Composition for de-icing and methods of their use
Usage: for de-icing and to reduce ice on a variety of surfaces, in particular on runways and aircraft. Essence: the ice-covered surface of the applied composition, including alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium. Preferably the ratio yantarnokislogo potassium and polyaspartate sodium ranges from 90:10 to 99:1. The composition comprises 1-10 wt. % salt of succinic acid and sodium chloride or calcium. Composition comprising alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium, may further comprise a salt of polymaleic. As a salt of succinic acid may contain alternately potassium, alternately magnesium and their mixture in a ratio of about 97:3 or 95:5. The technical result is an increase in de-icing capacity, reducing the corrosive action of sodium chloride by more than 50%, the corrosion inhibition of steel and aluminum, and magnesium alloys. 5 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals., 15 Il. Background of the invention the Invention relates mainly to the composition for de-icing and method of its application, and more particularly to compositions for de-icing salt containing succinic acid, and to methods of applying the composition is the means as well as for applications with special materials.Chemicals for de-icing, generally used in the United States during the winter season on motorways and airports to traffic safety. There are many materials and compositions currently used for such purposes. However, such materials have many disadvantages, including their corrosive ability, cost and their negative impact on the environment.Conventional road salt is the most widely used chemical means to combat icing on the highways, driveways, sidewalks, etc. It is quite efficient, inexpensive, reliable, easy storage and use. In the report "Combating icing on motorways: Comparative characteristics of salt and calcium magnesium acetate", Special Report 235, Transportation Research Board Committee on the Comparative Costs of Rock Salt and CMA for Highway Deicing, Washington, D. C. (1991), incorporated here by reference, provides a figure for the amount of consumed each year for these purposes, road salt, component 10 million ton $35/ton.One of the main problems of the application of road salt is its corrosive property. She has the ability to erode the road surface, nedstam and the environment. Structural damage involve the destruction of the concrete coatings and corrosion of steel, which leads to high costs for road maintenance. The erosion of foliage, soil compaction and pollution of water - only some of the negative manifestations of the influence of sodium chloride on the environment.As mentioned in the articles, W. L. Miller, "Ways to Help Bridges and Deicers Coexist: CMA Cuts Corrosion on Zilwaukee Bridge", Better Roads (February, 1993), and R. Strawn, "CMA has Role to Play in Critical Applications", T. Kuennen, Ed. , Roads & Bridges (March, 1993), each of which is incorporated here by reference, because of the problems associated with the corrosive ability of common salt as a means of combating icing on the roads, was put into wide use less harmful chemical anti-icing, namely a double salt of calcium acetate and magnesium (MCA). It is known that calcium-magnesium acetate slows down the destruction of the concrete and corrosion. It is also known that it is less harmful to the environment unlike conventional road salt. However, one of the opposite sides of the CMA - its value amounting to $925/ton, which is twenty times greater than the cost of conventional road salt. In addition, the properties of the CMA as agent for de-icing leaves much to be desired.ICE BAN- the recent is E BAN sediment is a natural liquid concentrate from the wet milling of corn and the production of alcohol. He has no corrosive properties and is a good means acting on the ice and prevent its formation. However, this product has not been fully satisfies the conditions of use. One of the drawbacks of ICE BRN is that it is a liquid agent for de-icing. Fixtures for scatter conventional anti-icing designed for solid agents. The transition to the liquid agent will require costly rework equipment that will result in significant investments in addition to the cost of storage tanks for liquids. The increase in viscosity at low temperatures can create additional problems.Another available agent for de-icing based on potassium acetate known as CF7, it is manufactured by CRYOTECH and it is planned to test the role of such agents in the airports. Agents for de-icing, used at airports and air bases, must meet stringent requirements and standards. I believe that using CF7 can cause problems of corrosion and it would not meet the standards in the fight against icing metals aircraft.In EP publication 0077767 petrovay acid (40-50 wt.%) and succinic acid (20-25 wt.%) in the form of salts of potash, which is claimed to be suitable for de-icing at airports. This drug is in liquid form, which has characteristics for de-icing. However, I believe that he does not meet the requirements of the standard corrosion for metal aircraft, in particular does not meet the standards of corrosion protection for magnesium treated with bichromate, which is a metal alloy for aircraft, the most susceptible to corrosion.The reference also discloses the combination of pure potassium salt of succinic acid, urea, and water as solvent ice (35,5:25:41,5 weight parts). The reference also States that the net alternately potassium as antifreeze and corrosion inhibitor is less favorable than the mixture of dicarboxylic acids disclosed here that speaks in favour of using some mixture of carboxylic acids when compared with the use of yantarnokislogo potassium. Since the publication of the application has passed sixteen years and no commercial product based on this disclosure, has not acquired any market acceptance.Thus, it is necessary to find an improved composition for de-icing, which would be more commercially viable than the compositions according to the invention offers improved composition for de-icing and methods of their use. In particular, the object of the invention is to obtain compositions for de-icing, which would be acceptable and effective for use in airports, where an important issue is the corrosion of magnesium alloys. This invention solves the problem the proposal compositions for de-icing, which have improved characteristics penetration into the ice and, in particular, which have improved characteristics penetration into the ice in comparison with the CMA, while maintaining a fairly gentle impact on the environment. Moreover, the invention is a composition for de-icing, which can penetrate into the ice at temperatures below about -10oC.The task of the invention are compositions for de-icing, does not