Dam hydroelectric

 

Hydroelectric power plant is designed to convert the energy of rivers. Dam hydroelectric power plant provides the Foundation and turbine blades and diaphragms, vertical shaft that is mounted on the bearing glides Foundation and is connected via a gearbox to a generator. Hydroelectric made in the form of a tower mounted on the bottom of the river anchor device, the vertical turbine shaft runs inside the tower and turbine diaphragms are parallel to each other and provided with guide vanes on the one hand, and on the other hand - cylindrical segments, and the aperture through the hollow rack fastened with anchor bolts. In hydroelectric hollow pillar fairings fitted and installed in the guide member aperture. In hydroelectric Foundation provided vertical tapered rod embedded in the river bottom, and the bar on the front part and the cutting mechanism for manual rotation and fixing of hydroelectric power. The design allows for hydroelectric energy conversion of water without a dam. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 11 ill.

The invention relates to the creation and the work is of services, flow velocity of 0.5-1.0 m/s and above, with the possibility of connecting them in blocks or in riskreduction form on the surface of the river.

Known hydroelectric dam with water wheels, which are a kind of energy threshold in productivity (see L. A. Melentiev Program fuel and energy complex, ed. "Technique", "Knowledge", M, 1986, 1, page 20 [1]).

The main significant disadvantage of the known constructions of this type HPP is its low reliability and power, as well as the inability to work in the winter with the formation of the ice cover.

Also known hydroelectric dam, which the carrier and the rotating part /shaft/ is a steel cable with installed impellers and thrown from one Bank to another /W. "Science and life", M, 1976, page 12, 8 [2].

The main disadvantage of this is the small hydroelectric dam reliability and extremely low power, and loss of use in the winter with the formation of the ice cover. In addition, the disadvantages of the known hydroelectric dam should include the inability to operate on large navigable rivers energy use deep water /hydraulic energy Tioga prototype, is under patent 2171910 Hydroelectric, which contains the set of line structure consisting of a base plate, side walls and floors with room for gear with the electric over the installation gidrokolesa. Construction in front of the water intake has lazaretou support and Bonne network, and the side walls of the entrance and exit of water have extensions forming respectively confused, work and diffuser channels. One of the side walls has a working channel of the sector semicircular notch at gidrokoleso, which is mounted in bearing assemblies above the river bottom and lower edge of the possible ice cover, respectively, lower in the Foundation and slab and the top is closed.

Gidrokoleso made hollow, consisting of rigidly mounted on the shaft two parallel horizontal disk, the periphery of which and between them evenly set of blades with a length of not more than 2/3 of its radius at an angle from 0 to 180o. Gidrokoleso their gearboxes and generators along the length of hydroelectric power in its working channel may be several. Working channel of the input and output of water and is equipped with gates and pump installation. The design of the device allows increased is selected as a prototype, are the high consumption of materials and the cost of executing a two-story box building hydroelectric power plants; - performance of works under water for the construction of buildings /boxes/, especially on deep rivers requires the use of special devices, such as caissons; device supports ledoreznoy again increases the consumption of materials and the cost of hydroelectric power; - additional cost applies to hydroelectric unit valves with 2 sides of the working channel, and the pump unit; - the use of multiple gidrokoles with their gearboxes and generators in one working channel reduces the efficiency of the subsequent wheels installed behind the first by reducing the speed of flow of water in the channel and the presence of turbulence for the first hydrocream, i.e., the efficiency of these wheels is substantially less than the first gidrokolesa and leads to an increase in the cost of hydroelectric power, lengthening the same working channel will lead to greater cost; - irrational post the hydroelectric power plant in the Central section of the river that would interfere with skipping the river deep-drawing of ships; - low power hydroelectric power from 10 to 100 to 150 kW, high consumption and production rabotainet one kilowatt-hours, and long payback so expensive structures, especially on deep rivers.

The aim of the invention is the use of hydraulic energy of rivers, regardless of their "power" in all their depth, all years with achievement of the largest electric power and work on the overall power grid, without the construction of expensive dams, sluices and water conservation land with towns and cities, and environmental improvements.

