Arrangement for reducing acoustic oscillations in the combustion chamber


F23D23 - Assemblies of two or more burners (gas burners with provision for a retention flame F23D0014260000; arrangement or mounting of burners F23C0005000000; for industrial furnaces F27)

 

The device with the combustion chamber includes a combustion chamber and a set of burners, each of which has an outlet into the combustion chamber. Each burner includes elements for flow of oxygen-containing gas in the burner elements for supplying fuel to the burner and the space that is ongoing in the combustion chamber along the longitudinal direction and made with the possibility of mixing of the supplied fuel and an oxygen-containing gas. Each burner is arranged to transfer essentially equally large flow of oxygen-containing gas through the burner into the combustion chamber. Each burner is characterized by at least one parameter, which includes the characteristic length (a) space along the longitudinal direction, and the characteristic length (a), at least one of the burners (6) is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding length (a) other burners in the specified set, and thus that the effect of vibrations that occur during operation of the device with the combustion chamber decreases. The invention reduces the effects of fluctuations in the acoustic pressure generated during the slave is Z. p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to a device with a combustion chamber comprising a combustion chamber and a set of burners, each of which has an outlet into the combustion chamber.

In such combustion chambers with multiple burners, intended, for example, for gas turbines, can occur acoustic pressure fluctuations or pressure pulsations, which lead to mechanical vibrations, creating problems of strength and noise. Such fluctuations may have an oscillation frequency, comprising several hundred Hertz, and in combustion chambers for gas turbines, the problem becomes more serious, at least in part, due to more stringent requirements for reducing emissions, for example, compounds of NOx. A possible explanation for the increase in the fluctuations in the emission reduction may lie in the fact that the fuel from the main thread and air are pre-mixed, and a mixture is formed, which is then burning. The better and more homogeneous mixture, the less the percentage of emissions, but at the same time the volume of the combustion becomes more susceptible to pressure fluctuations. Because at the present time, devices with cameras combustion, is such an approach, as the combustion chamber, the vibrations from the various burners in many cases also mutually reinforcing.

It is known that the effects of such fluctuations of acoustic pressure can, at least partially, be reduced by the fuel in the so-called pilot stream, i.e., fuel that is not pre-mixed. However, the combustion of this pilot flow leads to an increase in emissions.

In German patent document No. 4336096 described annular combustor with a number of burners. Burners are located relative to each other in the longitudinal direction in order to reduce vibrations. All burners have the same shape.

In International publication no WO 98/12479 described combustor for a gas turbine with a number of burners of different sizes. However, each burner has a fixed geometric shape, i.e., all the dimensional ratios are preserved, although the size changes.

The present invention is to reduce the influence of acoustic pressure fluctuations that are generated during operation of the device with the combustion chamber without a concomitant increase in emissions, primarily oxides

of nitrogen.

This problem is solved by a device with a camera oradatabase gas burner, elements for supplying fuel to the burner and the space that is ongoing in the combustion chamber along the longitudinal direction and made with the possibility of mixing of the supplied fuel and an oxygen-containing gas, in which each burner is arranged to transfer essentially equally large flow of oxygen-containing gas through the burner into the combustion chamber, in which each burner is characterized by at least one parameter, which includes the characteristic length of the space along the longitudinal direction, and in which at least a characteristic length, at least one of these burners is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding length of the other burners in the specified set, and thus that the effect of vibrations that occur during operation of the device with the combustion chamber decreases.

By changing the geometry of the burners in this way and give burners asymmetric or irregular characteristics can be obtained in various frequency vibrations, which are generated in different burners, which greatly reduces the risk that fluctuations that are generated in different To, at least part of the oscillation will interact in such a way that vibrations are reduced or even mutually weaken. Therefore, the invention provides the possibility of determining by calculation of such values of the characteristic length for at least one of the burners, which greatly reduces the influence of vibrations that occur during operation of the device with the combustion chamber. The length of the space or the burner can be easily changed. The design of the combustion chamber is not affected by such a change of one or more burners. By performing all of the burners in such a way that they provide the ability to transfer essentially equally large flow or equally large number of oxygen-containing gas through the burner into the combustion chamber, it is possible to easily obtain the effect of reducing fluctuations, since it is possible to adjust the supply of fuel to each burner as if they were the same.