have such a corrosive effect, as road salt. In addition, the invention relates to compositions, which possess lesser corredera capacity for steel, aluminum and some parts of magnesium alloys than regular road salt. For example, the invention is a composition for de-icing, with a much less corrosive ability than allowed by the standards for ispolzovaniya are also compositions for de-icing, which slow down the corrosive effects of traditional road salt. In particular, the task of the invention to provide compositions for de-icing, which inhibit the corrosion of steel and aluminum, caused by road salt, and compositions for de-icing, which inhibit the corrosion of magnesium alloys processed by bichromate, and other metal alloys commonly used in aircraft constructions and equipment of airports.The task of the invention are also compositions for de-icing, comprising an effective amount of salts of succinic acid, such as alternately potassium (trihydrate), alternately ammonia (anhydrous), alternately sodium (uranyl) in pure form or in combination. The task of the invention are also compositions for de-icing, including effective inhibiting corrosion and prevents icing of the number yantarnokislogo potassium together with effective amounts of either: (1) sodium salt of polymaleic and yantarnokislogo magnesium, 2) yantarnokislogo magnesium and polyaspartate sodium, 3) sodium salt of polymaleic, 4) polyaspartate sodium and sodium salts of polymaleic, 5) yantarnokislogo magnesium or 6) sodium chloride is notizie for de-icing, including sodium chloride together with an effective amount of salts of succinic acid, such as alternately potassium, with enhanced properties, inhibiting corrosion.In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention object of the invention is also a composition for de-icing, comprising an effective amount yantarnokislogo ammonium, with an enhanced ability of the action on the ice and inhibiting corrosion.The task of the invention are also compositions for reducing the corrosive action of an ordinary road salt, including inhibiting corrosion and prevents icing effective amount of salts of succinic acid, in particular or yantarnokislogo potassium (three-hydrate), yantarnokislogo ammonia (anhydrous), or yantarnokislogo sodium (uranyl) in pure form or in combination with each other.The task of the invention are also compositions for reducing the corrosive action of an ordinary road salt comprising a combination of sodium chloride with an effective amount or yantarnokislogo potassium, yantarnokislogo ammonium yantarnokislogo sodium, polyaspartate sodium or sodium salt of polymaleic, or in pure form or in combination with each other for openseamap of the invention the invention are also compositions for reducing the corrosive action of an ordinary road salt, with a combination of sodium chloride with an effective amount of yantarnokislogo sodium and polyaspartate sodium to reduce corrosive ability of the composition.In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention the invention are also ways of de-icing surfaces, materials or products, such as runway on the airfield or airport solutions, including the use of a composition to effectively prevent the formation of ice number yantarnokislogo potassium and other possible impacts on the surface, material, or product.In accordance with a preferred variant of the present invention, the task of the invention are also ways of de-icing the aircraft, including the stage of application of the composition with an effective amount of yantarnokislogo potassium on the surface of the aircraft, runway, or other airport objects.The invention accordingly comprises the several steps and the interaction of one or more of these stages with the other, and the composition possessing the features, properties and relation of components required for such with whom I and the claims.A brief description of the drawings For a more complete understanding of the invention reference is made to the following description, presented together with the drawings.In Fig.1 presents graphs of the action of penetration into the ice at different temperatures yantarnokislogo potassium and MCA.In Fig. 2 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of steel in aqueous solutions of anti-icer containing 3 wt.% agent.In Fig.3 presents graphs of the action of penetration into the ice at different temperatures salts of succinic acid in comparison with road salt.In Fig.4 presents graphs of the action of penetration in ice mixtures of salts of succinic acid in the ratio of 50:50 in comparison with the action yantarnokislogo potassium.In Fig. 5 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of steel in aqueous solutions of anti-icer containing 3 wt.% agent.In Fig.6 is a diagram of the corrosion of aluminum in aqueous solutions of anti-icer containing 3 wt.% agent.In Fig. 7 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of steel in aqueous solutions with a content of 3 wt.% anti-icer.In Fig. 8 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of steel in aqueous solutions with a content of 3 wt.% anti-icer (polyaspartate sodium 3 wt.% anti-icer (alternately sodium : polyaspartate sodium : chloride of sodium).In Fig. 10 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of steel in aqueous solutions of anti-icer containing 3 wt.% agent.In Fig. 11 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of the magnesium alloy processed by bichromate, in aqueous solutions of anti-icer containing 3 wt.% agent, except where used in CF7 received from the company.In Fig. 12 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of the magnesium alloy processed by bichromate, in aqueous solutions with a content of 3 wt.% anti-icer (alternately potassium : polyaspartate sodium).In Fig.13 is a diagram of the degree of corrosion of the magnesium alloy processed by bichromate, in aqueous solutions with a content of 3 wt.% anti-icer.In Fig. 14 is a diagram of the reduction of the freezing point of 50% (wt.