning of the wall is carried out in 2-6 operations with intermediate recrystallization by annealing, cold crimping the edge of the case - 2-6 operations recrystallization by annealing after 1 or 2 operation, hot crimping the edges of the shell - 1-2 operation, as material for the manufacture of cylinder use of low-carbon steel.
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of high-pressure bottles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming shell; swaging at least one open end of shell; forming bottom and mouth while making at least two mutually joined cone surfaces and increasing central angle from shell to mouth; at least after one swaging operation performing heat treatment of swaged end of shell. High-pressure bottle includes shell and two bottoms. One bottom has mouth for placing locking means. Bottom and mouth are made as one piece. Bottom from shell until mouth is in the form at least of two joined lateral surfaces of circular regular truncated cones. Each such joint is performed due to joining lateral surfaces of truncated cones along lines of bases of their small and large diameters respectively. Said joints may be smooth, with radius transitions.
EFFECT: simplified design of bottle, enhanced technological effectiveness of making it.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metals.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making shell, upper bottom, mouth, lower bottom and joining all parts by welding; forming lower bottom as one piece with backing flanged ring; inserting lower bottom into shell along backing ring until flange rests upon shell; butt welding shell and lower bottom on backing ring.
EFFECT: enhanced centering due to accurately inserting lower bottom to shell, improved quality of welded seam of lower bottom and shell, lowered labor consumption for making bottle.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine engineering, possibly manufacture of sealing envelopes of corrosion resistant steels of metal-plastic high-pressure bottles.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of separately making metallic convex bottoms with cylindrical collar and backing ring. Thermal expansion factor of backing ring exceeds that of bottoms; outer diameter of backing ring provides close fit of bottoms onto it at 20°C; cooling preliminarily assembled backing ring with bottoms until cryogenic temperature; sliding bottoms on backing ring in cooled state until mutual touch of cylindrical collars of bottoms; heating assembly up to 20°C in order to provide close fit of backing ring in cylindrical collars of bottoms; welding bottoms along butt of assembly and then removing backing ring by chemical milling.
EFFECT: simplified process of making envelopes with enhanced mass characteristics.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: storing or distributing liquids or gases.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises molding at least of two sections of the vessel whose one bottom has an opening, and joining the sections together by outer and inner seam weld. The inner welding is performed before the outer welding. The inner and outer seams are overlapped. The inner seam weld is performed through the opening in the bottom of one of the sections to be welded.
EFFECT: reduced labor and metal consumptions.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working, namely shaping hollow variable cross section bodies.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of shaping in die having opening for introducing hollow body and profiled inner surface corresponding to desired profile of hollow body; creating on inner surface of die temperature gradient increased in direction of hollow body motion from minimum temperature near inlet opening of die to maximum temperature in zone of least cross section of body; setting maximum temperature according to condition of largest yielding of body material; setting minimum temperature according to condition of keeping stability of body and heating body till said maximum temperature during its motion in die. In order to make metallic liner of metal-plastic high-pressure vessel from tube blank, ends of tube blank are squeezed in die with profiled inner surface. Tube blank is guided into die along its lengthwise axis. On inner surface of die temperature gradient is created in such a way that it increases in direction of blank motion along lengthwise axis of die from minimum temperature at inlet of die till maximum temperature in zone of least cross section of liner. Maximum temperature is set according to condition of largest yielding of tube blank material; minimum temperature is set according to condition of keeping stability of blank and heating blank till said maximum temperature during its motion in die. Apparatus for shaping hollow variable cross section body includes die mounted on stationary support and having inner surface of preset profile and also having inlet opening for feeding hollow body. Apparatus also includes slide made with possibility of mounting on it hollow body moving along lengthwise axis of die. Die is provided with heating unit for creating on inner surface of die temperature gradient increased along lengthwise axis of die from its inlet opening.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles due to prevention of stability loss.
16 cl, 2 ex, 6 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the blank in the mandrel provided with the cylindrical and shaped sections, locking the blank in the cylindrical section of the mandrel, and affecting the blank by deforming rollers. The shaped section is initially formed by moving the rollers in different trajectories during one or several runs. Upon unlocking the cylindrical section, the blank is locked in the shaped section and the cylindrical section is drawn by moving the rollers in the opposite direction.
EFFECT: expanded function capabilities.
1 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering; pressure vessels.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method, spheroidal bottom is made of sheet, thickness of 0.5-0.6 of designed thickness for initial elliptical bottom and is subjected to deformation at higher process upsetting pressure of 1.3-1.5 of designed value.
EFFECT: facilitated and reduced cost of manufacture.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for making of bottles from sheet blanks. Proposed method includes making of shell, top plate, neck, bottom plate made integral with support ring, flanging and shoe, assembling and connecting the parts by welding. Shell is butt-welded to bottom plate on support ring. Both plates are made of blanks of equal size and in form of bottom plate. When making top plate, support part of shoe is calibrated to bring its diameter to diameter of shell.
EFFECT: reduced labor input.
1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely manufacture of high pressure vessels from recovered ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of producing blanks, subjecting them to hot deformation, hot molding of vessel mouths, mechanically working vessel mouths; subjecting articles to heat treatment for providing desired strength of vessels; using as blanks bodies of recovered artillery fragmentation type or high-explosive shells with removed collar; cutting each shell in joining zone of its ogival and cylindrical parts for preparing two blanks, namely cone blank with through opening and sleeve like blank with bottom. Heat treatment is realized according to preset mode.
EFFECT: lowered cost, improved factor of metal usage due to using recovered bodies of artillery fragmentation type high-explosive shells, enhanced quality of using shell steels.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 5 tbl
FIELD: pressure vessels.
SUBSTANCE: plastic-coating metallic vessel comprises outer load-bearing plastic shell and inner thin-walled welded steel shell whose intermediate section is cylindrical, two bottoms, and connecting pipe. The connecting pipe and at least one of the bottoms are made in block. The method comprises rolling out the rod from its one end thus defining the flange having flat circular surface from one side, working the unrolled section of the rod to form the outer surface and inner passage of the connecting pipe, rotating tension of the flange, moulding the bottom of a given shape, connecting the bottom to the intermediate cylindrical section, and welding the parts.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption.
4 cl, 3 dwg