In accordance with the embodiment of the invention, each burner continues between the rear end part, which includes the specified elements for supplying oxygen-containing gas, and the front end part, which includes all the properties of the stream of oxygen-containing gas, to obtain efficient mixing with the fuel. While these elements to the fuel supply can be located upstream relative to the front end portion and, in particular, near the rear end portion. However, these elements fuel can also include a distribution element, which is located in the space downstream relative to the rear end portion. Achieving the benefits of the space and the characteristic length extend from the rear end portion to the outlet. In addition, it is possible to prevent the space and the characteristic length lasted from these elements for fuel supply to outlet.

In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention the specified parameter includes the characteristic width of the space. The characteristic width can continue perpendicular to the specified longitudinal direction of the specified space. Achieving the benefits of the space has an elongated shape, i.e. the characteristic length much greater than the characteristic width. In addition, the space may have an essentially circular shape in transverse In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention the characteristic width, at least one of these burners is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding width of the other burners in the specified set. Changes in the geometry of the additional increase opportunities for effective reduction of pressure pulsations.

In accordance with a further embodiment the specified parameter includes a distance from a given burner to the adjacent burner and a specified distance from at least one of these burners to the adjacent burner is selected in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding distance between the other two adjacent burners in the specified set.

In accordance with a further embodiment of the specified parameter for at least two of these burners is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding parameter for the other burners in the specified set. When you change the geometry of multiple burners increase the possibility of decreasing vibration or pressure pulsation. In this regard, the specified parameter for a certain number of these burners can be selected so that it is deviated from the corresponding parameter for another some of azannyh parameters was different for, essentially, each burner device with a combustion chamber according to the present invention.

In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention the device is made with a location upstream relative to the gas turbine and the hot working gas in the gas turbine. Such use is predominant, since the problem of fluctuations is particularly serious in combination with gas turbines. When this combustion chamber may be annular or ring-shaped and continue around the axis of rotation of the gas turbine in the direction of essentially circular path.

In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention the burner of the specified set are located in the direction of essentially circular path, with the specified parameters additionally include the distance from the said burners to essentially circular path, that is, a distance from at least one of these burners is selected in such a way that it deviates from a certain distance of the other burners in the specified set.

Now the present invention will be explained in more detail through the various options to implement the Assembly in accordance with the embodiment of the invention; and

Fig.2 is a cross section of the device with the combustion chamber of Fig. 1;

Fig.3 - the design of the various burners of the device with the combustion chamber of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 - design of different burners device with a combustion chamber in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention; and

Fig.5 is a front view of the burner of Fig. 4.

Now the present invention will be explained in connection with gas turbine device 1, which includes a circular or annular combustion chamber 2, i.e., the combustion chamber 2, which continues in the direction of essentially circular path about the rotor 3 of the gas turbine device 1 and around the axis r of rotation, about which rotates the rotor 3. However, it should be noted that the invention is also applicable to the combustion of other types, except for an annular combustion chambers, and, in addition, can be used in other connections, in addition to as part of a gas turbine device.

Gas turbine device 1 shown in Fig.1, includes a compressor 4 and the gas turbine 5. The device with the combustion chamber of the gas turbine device 1 includes an annular combustion chamber 2 mentioned above, and a set of burners 6, each of which has WIPONET rear end part and the intermediate space 9, and the front end part, which includes the discharge outlet 7. Each burner 6 includes elements 20 in the form of a feed pipe 8 and at least a nozzle (not shown in more detail) fuel in the form of meteoblue or gas in the burner 6. In addition, each burner 6 includes elements for supplying combustion air or any other oxygen-containing gas in the burner 6 by means of the compressor 4. In the example shown, these elements are elongated feed holes 10, see Fig.3, the rear end portion of each of the burner 6. These feed holes 10 are designed so that the air for combustion causes a vortex in the burner 6. The supplied fuel and the air for combustion is mixed in the space 9. Preferably, the feed holes 10 are designed so that the amount of combustion air supplied to the burner 6 is essentially the same for all 6 burners.