%) aqueous solutions of anti-icer.In Fig.15 is a diagram of the detachment of the samples of concrete in different solutions and water after 5-50 cycles of freezing/thawing.A detailed description of the preferred variants of the invention the Objective of the invention to provide compositions that prevent icing and includes salts of succinic acid, as well as methods of their use. Salts of succinic acid. 9/134061 and patent 5770435 and are included here by reference. Here, the term salt of succinic acid is either found in nature salt, salt, obtained by synthesis, or salt, obtained by genetic engineering. However, the methods of obtaining salt genetic engineering offers significant advantages, in particular, their cost is significantly reduced.Applicants found that alternately potassium (for example, trihydrate yantarnokislogo potassium) repeatedly surpasses other salts of succinic acid. He proved to be an effective anti-icer and does not cause corrosion. In comparison with MCA direct savings from the use of yantarnokislogo potassium can be up to 40%. Additional indirect savings can be achieved with excellent anti-icing ability yantarnokislogo potassium. Given the financial costs borne by state and County road service due to corrosion of steel and concrete demolition directly due to corrosive road salt, alternately potassium is an economical non-corroding cast defroster for many expensive constructions of highways. In addition, it can be an invaluable agent for use on the most sensitive part which goes on the effects of MCA, alternately potassium will find a niche in the market, as at the time of the MCA.Combating icing at airports and air bases represents another extremely important market for defrosters on the basis yantarnokislogo potassium. De-icers used at airports and air bases, must meet stringent requirements for them. These criteria are set to protect the special alloys used in the specific structures of the aircraft. Applicants found that compositions with alternately potassium can answer and even significantly exceed standard requirements for the degree of corrosion for metal aircraft. Features anti-icer based on yantarnokislogo potassium for use at airports and air bases are huge. Although material and production costs are the leading factor in any application, the savings obtained by reducing the cost of maintenance and repair in the use of non-corroding cast defroster, make use yantarnokislogo potassium in such high-tech applications economically viable.To determine that the salt of succinic acid is Olya with other defrosters. Given the strict eligibility criteria of corrosion of metals that must be followed in the application of defrosters, evaluated corrosive ability and action of inhibiting corrosion salts of succinic acid in comparison with other defrosters.Has been determined that many of chloride mixture containing a salt of succinic acid, or corrosion inhibitors derived from such salts, showed very good action in combating icing on the highways. The tested inhibitors were able to inhibit corrosion caused by salts of chloride, 50-75%. This suppression of corrosion has the advantage, because of a mixture of sodium chloride with a high content can be used to obtain an acceptable product, designed for use in combat icy roads. In addition, the presence of corrosion inhibitors in small quantities not impair the properties of the salts of chloride to penetrate the ice and contribute to its melting. In total you can talk about the family of economical, high-performance defrosters that are less corrosive capacity than the chloride salt in pure form.One indisputable fact is that the formula anti-icer on asasah. The eligibility criteria for corrosion, which must match the defrosters used at airports and air bases, rather rigid and are designed to protect against corrosion of the special alloys used in the construction of aircraft. It was found that alternately potassium and other salts of succinic acid in combination with a polymer derived from carboxylate as corrosion inhibitors can be used successfully in obtaining non-corroding defrosters on the basis yantarnokislogo potassium for use at airports and air bases. No CF7 or DA, which were designed to deal with icing in airports, failed to meet the standards of admissibility of corrosion for metal aircraft.It was repeatedly found that alternately potassium exceeded the effect of other salts of succinic acid. It is effective as an anti-icer, and is corrosive properties. Various tests and experiments conducted by the applicants, as described below.Aspects of the invention are described and presented with reference to the following examples. Examples are given for illustrative purposes and should not be construed as limiting the scope of isopotentials slightly modified version of the Protocol SHRP H-205.3 of the "Handbook on methods for testing and evaluating chemical defrosters", SHRP-H/WP-90, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Science Council, Washington, D. C. (1992)", included here by reference. The ability to penetrate into the ice was determined by observation of the behavior of the anti-icer which spreading down showed mostly homogeneous front of the melting ice. The test included the following stage.1. Distilled water was placed in a standard test beds to determine the penetration of the agent into the ice and froze.2. Samples of anti-icer weight 25 mg or 100 mg stored at room temperature.3. The defrosters were placed on ice in a test stand at predetermined temperatures -5oC, -10oC, -15oAnd -20oC.4. The penetration depth in the ice was measured at regular time intervals of 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The penetration depth was observed using drops of diluted dye Bulls-Byedeposited on the ice surface. The dye gives a distinct blue hue across the front of penetration into the ice.5. The tests were conducted three times.The method of determining the corrosion properties of steel and aluminium evaluation of the properties of inhibiting corrosion was performed following the Protocol SHRP H-205.7 of the "Handbook on methods for testing and evaluating genovali using aqueous 3% solution (wt.%). The test Protocol included the following stage.1. 750 ml of aqueous salt solutions were placed in a closed tube Erlenmeyer flask. The tube is used to prevent rapid evaporation of water during the blowing air for the accelerated corrosion under controlled conditions. Trial cut metal samples (steel SAE 1010 and aluminum S D1730) size 1" x 2" hung in solutions using nylon thread, fixed in the hole of the sample.2. Samples of metals subjected to accelerated corrosion in the next two weeks with airflow control, level solution, the color of the solution and the pH of the solution.3. The corrosion rate in the die (1/1000 inches per year) was determined using the Protocol SHRP H-205.7 for steel and aluminum.The method of determining the corrosion properties of magnesium To evaluate properties of inhibiting corrosion of the used Protocol ASTM F 483-91 from "Standard test method for corrosion test full immersion for the chemical agents used in servicing aircraft, incorporated here by reference. Corrosion properties of several defrosters were evaluated using 3% aqueous solution (wt.%). The test Protocol included the following stage.1. 