Summary of the invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a longitudinal section of the dual hydroelectric dam; Fig.2 shows a cross section III-III form with concave turbine rotor blades, guide vanes and a cylindrical segment;
in Fig.3 shows a portion of the turbine cross-section along II-II;
in Fig.4 shows a longitudinal section through the tower hydroelectric dam;
in Fig.5 depicts a top view of the turbine with partial cutout on the working blades, the rotor and the shaft;
in Fig.6 shows a longitudinal section of the cylindrical segment;
in Fig.7 shows a cross-section of the segment;
in Fig. 8 shows a cross-section of a hollow rack with fairing and anchor bolt;
in Fig.9 shows a longitudinal section of a single who .10 shows a longitudinal section through micro hydro;
in Fig. 11 shows the layout of the river hydroelectric dam with anchor devices, including fixed and floating tool.

Hydroelectric dam provides the Foundation 1 /Fig.1/, in particular with installed two hydro tower 2, with vertical shafts 3, each of which is mounted in a thrust bearing 4 /bearings/. Tower HPP divided by horizontal diaphragms 5 /shaded drawing/ between which is placed the turbine 6 /for simplicity, the images they are shown as rectangles with diagonal lines, with free rotation between the diaphragm 5 on the shaft 3.

Between the diaphragms 5 are hollow cylindrical rack 24, which provides the exact distance between the diaphragms, the relationship of the whole structure in a single whole and the structural strength of the tower due to the anchor bolts 7, which tied the elements of the tower through the rack 24 and the diaphragm 5.

On the top of the diaphragm 8 is installed gears 9, attached through a coupling 30 with the shaft 3 and the coupling 29 to a generator 10 (see Fig.4/. The structural strength of the gearbox to the generator is achieved by placing them in a cylindrical shell 11 /Fig.4/, each with gusset plates 12, is made t-shaped profile, which, by means of pins 26 is a distance from each other.

The bolts 27, 28 is used to mount the shell 11 of the generator and gearbox (see Fig.5). Turbine shown in this figure has a through hole 13 for the passage and fixing of the shaft 3 on the dowels 32, concave blades 14, the rotor 15 United into a single structure described turbine.

On each diaphragm 5 is placed a guide device with blades 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and on the opposite side of the diaphragm turbine wheel 6 is closed to flow of water in a cylindrical segments 21, made in the form of a "channel" with shelves 22 and secures the diaphragm to the studs 23.

To prevent displacement of the structural elements of the tower stands 24 hydroelectric hollow part of the guide members 25 all apertures.

POS. 33 - fairing struts 24, POS. 24 - the bottom of the river, POS. 35 shows the arrow direction of the current water POS.36 - jumper /strength/ between 2 hydro tower. When installing a single tower hydroelectric dam is missing. POS.31 - mounting tabs generator.

Works dam tower type HPP as follows: Fig.1 note that in Fig.1 letter GW denote the horizon water /flood/, SMOA - horizon of the current water-low water in the river after the fall of the tide, the ice surface is marked with the word ").

Flowing water is included in the guide apparatus 16-20 formed curved blades, with a given speed and pressure on concave blades 14, which results in the rotation of the turbine 6 with the shaft 3. Having lost part of its speed and kinetic energy, waste water flows from the turbine blades downstream as shown by arrows 60.

Installation of cylindrical segments 21 and 22 on the opposite side of the guide vane avoids the action of the flow on this part of the turbine by wrapping her smooth surfaces of the segments 21 over the entire height of the tower and all installed turbines. To prevent even the slightest flowing current of water into the gaps between the rotor blades 14 of the turbine and the surfaces of the segments 21, each blade 14 of the turbine 6 has at the ends of the sealing plate /the device/ who, speaking for the ends of the blades 14, slide on the inner surfaces of the cylindrical segments 21, overlapping at least a small, but necessarily formed during the manufacture and Assembly clearances. As a result, the application of forces from the flowing water of the river to the turbine 6 over the entire height of the tower HPP is only in the zone of the location guidance apparatus 16-20 with touchpad is urban and operation of the hydroelectric dam. The execution of the turbine blades 14 provides education concave "scoops" and contributes to a more efficient use of the kinetic energy of free-moving waters of the river. The same direction, i.e. the increased use of the kinetic energy of the river flow on the turbine 6 helps and guide apparatus, the blades of which(16, 17, 18, 19, 20) made so profiles to change the direction of water flow so that the direction of its movement on the rotor blades 14 approached perpendicular to the direction of the tangent to the middle line passing through the average diameter of the blades 14.