The space 9 is continued along the longitudinal direction x from the rear end portion, and more specifically from the feed holes 10, to the front end portion and has an elongated shape. In the embodiment shown in Fig.2 and 3, the space 9 is, is ariante implementation of the space 9 is executed, essentially cylindrical. However, it is possible to prevent the burner 6 and the space 9 had an expanding or Contracting the configuration, for example a conical shape. Here it should be noted that within the scope of the invention the burner 6 and the space 9 can be performed in many different ways, for example, holes 10 air supply for combustion can have many different forms and can be located in many other places.

However, each burner 6 is described or defined in a number of different parameters that do not significantly depend on the geometry of the burner 6 or location of the burners 6 in relation to the combustion chamber 2 and to other burners 6. These parameters include the characteristic length "a" of each burner. In the example shown the characteristic length "a" is a length space 9 along the longitudinal direction X. the Other parameter is the distance "b" from a given burner 6 to the closest neighboring burner or burners 6. Another parameter is the characteristic width "C" of each burner. In the embodiment shown in Fig.2 and 3, the characteristic width "C" is the width of the space 9. Due to the elongated shape posterities width "C". However, within the scope of the invention it is possible to prevent the characteristic width was equal to or greater than the characteristic length "a".

In the embodiment shown in Fig. 2, the burners 6 are arranged in the direction of essentially circular path about mentioned above. An additional parameter may be deviation of the burner 6 of the circular trajectory about or, more accurately, the shortest distance "d" between the circular trajectory and the longitudinal direction X. in Addition, this parameter, which reflects the position of the burner 6 in the combustion chamber 2, may be, at least in the example shown to be also expressed as the total distance to the Central point in the combustion chamber 2.

In Fig.4 and 5 show a set of burners 6 element 20 of fuel, including fuel supply line 8 and the switch element 12, which is located in the space 9 downstream relative to the rear end portion and downstream relative to the feed holes 10. In the example shown the distribution element 12 includes a number of tubes, which are located along the radii from the centre and which is connected to fuel supply line 8. These tubes form a cruciform con is the implementation it is shown in Fig.4 and 5, the space 9 and the characteristic length "a" may be deemed to be continuing along the longitudinal direction x from the rear end portion, i.e., from the feed holes 10, to the front end portion. However, you can specify the space 9 and the characteristic length "e" continued from the distribution element 12 to the front end part.

Still the device with the combustion chamber was performed in such a way that the parameters a, b, C, d, e, defined above, were essentially the same for sseh burners 6. However, in accordance with the present invention one or more burners 6 should be performed so that the characteristic length a, e and, possibly, any one or some of the parameters b, C and d are deviated from those of the other burners 6. Through such one or more deviations you can get different frequency in different burners 6. In this case, fluctuations of the acoustic pressure will not be mutually strengthened and increased the likelihood that instead vibrations are mutually weakened, i.e., when such an asymmetric arrangement of the burners 6 vibrations or pressure pulsations can be significantly less. it is evident from Fig. 3 shows how the diameter or width of the mixing space 9 can be changed for different burners 6. It is evident from Fig.2 clearly shows how the distance "b" between adjacent burners can be changed in the direction of the circular path of O. in Addition, from Fig. 2 shows how two burners 6' can be moved relative to the circular path of O.

In accordance with the present invention one of the burner 6 may be the rejection of any of the parameters identified above, with respect to the parameter all other burners. You can also let in a certain number of burners 6, for example half, it was the same deviation of any parameter with respect to the parameter of the other burners 6. In addition, it should be noted that each burner 6 can be set to any one parameter (or the values of several parameters), which differs from the value of the corresponding parameter of all other burners 6.

The present invention is not limited to the described variants of implementation, but may be changed and modified within the scope the following claims.

It should be noted that the invention can be applied to combustion chambers of all types with more than one burner, and, in addition, for such devices, cotesta, through which vibrations or pressure pulsations can be spread.