450 ml of aqueous salt solutions water. The solution was kept at 38oWith within 24 hours of testing. Trial cut metal samples (treated with bichromate, as in the magnesium alloy AMS 2475, allowing plastic deformation, indicated by the ASTM standards AZ31B-AS 4376) size 1" x 2" hung in solutions using nylon thread, fixed in the hole of the sample.2. Samples of metals subjected to accelerated corrosion within 24 hours with control solution level, temperature, color and pH of the solution.3. The degree of corrosion, expressed in mg/cm2was determined using the Protocol of ASTM F 483-91.Method for the determination of freezing temperatures To determine the temperature of the freezing defrosters used the following Protocol. The concentration of anti-icer in the aquatic environment was 50 wt.%.1. 8 ml of aqueous solutions defrosters were placed in sealed plastic tubes.2. The tube was immersed overnight in the fridge Polystat Chiller containing silicon heat transfer fluid supported at given temperatures. The temperature range was from 0 to -45oC.3. After the time of immersion, the samples were extracted, visually determined frozen samples and recorded the data.5. Stages 3 and 4 were repeated until until all samples in the experiment were not frozen.Example 1 First clean enough solid yantarnokislogo potassium compared with the action of the ARS in order to demonstrate the overall superiority yantarnokislogo potassium as non-corroding cast defroster with respect to its ability of penetration into the ice and corrosive properties.Effect of penetration into the ice yantarnokislogo potassium and MCA shown in Fig. 1. Procedure the Protocol specified earlier (the Method of determining the ability of the defrosters to penetrate ice) was used with 25 mg of solid anti-icer. The degree of penetration into the ice MCA in -5oC and -10oWith was significantly lower penetration yantarnokislogo potassium. Calcium-magnesium acetate was completely ineffective below -10oC. it is obvious that alternately potassium showed himself as an agent, superior to the MCA at temperatures down to -20oWith, and did not freeze until temperatures below -40oC.Example 2
Evaluated the degree of corrosion of steel in 3% aqueous solutions yantarnokislogo potassium, MCA and sodium chloride. The results show that both agent - alternately potassium and CMA does not provide significant corrosione values are within the tolerance range of errors in the experiments. This is confirmed by the observation of repeated experiments where the metal samples did not appear to corrosion. In sodium chloride corrosion of steel was 18 mpy and was visible.Example 3
Evaluated the inhibition of corrosion of steel Encarnacion potassium and MCA in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride. Added number yantarnokislogo potassium and MCA was 2 wt.% of the total amount of salt, while the total amount of salt in the aqueous solution was 3 wt.%. The results of this experiment are presented in Fig.2. As can be seen, a small amount of either yantarnokislogo potassium, or MCA, have a significant impact on the corrosive property of sodium chloride. And alternately potassium and MCA slowed by more than 50% corrosion caused by chlorides of sodium.Examples 1-3 are used for comparing the performance of yantarnokislogo potassium with MCA, which is recognized as the most commercially available alternative defroster for highways. Criteria for comparison included the ability to penetrate into the ice, corrosive ability and the property of inhibiting corrosion. It is seen that the degree of penetration into the ice SMA significantly lower penetration yantarnokislogo potassium. MCA does not penetrate into the ice neither is to demonstrate the characteristics of the defroster even at lower temperatures.Obviously, alternately potassium and MCA are not corrosive and inhibit the corrosive property of chloride of sodium, more than 50%. They are both biodegradable and do not have cumulative effects on the environment. At the moment the Federal road service ("FHWA") defines inquiry as "the only environmental alternative to salt." However, it is established that alternately potassium exceeds the CMA in its ability anti-icer, while maintaining the same environmental benefits and protection from corrosion, which provides MCA. This is in addition to 40% of direct cost savings on agent. Additional savings on Encarnacion potassium can be obtained due to its excellent ability of anti-icer. In addition, it can be applied less frequently and in smaller quantities. This suggests that alternately potassium is more viable anti-icer for use on expensive road constructions and in environmentally sensitive areas.Example 4
Action yantarnokislogo potassium compared with other salts of succinic acid. Salt of succinic acid is included alternately sodium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium.SHRP H-205.3 p the ski defrosters to penetrate ice, assumes use at the test bench 25 mg anti-icer. However, the anhydrous samples used 100 mg of anti-icer in order to allocate the slightest difference, if any, in the action of the salts tested. Therefore, the absolute value of the penetration depth in the ice yantarnokislogo potassium, shown in Fig.1, differ from the figures presented in this example.As shown in Fig.3, in the investigated temperature range alternately potassium (trihydrate) repeatedly superior to all other salts. Followed alternately ammonia (anhydrous) and alternately sodium (uranyl). Penetration into the ice salts of succinic acid was compared with that characteristic of road salt. The maximum depth of penetration yantarnokislogo potassium (three-hydrate) amounted to about half the depth of penetration of road salt. Tested also alternately sodium (anhydrous), alternately calcium (monohydrate) and alternately magnesium (anhydrous). Yantarnokislogo sodium (anhydrous) was minimal ability to penetrate into the ice at -3oAnd hardly any ability at lower temperatures. Alternately calcium had no gloves Were confirmed by the synergistic action of these salts. Testing was performed using mixtures yantarnokislogo potassium (three-hydrate), yantarnokislogo ammonia (anhydrous) and yantarnokislogo sodium (uranyl) in the ratio 50: 50. The components were taken on the anhydrous basis. The results are presented in Fig.4. When -3oWith all mixtures can be compared with the action actually clean yantarnokislogo potassium (three-hydrate). However, at lower temperatures the ability of penetration into ice mixtures was significantly decreased in comparison with the ability to actually clean yantarnokislogo potassium (three-hydrate). In the end, the synergistic action was observed. Actually mixing weakened the action as yantarnokislogo potassium and yantarnokislogo ammonium.Findings suggest that alternately potassium has the best penetration ability into the ice. In use in the fight against icing of high-tech and expensive structures such as airports and air bases, where maintenance and repair due to the use of cheap low-quality defrosters in the end it costs more alternately potassium seems to be the most viable alternative. The anti-icer composition based yantarnokislogo potassium, not considered in examples 10 and 13.Example 6