As the sealing materials of the ends of the blades 14 at the present time, there are many different materials: plastic /flexible/ rubber various modifications, plastic, wide range of their properties, are able to reliably perform its sealing function when continuous operation of hydropower plants and a variety of temperatures, including low and there is a wide variety of composite materials based on metals and designs for their fastening on the back.

As examples in Fig.9 and 10 show the hydroelectric dam of the same construction as videopusher the measures in Fig. 9 tower 37 turbines, foundations also columnar type 38/39 and a pointed rod 40, contributing to additional stability hydro tower, the gearbox 41 and the generator 42.

Micro hydro in Fig.10 is no different in design from the hydro tower according to Fig.1 and 9, however, it can be omitted in the river with boats or ice manually, as the tower with the turbine 43 is the Foundation 44 lightweight type with tapered rod, on the end which made the cutter like borax.

For coupling with the bottom of the rivers brown 45 micro hydro wrapped by hand with the help of pipes 46, carried out on the device, and additional rods 47. The gear 48, the generator 49.

Described hydroelectric dam are classified as small hydro, however, such hydro tower, which is shown in Fig.1, can replace any of the most powerful conventional hydroelectric dam type, and to produce electricity at the lowest cost per kilowatt-hour, as it does not require any complicated and expensive dams or reservoirs and huge preparatory work related conventional hydroelectric dams.

In this case, you will have to build gateways for the passage of vessels /Fig.11 they are not shown/, and large or medium-sized rivers perevorachivautsa the bash is suspended tower 50 HPP/.

To fully utilize all the hydraulic power of the river, which is a job that the current water thereof (see the textbook for high schools "Hydro", A. Y. Alexander and others-M.: Energoatomizdat, 1988, p. 5-271 [3]), hydro tower set in rows across the river at a given distance from each other, and for the stability and strength of bonded beams 51 and anchoring device 52. In Fig.11 shows only two rows hydro tower 50 /Fig.1 tower HPP numbered 2, what is the same/.

To avoid strong hesitation river hydro tower can be installed at a specified distance from each other across the river and at the specified distance along the river not only in two rows, as shown in Fig.11, but several times more calculations and model tests.

In addition, hydropower can be constructed from individual units in height, fastening them together, which have their gear and generator with underwater design. Each unit tower type is triggered when there are annual cycles of oscillation of the river flow-flood /all blocks are height/ low water with low consumption - only, for example, the lower blocks Bashkirova.

In some cases it will be reasonable, especially on the rivers of Siberia and the Far East during the formation of the ice cover, to carry out the dismantling of the upper blocks tower power plant, keeping them under canopies or indoors, as this period is most of the year. Let me remind you that all HPS are fastened together by crosspieces 36, beams 51 and anchoring device 52.

Further, in Fig.11 shows the layout of a single hydro 53, which corresponds to POS.2 in Fig.1 /described it above/ lashing anchor devices 52, 54 and anchors rigid beams 55. Shown floating tool 56 beam 57 from hydro tower 58, for example, in Fig.9.

Using the proposed design hydroelectric dam provides receiving of electric power in any geographic area of Russia, in particular on the rivers of Siberia and the Far East, as well as on the previously constructed waterworks non-energy purposes, for example, in cross-sections of the Astrakhan water divider and other small waterworks belonging to the water divider, irrigation canals. Especially suitable is the development channel R. Lena, R. Amguema in Chukotka and R. kronotskaya in Kamchatka, especially where there is a shortage of electricity.

In addition taisie time, because hydropower is almost completely prepared /manufactured/ factory.

The proposed hydroelectric dam can successfully operate in standalone mode with a serial capacity to produce electricity on a large, medium and small rivers, and in the form of hydroelectric power to produce hundreds of thousands and millions of kilowatts of installed capacity or billion kilowatt-hours.


Claims

1. Dam hydroelectric power plant, containing the Foundation and turbine blades and diaphragms, vertical shaft that is mounted on the bearing glides Foundation and is connected via a gearbox to a generator, characterized in that it is made in the form of a tower mounted on the bottom of the river anchor device, the vertical turbine shaft runs inside the tower and turbine diaphragms are parallel to each other and provided with guide vanes on the one hand, and on the other hand - cylindrical segments, and the aperture through the hollow rack fastened with anchor bolts.

2. Hydroelectric power plant under item 1, characterized in that the hollow pillar fairings fitted and installed in the guide elementnum rod, buried in the bottom of the river, and the bar on the front part and the cutting mechanism for manual rotation and fixing of hydroelectric power.

 

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2 dwg

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