Claims

1. Device with a combustion chamber comprising a combustion chamber and a set of burners (6), each of which has an outlet (7) into the chamber (2) combustion, in which each burner (6) includes elements (10) for feeding a stream of oxygen-containing gas in the burner (6), the elements (20) for supplying fuel to the burner (6) and the space (9), which continues into the chamber (2) combustion along the longitudinal direction (x) and made with the possibility of mixing of the supplied fuel and an oxygen-containing gas, in which each burner (6) is arranged to transfer essentially equally large flow of oxygen-containing gas through the burner (6) into the chamber (2) combustion, in which each burner (6) is characterized by at least one parameter, which includes the characteristic length (a) space (9) along the longitudinal direction (x) , and in which the characteristic length (a), at least one of these burners (6) is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding length (a) other burners in the specified set, and thus, h is the device under item 1, in which each burner (6) continues between the rear end part, which includes the specified elements (10) for supplying oxygen-containing gas, and the front end part, which includes the specified outlet (7).

3. The device according to p. 2, in which the said elements (20) for fuel supply are located upstream relative to the front end part.

4. The device according to p. 3, in which the said elements (20) for fuel supply are located near the rear end part.

5. The device according to p. 3, in which the said elements (20) for supplying fuel includes a distribution element (12), which is located in the space (9) downstream relative to the rear end part.

6. The device according to any one of paragraphs.2-5, in which the space (9) and the characteristic length (a) continuing from the rear end portion to the outlet (7).

7. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, in which the space (9) and the characteristic length (a, e) continuing from the above items (20) to supply fuel to the outlet (7).

8. The device according to any one of paragraphs.1-7, in which each of these options includes the characteristic width (C) space (9).

10. The device according to any one of p. 8 or 9, in which the space (9) has an elongated shape, i.e. the characteristic length (a) is significantly greater than the characteristic width ().

11. The device according to any one of paragraphs.8-10, in which the characteristic width (C) at least one of the burners (6) is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding width (C) other burners in the specified set.

12. The device according to any one of paragraphs.1-11, in which the space (9) has an essentially circular shape in cross section taken transversely to the longitudinal direction (x).

13. The device according to any one of paragraphs.1-12, in which the space (9) is made essentially cylindrical.

14. The device according to any one of paragraphs.1-13, in which these parameters include the distance (b) from a given burner to the adjacent burner and in which a specified distance (b) from at least one of the burners (6) to the adjacent burner (6) is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding distance (b) between two other adjacent burners (6) in the specified set.

15. The device according to any one of paragraphs.1-14, in which the specified parameters (a, b, existing settings of another burner (6) in the specified set.

16. The device according to p. 15, wherein said parameter (a, b, C, e) for many of these burners (6) is chosen in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding parameter to another parameter specified burner (6) in the specified set.

17. The device according to any one of paragraphs.1-16, which is performed with the possibility of placing upstream relative to the gas turbine (5) and hot working gas in the gas turbine.

18. The device according to p. 17, in which the camera (2) combustion is made annular and extends around the axis (r) of rotation of the gas turbine (5) in direction of essentially circular path ().

19. The device according to p. 18, in which the burner of the specified set are located in the direction of essentially circular path (o), in which these advanced options include the distance (d) from the above burners (6) to essentially circular path (a) and in which the distance (d) from at least one of these burners (6') is selected in such a way that it deviates from the corresponding distance (d) other burner (6) in the specified set.

 

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FIELD: gas-turbine plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes changing of fuel rate depending on power by metering out delivery of fuel into manifolds of coaxially installed pilot and main burners of burner assemblies with preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Burner assemblies are installed in two tiers, and fuel is delivered into burners of both tiers. At starting fuel is fed into manifold of pilot burners of outer tier and before idling, into manifold of pilot, burners of inner tier. At idling amount of fuel fed into pilot burners of outer and inner tiers is maintained equal. Then fuel delivery into pilot burners of outer and inner tiers is increased. Prior to operation under no-load conditions fuel is fed to main burners of outer and inner tiers. In the range from no-load to rated load, fuel delivery into main burners is increased with simultaneously decreasing relative portion of fuel fed through pilot burners. Invention provides reduction of content of nitrogen oxides NOxin exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant.

EFFECT: provision of stable burning of lean mixtures under any operating conditions.

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FIELD: continuous combustion chambers.

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