Investigated the corrosion rate of steel in 3% (wt.%) aqueous solutions yantarnokislogo potassium, yantarnokislogo sodium, yantarnokislogo ammonium and sodium chloride. The results presented in Fig.5, show that the salts of succinic acid, except yantarnokislogo ammonium, does not promote corrosion of steel. The degree of corrosion of steel in Encarnacion potassium and Encarnacion sodium was 0.01 and 0.03 mpy, respectively. Therefore, these values are not visible on the chart. I believe that these small values can be entered in the tolerance range of error in the experiment. This is confirmed by the fact that in repeated experiments on metal samples corrosion has not appeared. The degree of corrosion of steel in sodium chloride amounted to 18 units.The Protocol SHRP H-205.7 in the "Handbook of methods for the assessment of chemical defrosters, which was used for evaluation of corrosive properties of salt, involves immersing the two samples of steel in aqueous solutions of anti-icer. Electrochemical properties yantarnokislogo ammonium contribute to extensive corrosion of one of the samples and protect from corrosion the other. Alternately ammonium showed this effect in repeated experiments. In the method Protocol data present is, 5 is 17,13 mpy. This average degree of corrosion can be decomposed into 34,26 mpy for one sample steel and 0,0 mpy for another.Investigated the extent of corrosion of aluminium in 3% aqueous solutions yantarnokislogo potassium, yantarnokislogo sodium, yantarnokislogo ammonium and sodium chloride. The results are presented in Fig.6. They show that alternately potassium and alternately sodium does not contribute to corrosion of the aluminum. The degree of corrosion of aluminium in Encarnacion potassium and Encarnacion sodium amounted to 0.00 and 0.05 mpy, respectively. I believe that these small values can be attributed to the tolerance range of error in the experiment. This is confirmed by the fact that in repeated experiments on metal samples corrosion has not appeared. And the degree of corrosion of aluminium in sodium chloride was 5.4 mpy. The degree of corrosion of aluminum in solutions yantarnokislogo ammonium 0.5 mpy. Although the degree of corrosion of aluminum in solutions yantarnokislogo ammonium more than in solutions yantarnokislogo potassium and yantarnokislogo sodium, it is substantially less than in solutions of sodium chloride.Example 7
Investigated the corrosion inhibition of steel alternately potassium, alternately sodium and alternately ammonia in aqueous chloride solutions WO anti-icer in aqueous solution was 3 wt.%. The results of the experiments shown in Fig.7.All three salts of succinic acid showed the inhibition of corrosion caused by chlorides, more than 50%. Thus, it is possible to prepare compositions inhibiting corrosion by at least 20%, more or less. These data suggest that the salt of succinic acid have the ability of inhibiting corrosion, besides the fact that they are not corrosive.Example 8
Investigated the impact of alternative cost-effective corrosion inhibitors, which can be obtained from carboxylic acids, such as succinic acid and maleic acid, the capacity of which increases when used in combination with defrosters salts of succinic acid. The experiments were conducted with two polycarboxylate, polyaspartates sodium from the company Voeg and sodium salt of polymaleic. In this regard, the applicants were mainly interested in the study of a possible synergistic action in the inhibition of corrosion by a combination of salts of succinic acid and polycarboxylates.Applicants conducted a study of polyaspartate sodium corrosion of steel caused by sodium chloride. The results are presented in Fig.8. All study composizioni less than 50%, for example, at least 20%. One characteristic feature was that the composition is equally effective even at very low concentrations of substances (polyaspartate sodium : sodium chloride=0,1:99,9). Efficiency at low level content is a very important factor, as this will reduce the cost of anti-icer and it can compete with others and be used for de-icing on the highways.Example 9
Investigated the possible synergistic effect of the increase in the corrosion inhibition of mixtures of salts of succinic acid and polyaspartate. The results of experiments conducted with alternately sodium and polyaspartates sodium, shown in Fig. 9. The results suggest that the ratio yantarnokislogo sodium/polyaspartate sodium/sodium chloride to 4.0:1.0 to:95,0 enhances the inhibition of corrosion. The degree of corrosion when the composition is less valid in any of the mixtures of salts of succinic acid and chloride.Experiments were carried out to confirm the action of sodium salt of polymaleic on the corrosion of steel caused by sodium chloride. The results are presented in Fig.10. The data show that the sodium salt of polymaleic capable of 75% inhibition corrosi the experiments, carried out with a high content of sodium chloride. The data also indicates that the degree of inhibition of the sodium salt of polymaleic depends on its chemical composition.I believe that the defrosters on the basis of sodium chloride and calcium chloride, which can corrode 75% less, will find application in many areas, despite a slight increase their value with the inclusion of a small amount of inhibitor. Savings by reducing the cost of the proposed repair and maintenance due to corrosion, easily cover the additional costs that will eventually be much more profitable.Example 10
Experimental data confirm that alternately potassium ideal for de-icing at airports and air bases. De-icers used for these purposes must meet stringent security standards designed to protect the special alloys used in critical parts of the aircraft.A series of AMS standard tests for action research defrosters on a metal aircraft. Among these tests, the Test for corrosion of full immersion, is included here by reference, in which numerous testout, what alternately potassium corresponds to the valid standards for the following alloys aircraft: anodized aluminum alloy S 4037, aluminum alloy AMS 4041, aluminum alloy AMS 4049, titanium alloy, AMS 4911 and carbon steel AMS 5045.Example 11
Inhibiting corrosion of action yantarnokislogo potassium magnesium alloy AMS 4376 treated with bichromate, compared with the effect of pure CF7 from CRYOTECH, Iowa, potassium acetate (main components CF7), DAM claimed in EP publication 0077767 in the form of salts of potash, and potassium formate. The comparison is shown in Fig.11. Corrosion of magnesium alloy was tested in 3% (wt. %) aqueous solutions of anti-icer within 24 hours, unless otherwise specified. It was found that yantarnokislogo potassium corrosive ability 75% less than CF7, and 80% less than that of potassium acetate, which is the main component of CF7. This same ability in potassium formate 13 times higher than that yantarnokislogo potassium. In addition, yantarnokislogo potassium corrosive ability to 75% less than that of the mixture of carboxylates claimed in EP publication 0077767.Example 12
With the aim of obtaining anti-icer based on yantarnokislogo potassium, which would have doctogo with bichromate, conducted analysis of the corrosive ability of several songs, including additives of salts polycarboxylate, derived from salts of succinic acid, which has the action of inhibiting corrosion, such as polyaspartate sodium and the sodium salt of polymaleic.The mixture yantarnokislogo potassium polyaspartate sodium and sodium salt of polymaleic showed a significant improvement in corrosion inhibition, in comparison with one alternately potassium. The results are shown in Fig.12. If the efficiency of mixtures yantarnokislogo potassium and polycarboxylates sodium is increased by at least 50%, in comparison with only one alternately potassium, the effectiveness of the mixture alternately potassium : polyaspartate sodium in the ratio of 93: 7 increased by 85%. Moreover, the mixture alternately potassium : polyaspartate sodium in the ratio of 93:7 corresponds to the standard metal for aircraft for magnesium alloy AMS 4376 treated with bichromate. In fact, corrosive ability of this mixture is approximately 40% less than allowed by the specified standard.The ratio yantarnokislogo sodium and additives inhibiting corrosion from salt polycarboxylate, derived from the salt of succinic acid, in predarwinian in the composition of example 12 in a ratio of 93:7 revealed full compliance with the standards, applicants sought for other compositions containing anti-corrosion additives of salts polycarboxylate, derived from the salt of succinic acid, which showed better anti-corrosion properties. The results of some of these successful mixtures is shown in Fig.13. As it turned out, both mixtures alternately potassium : alternately magnesium (95:5) and alternately potassium : alternately magnesium : polyaspartate sodium (95:4:1) do not exhibit corrosive properties with respect to the magnesium alloy processed by dichromate. Obviously, the defroster on the basis yantarnokislogo potassium has great potential for use at airports and air bases. Although the material cost is a significant factor, the savings from reduced expenditure on repairs and maintenance as a consequence of the use of non-corroding cast defroster makes use of this anti-icer for these designs cost-effective.Example 14
Presents the defrosters tools for de-icing of aircraft design are liquid compositions on the basis of heavy alcohols such as propylene glycol. Propylene glycol has good properties of anti-icer and low temperature is of water-propylene glycol and water yantarnokislogo potassium. Freezing these agents are comparable. In the application EPO 0077767 stated that "freezing temperature and the temperature of liquefaction DAM below -20oC. it is Obvious that alternately potassium exceeds DA by their significantly lower the freezing point below -40oWith and on the properties of inhibiting corrosion as well.Many of chloride mixtures, consisting of alternately salts or derivatives alternately salts as corrosion inhibitors showed performance that demonstrate useful properties for applications in the de-icing highways. The tested inhibitors are able to inhibit corrosion caused by salts of chlorides, by 50-75%. This has the advantage, because of the mix, prepared with a high content of sodium chloride will form the basis for developing low-cost product for use on roads as an anti-icer. In addition, the presence of corrosion inhibitors in small quantities may not weaken the ability of chloride salts to penetrate the ice and contribute to its melting. Eventually the opportunity arose to create a family of low-cost defrosters with improved performance and less corrosive ability, che is a variety of ways. The concrete used in infrastructures may corrode internal structures in reinforced concrete due to corrosion of the macrostructure, delamination and cracking due to corrosion of the surface. This in turn gives rise to the gradual destruction of infrastructure. The damage caused by such destruction caused only the structures of bridges in the United States in 1991, amounted, according to the U.S. Department of transportation 90,9 billion dollars. This amount was required to put in order 2266000 bridges. The scale of these costs requires a constant search for funds, which could reduce the destruction of the concrete. The following experiment on the determination of the delamination was carried out on samples of concrete exposed to various salt solutions.To determine the effects of different chemical defrosters on the surface of the concrete followed the Protocol SHRP H-205.9 "test Method to determine the damaging effects of chemical defrosters on the surface of the concrete" Handbook on methods for assessing the chemical defrosters. Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Report SHRP-H/WP-90, in compliance with applicable ASTM standards. For each sample in a specially made forms were prepared about the Les of the two stages of curing within 24 hours (at 23o1,7oC and 45-55% relative humidity) and 28 days (14 days at 100% relative humidity according to ASTM standard With 511-85 and 14 days at 23o1,7oC and 45-55% relative humidity) samples subjected 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 cycles of freezing/thawing at a controlled temperature of about 17.8 mlno2,3oC and a relative humidity of about 35% by thawing at room temperature. At the end of every five cycles of the tank or basin were taken saline solutions and exfoliating cement. The solutions were subjected to vacuum filtration, the residue solids were dried overnight and weighed to determine the amount of loose material. In addition, at the end of every five cycles conducted a visual assessment of the surface of the concrete for each sample in accordance with the rules in ASTM With 672-84.The results of the experiments shown in Fig.15.This study showed that potassium acetate is more corrosive ability on the surface of the concrete than sodium chloride, with alternately potassium caused minimal peeling. In addition, visual inspection of the damaged surface of the concrete samples showed no degree is the potassium (in some samples is clearly visible aggregate over the entire surface). Therefore, we can say that alternately potassium is an excellent anti-icer for concrete.Invaluable achievement in the experiments of steel composition on the basis of yantarnokislogo potassium, ideal for use at airports and air bases. The defrosters for airports and air bases must meet strict criteria. Criteria are set to protect the special alloys used in aircraft. Applicants have conducted numerous experiments using yantarnokislogo potassium and other corrosion inhibitors to comply with these criteria, and has achieved great success in obtaining non-corroding cast defrosters on the basis yantarnokislogo potassium for use in the specified area. No CF7 or DA, which were used for de-icing at airports that do not meet the standards for metal corrosion in aircraft.Thus, we can conclude that the problems raised above, as is obvious from the description above, effectively solved, and since the implementation of the above method and in the composition can be modified, not beyond the nature and scope of the invention, the contents of the description and accompanying drawings should ponial all generic and specific features of the invention and the claims scope of the invention.In the above formula, ingredients or compounds referred to in the singular, wherever possible, include compatible mixtures of such ingredients.
1. The way de-icing surfaces runways or aircraft at airports, including the application of the ice-covered surface of the runway or aircraft compositions icing, which includes alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium.2. The method according to p. 1, comprising a stage of applying a solid composition comprising alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium on the surface of the runway.3. The method according to p. 1, comprising a stage of de-icing runway conducted by applying a liquid composition comprising alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium.4. The method according to p. 1, comprising a stage of de-icing of aircraft is carried out by applying a liquid composition comprising alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium.5. The way to reduce ice on the ice-covered surface of the object containing magnesium alloy, comprising the application of ice on the surface of the liquid compositions, amanshauser under item 5, characterized in that the salt of succinic acid includes alternately potassium.7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the composition includes alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium in a ratio of between 90:10 and 99:1.8. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the composition includes alternately potassium and polyaspartate sodium in a ratio of about 97:3.9. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the composition also includes alternately magnesium.10. The method of removing ice from surfaces, comprising applying to the ice composition icing, including salts of hydrochloric acid, and salts of succinic acid, and salt of succinic acid taken in the quantity of reducing at least 20% of the corrosive properties of these compositions defined by the corrosivity of steel in 3% om aqueous solution of the composition without the salt of succinic acid.11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the salt of succinic acid includes alternately potassium.12. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that the salt of succinic acid reduces the corrosivity of the composition icing, at least 50%.13. Composition for de-icing, including sodium chloride or calcium and about 1-10 wt.% salt of succinic acid.16. The composition according to p. 15, characterized in that it also includes a salt of polymaleic.17. The composition according to p. 15, characterized in that the ratio of the salt of succinic acid to polyaspartate sodium is about 90:10-99:1.18. The composition according to p. 15, characterized in that it includes alternately potassium and alternately magnesium in a ratio of about 97:3.19. The composition according to p. 15, characterized in that it includes alternately potassium and alternately magnesium in a ratio of about 95:5.20. The composition according to p. 15, characterized in that it includes alternately potassium, alternately magnesium and polyaspartate sodium in the ratio of 95:4:1.
FIELD: road servicing industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the road servicing industry, in particular with the methods of extirpation of ice covering on motorways, bridges, flyovers, and also aerodromes. The method of the roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for application of a roadway ice covering suppressing reactant based on acetate, in the capacity of which use a solution with pH=7-9.5, containing components in the following ratio (in mass %): magnesium acetate 13-17, potassium acetate 8-16, potassium hydrocarbonate 5-8, potassium carbonate 2-6, water-insoluble impurities 0-6, water - the rest. The roadway ice covering suppressing reactant may additionally contain a fired limestone in amount of 3-5 mass % in terms of calcium oxide. The method of production a roadway ice cover suppressing reactant for a roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for mixing of a component containing a magnesium compound, iced acetic acid and water, in the capacity of the component containing the magnesium compound is used brucite, the stirring is exercised in two stages: first they continuously agitate brucite with water and a part of iced acetic acid in a stoichiometric ratio at the temperature of 50-70°C within 50-80 minutes, then, not terminating mixing at the same temperature in the produced mix with pH=5-6 add the rest of ice acetic acid and then add potash in amount exceeding by 0.1 - 6 % the stoichiometric ratio and continue agitation till production of the roadway ice cover suppressing reactant - a solution with pH = 7-9.5 with the above indicated composition. The used roadway ice cover suppressing reactant has composition mentioned above. The technical result consists in - maintenance of the low temperature at the reactant usage, ensuring the passing ice covered roadways motor vehicles metal corrosion protection and at use as the airfield runways coatings - the corrosion protection of metals used in aircraft designs as well. The roadway coating treated with the reactant has a high coefficient of adhesion, that reduces the accident rate on the roadways.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the roadway coating treated with the reactant decreases the accident rate on the roadways.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations used for prevention and removal of snow-ice formations in roads. An anti-glaze of ice preparation comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 15-50; sodium chloride, 48.5-83.5; potassium ferricyanide, 0.2-0.5, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.3-1.0. Anti-glaze of ice preparation in granulated form is resistant against caking, inhibits corrosion of metals and reduces inhibitory effect of chloride on plants.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of preparation.
FIELD: special reagents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to substances for applying on surface to prevent or diminish adhering ice, mist or water on it, for prevention of icing, in particular, to anti-glaze of ice reagents. The composite comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 25-32; urea, 2-7; sodium nitrite, 0.03-1.0, and water, the balance. Invention provides preparing the composite harmless for environment that doesn't show harmful effect on environment, doesn't corrode road coatings, and inhibits corrosion of metals. Agent shows economy and high effectiveness.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of reagent.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: road-transport industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes applying substance on asphalt-concrete mixture. As substance silicon-organic modifier is used, loss of which at 1 m2 of area of pre-placed on road asphalt-concrete mixture at temperature 80-100°C is no less than 0,3-0,5 kg. After applying modifier, asphalt-concrete mixture is rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, no corrosive effect on metals, effective at temperature above -20°C.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: domestic chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agents using against misting and icing windshields in transports, sight glasses in agent of individual protection and can be used in living conditions for prevention showcase glasses icing. The composition comprises the following components, wt.-%: polyoxyethylene glycol ester of synthetic primary higher alcohols of (C12-C14)-fraction as a surface-active substance, 6-25; urea or thiourea, or mixture of urea and thiourea, 1-20; glycerol, 5-25; ethylene glycol, 5-41; dye, 0.0005-0.02, and a solvent, the balance. Propyl alcohol as propanol-1 or propanol-2 can be used as a solvent. The composition elicits an anti-misting and anti-icing properties, provides two-sided protection of sight glasses of transport agents and agents of individual protection in cooling the protecting glass surface up to -40°C, elicits the prolonged protective effect, it doesn't solidify at the environment temperature below -40°C and doesn't require the special technical devices for its applying.
EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: Composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment against a winter slipperiness (snow rolling-ups, a glaze ice, black ice) n the roads and streets in cities and settlements. The composition contains, in mass %: 20-27 calcium chloride, 5-30 ethyl alcohol, 0.3-5 corrosion inhibitors (borax or sodium nitrite or their mixture), the rest - water. The technical result is - an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increase of friction coefficient due to a decrease of the ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increased friction coefficient and a decreased ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.
1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: materials for miscellaneous applications.
SUBSTANCE: grain mixture comprise, in mass %, 15-45% of compressed first salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal and 85-55% of the second salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal. The first salt is a waterless hygroscopic salt.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
14 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: preventive means against freezing and sticking of loose materials to walls of mining and transport equipment; prevention of dusting on interim roads, open-cut mining; protection of rolling stock against freezing and blowing-off of loose materials, coal and peat for example.
SUBSTANCE: preventive means is made in form of mixture of solvent and thickening additive of oil nature. Used as solvent are distillation residues of coke and by-product process and/or by-products of production of butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene, ethylene both independently and in mixture with distillation residues of production process of polymers, pyrolysis residues, benzene, styrene and distillation residues of production of butanol, isobutanol, 2-ethyl hexanol acid and 2-ethyl hexanol. Solvent may additionally contain gas oils of thermal and catalytic cracking and gas oils of coking process. Used as thickening additives are mineral and synthetic oils of all kinds, mixture of used oils, oil sludge, oil residues and oil fuel. Components of thickening additive and solvent are used at any combination. Novelty of invention is use of wastes of various processes of oil and petroleum chemistry products.
EFFECT: extended field of application; cut costs; enhanced ecological safety.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: suppression or reduction of icing on surfaces by means of antiicing compounds.
SUBSTANCE: proposed anti-icing compounds contain succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and neutralizing base, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide in particular. When mixed with water anti-icing compounds form succinates in the course of reaction which causes fast liberation of heat sufficient for melting ice on surface. According to other versions, anti-icing compounds contain glycol which inhibits repeated icing on cleaned surface. Specification gives description of sets of compounds for melting snow and ice.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of melting snow and ice on aircraft and territories of their operation.
29 cl, 11 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: motor-car industry; other industries; methods of production of the anti-icing reactant.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the anti-icing reactants for maintenance of roads in winter. The method of production of the anti-icing reactant based on sodium chloride and calcium chloride provides for mixing of the sodium chloride with calcium chloride and their heating and drying. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with the atomized solution of calcium chloride and dried in the "boiling bed" kiln with production of the double-layer granules, the outer layer of which is composed out of calcium chloride. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with calcium chloride in two phases. The forming small particles of calcium chloride are fed into the cyclone, whence the cyclone dust of the calcium chloride is fed into the mixer for intermixing with the wet crystals of sodium chloride. The produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.
3 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl